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D EDO? lEObflBE b 

California Stale Library 

Accessions No. 

."-.^R-^-hteceived.. OCT 1895 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 




Vol. XLVIII. No. 1. 



Office. 220 Market Street. 

Crater Lake. 

Oh road 

Crdter L 

We give this week, as appropriate to the outing 
season, a series of views in Southern Oregon in the 
vicinity of the famous Crater Lake. Time was — and 
not very long ago — when this picturesque region, just 
beyond the northern border of California, was practi- 
cally more remote than Alaska, but improved means 
I if transportation have recently made it accessible, 
;ind it may now flairly be 
included in the list of ma- 
ji'stic phenomena which 
make this a land of wonder 
and delight to lovers of 
natm-e. Crater Lake is 
now comparatively near 
at hand, but, like Yo- 
semite, its charms are only 
for those who wUl make 
some payment of labor for 
their attainment. From 
the nearest point on the 
railroad — Medford, Ore- 
gon, just beyond the Sis- 
kiyous — it is eighty miles 
to the lake, and the road 
leads over mountain and 
plain, through canyon and 
forest, past singing waters 
and roaring cataracts. 
Some of the charms of 
this journey, caught by 
the camera, are grouped 
in the accompanying illus- 
tration, giving faithfully a 
swies of views beautiful 
beyond words. To the un- 
hm-ried traveler, either hy 
stage or horseback, it is 
a journey of successive 
delights, charming alike 
to the eye and to the 
imagination and soothing 
and restful to the mind. 

Cfater Lake is within 
one of the majestic sum- 
mits of the Cascade chain 
of mountains. It is a body 
of clear water, seven miles 
long, six miles wide and 
of imknown depth, held in 
the crater of a blown-out 
and long-extinct volcano. 
Its most strikmg pecu- 
liarity is its shore line, 
formed all the way round 
by sheer precipices rang- 
ing in height from one to 
two thousand feet. The 
surface of the lake is 6251 

feet, higher than the sea, and above this the guardian 
walls rise abruptly another two thousand feet. 

Prior to ten years ago it was supposed that there 
was no way of access from the surrounding heights 
to the waters below, but early in the '80s a party of 
adventurous youths found a narrow and steep pas- 
sage to the water's edge, and since that time it has 
become a well worn path. In 1885 government en- 
gineers surveyed the lake and its mountainous sur- 
roundings, and in 1886 launched two boats upon 
it. hauling them in wagons from Medford and 
lowering them with ropes into the lake at a point 
1000 feet above the water. Since that time, the lake 
and some sections of land about it, comprising an 
area of 500,000 acres, have been set aside as national 

reserve. An interesting feature of this wonderful 
lake is a steeple-like island 850 feet high, itself 
holding a lake 500 feet in diameter by 100 feet deep, 
in its little crater. Wizard Island, for so it is called, 
was evidently the last blow pipe of the seething ocean 
of lava which once existed where now lie the clear 
and cool waters of Crater Lake. 

Thk colony of "Yictoria, Australia, seems about to 


proceed with the enterprise of loaning government 
money to farmers. The advances about to be made 
by the Savings Banks Commissioners will be on free- 
hold land only, the act under which they operate pro- 
hibiting the lending of money on the security of 
leaseholds. If the new bill is passed, however, the 
Government will be able to accept leases of land in 
process of alienation from the Crown as security. 
The rate of interest will be five per cent, but in addi- 
tion a sinking fund of two per cent per annum will 
have to be paid for the redemption of the loan. It is 
proposed to appoint loan commissioners who are i 
above political entanglements, so that there will be J 
no discrimination or whipping in when such loans are 
amenable to foreclosure. . I 

A Professional Fruit Seller's Opinions. 

Mr. H. K. Pratt, general eastern agent of the 
Southern California Fruit Exchanges, has been spend- 
ing the past two weeks looking over the deciduous 
fruit field in the central and northern parts of the 
State, and on Saturday last was in San Francisco 
attendant upon the meeting of the State Horti- 
cultural Society. In conversation with the editor of 

the Rural he said that 
for his own instruction 
he had been interviewing 
growers and lookmg over 
the co-operative organiza- 
tions at Vacaville, New- 
castle, Penryn, Marysville, 
Yuba City, San Jose and 
elsewhere. From what he 
had seen here, and in view 
of what he knows of the 
eastern markets, he de- 
clares that one-third of 
the fresh fruit shipments 
this season will not bring 
the producers any return 
whatever, due in part to 
the general stringency, 
but chiefly to unbusiness- 
like methods of market- 
ing. "I find," said Mr. 
Pratt, "that the prin- 
t'ipal growers, as well as 
the local as.sociations, vm- 
derstand the situation and 
are heartily in favor of 
some plan like that em- 
ployed in Southern Cali- 
fornia during the past 
season. When organiza- 
tion is as thorough in Cen- 
tral and Northern Califor- 
nia as it now is in South- 
ern California, we can 
have personal representa- 
tion in the east the year 
round, and can sell fruits 
at point of shipment at 
an agreed price. "This," 
he continued, "will pre- 
vent the overstocking of 
the market." Questioned 
as to the expediency of an 
" agreed " or fixed price, 
Mr. Pratt said that under 
the present system jjrices 
were governed by a series 
of chances always oper- 
ating against the pro- 
ducer without cheapening 
the product to the con- 
sumer. One of the important results of an improved 
.system will, he thinks, be that it will afford a way to 
test the market and to learn what the market, 
broadly speaking, can afford to pay and will pay for 
our products. 

Speaking for itself, the Rural is not so hopeful 
with respect to the fixing of prices. Our own obser- 
vation is that such efforts do not succeed in any per- 
manent way because they are in violation of laws of 
business based upon supply and demand and a 
score of othei- conditions which change with each 
sunrise. If we can so change the system as to sell 
our products at the place of shipment for prices 
bearing some reasonable relation to what the con- 
sumer pays, we shall be satisfied. 


The Pacific Rural Press 

July 7, 1894. 


Offlrf.Xo.220.Market St.; Elevalnr.yo.12 Front St.. ffan Francuro. Cat. 

All Hubsoilbcrs payinir $3 in .•idvanoe will receive 15 monthB' (One 
yi'ar und 13 weeks) credit. For tl In advance. 10 montliH. For II In 
a<lv;iuee. live ni<»nths. 


I Wtek. 1 Mmith. :! .\lo)illi.i. 1 Year. 

Per Line (affatel f .25 t .m f $ 4.UU 

Half-Inch (1 mjuarel 1.00 2..W H.ftO 33.00 

(Jiie Inch 1.50 5.(XI i:t.(X) 42.00 

Larerc advertisements at favorable rates. Special or readlnir notices, 
legal advcrtlsenii'nts. notices appearlnsr In extraordlnar.v t.vpe. or In 
particular p.u ts of the paper, at special rates. Four Insertions are 
rated in a month. 

Registered at S. F. Postofflce as second-class mall matter. 

Hiir latent formn go ti> premi M'etlneHday evening. 

Any subscriber sending an Inqulr.v on an.v subject to the Ki'uai. 
Press, with a postage stamp, will receive a repl.v, either through 'he 
columns of the paper or b.v personal letter. The answer will be jrlven 
as promptl.v as practicable. 

AI.FKKI) HOI. MAN Kdltor. 

K. .1. WICKSON ;Speclal Contributor. 

San Francisco, July 7, 1894. 


ILLUSTRATION.— Scenes en route to Crater Lake, 1. 

KUITORIALS.— Crater Lake: A Professional Fruit Seller's Opinion, 
I: The Week; A Word About the Rural Prkss; Miscellaneous, 2; 
From an Indepuudeut Standpoint, S and 7. 

HORTICULTURE.— State Horticultural Society: Reliance on Re- 
sistant Plants. 4. 

FLORIST AND GARUF.NEK.— Gardening in the San Joaquin 4, 

FRUIT PRKSKRVATION.— Canned Fruits in the Knfflish Markets; 
OriTU Plums for Pickled Olives, 4. 

THE GARDEN. — Profjiess in Floriculture, 6. 

FORESTRY.— The Mouteri v Cvpress. «. 

THE POUI>TRY YARD.- Preservation of Eggs; Capons as a 

Source of Profit, 6. 
THE DAIRY.— The Dog Power in the Dairy, 7. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— Seeln" Things: The Surprise Parly : Fashion 
.Votes: George Wm. Curtis on Woman Sutlrage, 8: Hints lo House- 
keepers: Pleasantries; Gems; .Snap Shots, 9. 

THE YOUNt; FOLKS.— When Ma Was Near; A Tomato Story, 9. 


MISCELLANEOUS —Inbreeding; Care of Harness for Farm Horses; 
An Indication of Weeds: Wealher Crop Bulletin: A National 
Movement Against Tuberculosis; The (irape Adoxus:The Eastern 
Fruit Crop. Ill: Modern Explosives; Balking the Umbrella Thief: 
liecalling a .Mailed Lelt(-r: The Flarth's Motion Made Visible; 
Gilbert Theory (,'oneerning the Moon's Face; Items. II: Does Your 
Farming Pay ■( tllean Management for Hogs; The National Dairy 
Congress: Points for Rejection of Horses, 12: Care of the Wean- 
ling's Feet: (Jleau Horse ('oUars, l.S; Tide Wells in the West; 
Items, 14. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Random Thoughts, II. 



Wagons- Deere Implement Co 16 

Seeds, Plants, Etc — .-V. H. Hartevelt, Sau Jose 12 

The Week. 

These .summer days have been unexee])tional in 
their adaptation to work which is now f^oinj^ forward 
in f^raiii field and orcliard. Ex('e])tiiiy near the 
foast, wliere tliere has been rather more intrusion of 
fo^ and consequent low temperature than desir- 
able, heat and sunshine have been adetjuate to the 
needs of fruit ripeninj^ without that disastrous fore- 
mfi heat which sometimes prevails and hurries the 
fruit forward faster than it can be eheai)ly and sys- 
tematically handled. The fruit <^rower, as he looks 
i>vei' his trees heavily laden with ripeninir fruit, may 
say, with the poet, that "every prcjspcct pleases 
and only man is vile " — for in the midst of the abun- 
dance of the fruit harvest the grower groans as he 
thinks of the ill deeds of men who close in a moment 
the outward avenue to his fruit, for which distant 
consumers are ready to pay .so much numey, every 
i-cnt of which is needed to clear from the California 
industrial horizon the clouds of depression which have 
lowered for a full year. One can hardly find wortis 
strong enough to characterize the disappointment 
and chagrin of the fruit growers who see the rewards 
of toil and the returns of investment knocked from 
their hands by men who seek their own ends with 
utter disregard of the hardshi]) which they inflict. 
Hut of this, full coiiiineiits are made in another 

fn the harvest field, these bright days free from 
l)arching northers are welcome to the reapers and 
threshermen, though where mists hang in the morn- 
ing it has not been jiossible to make tlie 14-hour day 
. which the harvester delights in. On the whole, how- 
ever, the season has been a great bcMni to the grain 
men, and he is too busy to coiiiiilain of dead locomo- 
tives, for if his supplies do not fail he lias litlle use 
for the rest of the woi-ld during July. It is a 
lation in most of the dairy regions of the coast that 
hay supplies proved so much larger than was antici- 
pated. The milk flow has also held out jjretty well. 
The burden of the stock-grower and dairyniaii is 
heavy enough in the low prices which slaughtei-ing 
stock of all kinds command. The net return for sm-- 
plus stock in beef condition is running now so low 
that money is exceedingly scarce in the coast valleys. 

This might be changed a little, perhaps, if the stop- 
page of freights should turn back the tide of Nevada 
and Arizona beeves, but this cannot be counted upon. 
Probably the trouble will be arranged before near-by 
stock can be much advanced; nor would it be desir- 
able anyway, for every dollar gained by the stock- 
men would cost a thousand to the other producers of 
the State. 

A Word About the Rural Press. 

The Rural Press goes to its readers this week in 
an aspect somewhat changed from its old-time ap- 
pearance. It wears a brand-new dress of clear type, 
including a new "head piece," and will, we trust, be 
more easily read than ever before, especially by those 
older friends whose eyes in these later years do not 
take in fine print as readily as they did when they 
began reading the Rural a quarter of a century ago. 
In the matter of the heading, many will no doubt join 
with us in sentimental regret over the disappearance 
of the familiar scenery grouped upon the title page. 
It was not easy to put it aside, but the truth is that 
it liad come to misrepresent the California of to-day. 
The fruit tree branched six feet above the ground, 
the harvesting machine of antique make, the beehive 
of hay-stack pattern, the horse in agony, the old 
basement house, the rake and watering-pot — all these 
things, familiar and dear by custom, spoke of a for- 
mer and a lesser time, and of conditions long gone. 
Wherever the paper strayed in other lands — and it 
goes more or less wherever the English language is 
read — the old heading gave the impression that Cali- 
fornia was not u]) to date in .some of the ways of rural 
life in which it is really a leader. And so, since it 
had become an anachronism, and since, in the progress 
»f taste, it had ceased even to be deemed ornamental 
save by those of us who kived it as the familiar face of 
an old friend, it had to go. The new heading, clear 
and clean-cut, conforms to modern taste, which sees 
beauty in simplicity, and we shall in time, no doubt, 
grow to like it. 

In the general make-up of the paper there is a 
change which will add greatly to its usefulness. The 
second page, hitherto given up to technical edi- 
torial writing, will hereafter be devoted to an exten- 
sion of the department known as The Wef.k. It will 
treat of current news, jjersonal and general in the 
agricultural and horticultural field, and will aun to 
keep its readers " posted " in the gossip of the times. 
The sjjecial editorial matter which hitherto has occu- 
pied this page will appear in the regular dei)artnient 
columns. These will receive a more detailed editing 
than heretofore and will be vastly enriched by the 
process. The keynote of the department i)ages of 
the Rural is How to do it !" It is the effort of the 
writer and ctnnpiler to collect all that is new and 
valuable and to constantly apply that which is old 
and sound in these department columns, to the end 
that whoever reads them may gain something in the 
way of practical knowledge. 

The changes here noted involve no change in the 
personal organization of the paper. The Rural 
hopes in its new guist? to be recognized as an old and 
as a true friend, and it will strive to merit the good 
opinion and approval of those whose interests it seeks 
to promote. 

The chief strength of the Rural through the whole 
course of its history has been — after its principle of 
strict integrity and decency in all things — in its close 
relationship with its readers. The number of those 
who each year write to its columns about their own 
experiences is among the thousands. It has come 
to be known as a journal in which actual doers 
of things in the Agriculture and Horticulture of 
California, compare information and exchange 
ideas. This is a character which we want to 
maintain and promote. We realize that better ways 
of doing things both new and old, are being discovered 
constantly by those actually engaged in rural industry; 
and we want them in the Rural Press. To this end 
we invite correspondence from all our readers on 
subjects of general interest in connection with the 
farm, the orchard or other forms of rural industry. If 
you have developed a new fruit, if you have found a new 
way to build a fence or a chicken house, if you have 
learned from your work any fact great or small that 
would interest or aid others doing the same work, 
write it out and send it to the Rural with the assur- 
ance that the editor as well as your fellow workers 

will thank you for it. It is not required that you 
should be a professional or a trained writer; just 
write it out plain on one side of the paper and send 
it along. 

Our old friends will, we feel sure, be interested to 
know that the Rural is something more than holding 
its own in the matter of circulation, in spite of the 
times. The enlargement of its field to include dis- 
cu.ssions of public affairs— From an Independent 
Standpoint " — has been accorded a favor altogether 
unexpected. Our readers new and old appear to 
relish a weekly talk about current political and 
social subjects free at least from conscious bias o( 
partisanship. It is the aim of the "Standpoint" to 
be frank and straightforward. It may not always 
agree with you, but you may have the satisfaction of 
knowing that you are getting what the editor really 
believes. This department, with other departures, 
has gained increased attention for the paper, illus- 
trated practically in a net gain of over 500 sub- 
scribers within the past twelve months. In this re- 
spect, as in others, our obligation is due chiefly to 
our readers. A word of commendation spoken to a 
neighbor often results in putting the Rural per- 
manently before a new domestic circle. It is by this 
method chiefly that the paper grows — and we here 
return our thanks. 

When the professional tramp isn't tramping he 
loves, like the burglar in the opera, "to lie a' bask- 
ing in the sun," and one of his favorite and famous 
basking places is along the banks of the beautiful 
Putah creek, near Vacaville. People resident in 
that neighborhood have grown tired of the infliction 
of hoodlumism and petty thieving and last week 
took practical measures to get rid of it. They en- 
gaged detectives to disguise themselves and go 
among the campers to learn who were legitimate 
workingmen and who were professional vagabonds, 
and when the latter class were spotted they were 
ordered to depart upon pain of arrest for vagi*ancy 
with hard labor breaking rock. There was some 
remonstrance, but when the sheriff's officers ap- 
peared they "moved on " with haste. Detective 
Foster informs the Vacaville Htporter that "from 
his experience in associating with this army of un- 
employed very few would work if they had an oppor- 
tunity, A $1.25 a day job is scorned and no price 
would reach the average man who is subsisting by 
the good will of the people throughout this town- 
ship. The men maintain that they can live by beg- 
ging and stealing fruit and vegetables from the 
ranchers. We are also informed by Mr. Foster that 
a good many men now in our midst are of the worst 
criminal type, and most all the crimes in the cate- 
gory have been committed by some one of their 
number. Ex-convicts are abundant in their midst." 
This method of getting rid of the tramp nuisance is 
very handy for the Vacavillians, who have, ind(H>d, 
had their share and are fairly entitled to a rest; but 
it simply jjassed the infliction on to the next neigh- 
borhood. There ought to be some general law by 
which tramps should be taken up and made to work, 
instead of being shunted on to impose upon fresh 

The cherry orchardists of Pajaro valley are dis- 
couraged at the poor returns they have be(»n receiv- 
ing. The J'lijiiriiiiid)! says: "The Eastern shipments 
reported did not bring enough to cover expenses, 
and the returns from San Francisco barely cover 
cost of boxes. The cherry is an eccentric fruit. Some" 
years it is a bonanza coin winner, and then again it 
is a sure loser. A large pai-t of the crop of this val- 
ley will not be picked. " 

A SINGULAR instance of connection between super- 
stition and agricultural pests is reported from Ceylon. 
The high class Buddhist Cingalese refuse to destroy 
the predatory insects which infest the tea plantations 
as they regard it a sin to take life. Consequently the 
tea plantations owned by them become the breeding 
grounds ft)r moths and other insects, ami a source of 
infection to neighboring plantations. 

Bl'li.etin No. 11 of the State J"'ruit Exchange will be 
found ill its full official form on jiage 15 of this issue. 
We have engaged to print it in this foi-m i-egulai'ly, 
so readers of the Rural may depend upon getting it 
each week and in full. 

Julv 7, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press, 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

A strike of train hands, the most general and 
damaging in the history of the railway trans- 
portation service, has paralyzed the internal com- 
merce of the country dining the past week. It be- 
gan on Wednesday at Chicago, and by Thursday 
night it extended to every railway line in the country 
upon which Pullman cars are operated. In California 
it stojjped every wheel save on the two local roads 
running north from San Fi-ancisco bay; and as we 
write on Tuesday nothing is moving save the locals 
which connect Oakland and Alameda with the San 
Francisco bay ferries, and these only in uncertain 
and irregular fashion. No train has entered or gone 
from the State since Friday night, and on all of the 
interior lines of the Southern Pacific and Santa 
Fe systems there is a complete tie-up. Between 
San Francisco and interior points on the vSacra- 
mento and San Joaquin rivers, slow and irregular 
connection is made by steamboat;' but with points 
away from the streams there is no connection save 
by telegraph. It is as if every line of communication 
in the State had been destroyed, leaving the public 
without means of getting fi'om one place to another, 
without the U. S. mails, without the means of ship- 
ping or receiving freights — in short, leaving each 
community isolated and helpless, and utterly para- 
lyzing general business. 

The cause of all this — we refer in particular to the 
situatioji here — lies very remote fi-om California and 
has small direct relation either to the railroad 
managers on the one hand or the railroad workmen 
on the other. It is a story which, to be clearly under- 
stood, must be told from the beginning. The Pullman 
Palace Car Co., which owns the car shops and the 
town of Pullman, 111., has during the past year made 
several heavy cuts in the wages of its workmen 
under the plea of hai-d times. The last cut made 
recently fixed the i-ates for piece work at something 
less than 50 per cent of the prices of 1892. Within 
the same week the Chicago papers announced that 
the Pullman Company had paid its usual quarterly 
dividend; also that Mr. George M. Pullman, the head 
of the company and its ]:)rincipal stockholder, had 
just made a gift of $1(10,000 to some beneficent but not 
necessary purpose. The men whose wages had been 
cut felt the dividend and the gift as insults heaped 
upon injui-y. If, they declared, the Pullman Com- 
pany is able to declare its usual dividend, arid if Mi\ 
Pullman is able to poui' oul money in great 'sums to 
gratify his taste or his vanity, then the talk about 
hard times, given to salve the cut in wages, is a 
wretched lie. We are ground down to starvation 
wages not from necessity but that Mr. Pullman and 
his associates in the proprietorship may have not 
simply enough but superfluity, as witnessed by the 
hundred thousand dollar gift. In this temper 
and from what, in \'iew of all the facts, would seem 
just cause, the Pullman operatives struck. The 
Pullman Company accepted the challenge and re- 
torted by declaring a lock-out. 

Now the operatives in the Pullman 'works are 
classed by the labor societies of the country as rail- 
road workmen, and they are, almost to a man, mem- 
bers of the American Railway Union, an order made 
u]) of all classes of railway employes and closely 
affiliated with the several orders of engineers, 
firemen, brakemeu, conductors, yai'd hands, etc., etc. 
By the leading men in these orders it was determined 
to stand in with the Pullman operatives against the 
lockout, and the only way to reach the Pullman Com- 
pany seemed to be to put a boycott upon the sleep- 
ing ears operated in its name and for its profit in 
connectitm with railroads all over the country. The 
boycott was declared — that is. all trainmen in the 
United States and Canada affiliated with the Ameri- 
can Railway Union were directed by the general 
ofticer of the order — Mr. Debs — to refuse to 
assist in the operation of any train carrying Pull- 
man cars. This order was obe\'ed, not only by the 
■members of the American Railway Union, but by 
trainmen generally, all of whom sympathize with the 
Pullman strikers. 

The expectation was that the railroads would sim- 
ply cut out the Pullman cars and allow their trains 
to run as usual, minus these luxurious appendages; 
but here there was disappointment. As the train- 

men had determined to stand in with the workmen at 
Pullman, so the railroad managers determined to 
stand in with the Pullman Company. Thus, upon 
broad lines, it became — and continues to be — a 
straight fight between capital and labor, o:- rather, 
a fight between the theories of organized ca])ital and 
the theories of organized labor. 

In this State the clash came at the switch yai-d on 
the Oakland Mole, just across the bay from San 
Francisco. On Thursday the trainmen refused posi- 
tively to operate trains with Pullman cars attached. 
They would make up the trains in response to the 
usual ordei's, but would not start u]) when the Pull- 
man cars were hitched on. The yardmaster 
stormed himself hoarse to no pur])ose; and was fol- 
lowed by officials in successive, advancing degrees of 
authority and dignity — but it was no go. The men 
simply would not do it. Again and again the super- 
intendent was told that all, service which did not in- 
clude operation of Pullman coaches would be per- 
formed as usual; that the regular trains, freight and 
passenger, would be hauled without question if no 
Pullman cars were attached. Finally exasperation 
reached the point of passion and in a rage the super- 
intendent ordered several men from theii- places 
and "demanded their keys" this last act being, in 
railroad usage, equivalent to a discharge. This 
hasty act gave a new character to the whole situa- 
tion. The men had been dischaiged for cari-ying 
out the orders of th(^ chief of the union, and a direct 
conflict had been precipitated between the union 
and the Southern Pacific Railroad Co. The action 
of the union was prompt. Its ordei's were for every 
man to strike until such time as the S. P. Co. should 
j restore tlie discharged men. The men struck. 
Where, before, they had been willing to perform 
every usual service save the operation of Pullman 
cars, they now declined to do any service whatever 
until the men whose ' keys ' had been taken were 
restored to their places. The comjiany swore it 
would not yield. The men swori> they would not 
yield. Neither has yielded. And while they glare at 
and talk hard about each other 1lie inlerests of the 
public, including those of the Govcrnnient. which has 
protested in vain, are going to pot. 

Of all the surtei-ing interests, the ones which suffer 
most are those i-elat"d to the business of shipping 
fresh fruits. It is the lieight of the season when or- 
chards everywhei-e are inatui-ing their fruits rapidly, 
when the movement towar.l the eastern markets 
should be heavy. Somewhere between Sacramento 
and Chicago many liundreds of ears loaded with Cali- 
fornia fruits stand idle upon sideti'acks with their 
cargoes rotting. In thousands of oi-chards, fruits de- 
signed for shipping in the fresh state are going to 
waste. In the matt 't of fruit alone, the strike is 
costing California in gen^i-al and the fruit growers in 
particular, ten thuusan.l dollars for evei-y hour it 
continues. The trainm ni rcLiliz ' tli" situation, but 
they will not yield. The railroad managers know 
even better what it means — nor will they yield. Let 
us look into the principles for which these two forces 
of employers and employed are fighting, while the 
country suffers and bleeds under their dei-eliction of 

The railroad side of the question has l)een well ar- 
gued by Mr. H. E. Huntington in a statement pub- 
lished Saturday morning. He explains the relation 
between the Pullman Co, and the S. P., declaring 
that the cars bearing the name of the former and 
operated by it in connection with Southern Pacific 
trains are owned in partnership by the two com- 
panies. The S. P. is under a conti'act with the Pull- 
man Company to carry these cars on its tr-ains and is 
bound legally and in good faith toi)erforin the service. 
He dismisses as not pertinent to the points at issue 
between the S. P. Co. and its men. the matters in 
dispute between the Pullman Company and its men. 
He goes straight to the general princi]jle involved. 
He says: 

The railway employes confederated under the name of the 
American Railway Union seek to establish the principle that no 
work put out by the Pullman Car Company's shops shall be used 
unless the relation between the Pullman Car Company and the 
labor employed by it is satisfactory. By this declaration, the 
American Railway Union is attempting to a prece- 
dent which, carried to its logical conclusion, would become a 
factor in the railway transportation of this country, utterly 
destructive of the industries and commerce of the countrj'. 

Upon this basis he argues that if the railroads are 

to be denied the use of Pullman cars because of a mis- 
understanding between the labor used in their con- 
struction and the corporation constructing them, a 
like policy may be applied to locomotive works. He 
says : 

Suppose for instance, that a strike .should occur in the Bald- 
win Locomotive Works and the American Railway Union .should 
declare that no railroad using Baldwin locomotives should haul 
their trains with locomotives produced at that factory. Such 
a case would be completely analgous to the one under'consider- 
ation. The purchase of a locomotive under such circumstances 
would be attended constantly with the dangei' that the factory 
producing them would not maintain harmonious relations witii 
its employes, and the railroad pun^hasing such locomotive 
would have a guarantee of its use only so long as mechanics en- 
gaged in the manufacture of other locomotives at the Baldwin 
works were satisfied with their wages or the hours of labor. 
Thus the use of the locomotive would not pass to the railroad 
purchasing it, but would remain subject to the exigencies of 
the scale of wages in the factory producing it. Moreover, the 
policy would logically extend it.self to the carriage of goods 
produced by various factories. 

Coming down to an illustration wliic'h will appeal 
in a special way to the comprehension of Rur.\i, 
readers, Mr. Huntington says: 

Suppose the labor employed in orcharding in California 
should form itself into a labor orga)iizatiiin and that a single 
fruit-grower like A, T. Hatch should linii himself in contro- 
versy with the organization over the rate of wages or the 
hours of labor, and the American Railway Union should deny 
to his fruit the use of trains in search of market, should the 
demand be conceded In short, each individual member of the 
public has a right to have his freight transported by the rail- 
way companies of the country regardless of the contractual 
relation \yhich he may sustain to the labor employed by 

Answering the criticism that the S. P. Company 
should at the beginning have cut out the Pullman 
cars and operated its trains without them. Mr, Hunt- 
ington declares: 

This criticism will be indulged in only by those who are in- 
capable of comprehending the true nature of the issue in- 
volved, it would be far more reasonable on the part of public 
journals and of public sentiment to demand that it adopt this 
policy rather than abandon it. The triumph of the American 
Railway Union in this case would be the inauguration of a new 
factor in transportation which wouki put all transportation 
in the hands of an organization for the settlement of the most 
petty controversy between an employerand his employes, in the 
remotest corner of the country. It' would permit the I'arriage 
of goods, merchandise and the products of the country cjulv on 
condition that the relation between every emplo\ or in' the 
country and the labor eniijhiyed by him was' aniicabie and har- 
monious. In this asiicct of the case, it makes every individual 
citizen of the country a )iarty to I'viu'y contest between any 
employer and his employe. 

In conclusion, he assei-ts that the position of the 
Union in this matter is contrary to .every obligation 
resting upon good citizenship. We quote: 

In this it is declaring that as a coercive measure in settling 
a dispute between an Eastern car manuiacturer and his em- 
ployes, the i-ights and ol)ligation growing out of a contract 
shall be disregarded, the public shall be inconvenienced, the 
regular and legitimate operation of the railroads of the United 
States .shall be suspended, and persons and corporations in no 
respect i)arties to the controversy, or interested in any man- 
ner in its (IcMermiiiation, shall be held unwilling parties 

The strikei-s lack the literary art l-o ])ut their 
casein a form equal to Mr. Huntington's state- 
ment, but as we find it ex]>ressed in the talk 
•of their leaders it is about as follows: The 
organization of labor grows out of the organization 
of capital into companies and corporations and rests 
upon the necessity of meeting the aggressive selfish- 
ness of cai)ital in these forms. Organization is an 
absolute necessity for protection; and to be effective 
in its dealings with inteivsts so vast as the great 
railroad combines, it must include masses of men en- 
gaged in affiliated pursuits. Th(> existence of the 
AiTierican Railway Union, as a confederation 
of all railway employes, is justified by the 
necessities of the situation; and it only fairly 
matches the combination between the various 
capitalistic interests. Indeed, the present in- 
stance illustrates this necessity, for while the 
managers dechire that iho men should have nothing 
to do with the boycott of the Pullman workmen, 
they themselves boldly take uj) the fight of the Pull- 
man Co. 

Coming to the point at issue, they declare that 
their fellow unionists at the Pullman works are being 
badly treated, and that it is their duty, as work- 
men and under the mutual contract of theii- union, 
to assist them; and the only practical way to do this 
is to boycott the business op(>rations of the Pullman 
Company. Th(\se are found all over the country 
in connect ion with various railroads. To boycott the 
Pullman c'ars might work some inconvenience to 
lovers of ease in travel, but it would make no real 
hard.ship to anybody. It would not hinder the trans- 
portation of passengers or of freights, it would put 
no embargo upon the mails — in short, it would make 
no disturbance of the business of the counti-y and be 
nothing more serious than an inconvenience to the 
comparatively limited number of persons who ride 


(I on page 7.) 

The Pacific Rural Press 

July 7, 1894. 


State Horticultural Society. 

It Discusses Almonds, Sulphuring;, the Railroad Strike and a 
Variety of Interesting Subjects at its June Meeting. 

The Junemeetmgof the State Horticultural Society 
on Friday \va.s an occasion of exceptional interest. 
In spite of the railroad blockade, the attendance was 
larger than u.sual, and included among others Prof. 
E. W. Hilgard, honorary president of the society, 
whose presence always makes a red-letter day. The 
discussions covered a wide range, touching upon the 
subjects of California almonds in their commercial 
relations to imported almonds, the dietary value of 
fruits and nuts, the projected issue of a cooking man- 
ual for California dried fruits and the great railroad 
strike now on in its relations to the fruit in- 
terests and as especially related to public welfare. 

The California Almum/.— From the committee 
named some time back to prepare a statement show- 
ing the comparative value of the Californiun and im- 
ported almonds, Mr. Bancroft reported progress and 
submitted tables showing the great superiority of our 
native and mi ported varieties in the comparative pro- 
portions of weight of kernel to weight of shell. As 
all the data had not been verified, it was not deemed 
prudent to give the exact statement to the public. It 
will be given through the RuR.\i. as soon as it is 

Commenting on the general fact of the greater 
weight of kernel in the Californian almonds as com- 
pared with the almonds of Europe, Mr. A. T. Hatch 
said that there was here a noticeable difference here 
in these points dependent upon locality and age of 
trees, a point in which his observation coincided with 
that of Mr. Bancroft. 

I'lihlicdtiiin iif Fniit-('iii>ki)i{i Rnipix. — Concerning 
this matter there was a long discussion without any 
distinct determination. Mr. Bancroft, Mr. Hatch, 
Mr. Rowley, Mr. Holman, Mr. Walton, Mr. Freeman, 
Mr. Lelong, and others, dwelt upon the importance 
of the plan which is to print a million or more leaflets 
containing cooking reci]ies and enclose them in pack- 
ages of Californian dried fruits, so that each pur- 
chaser should know how to use our fruits to the 
greatest advantage. Prof. Hilgard finally suggested 
that the Legislature might be induced to make an ap- 
])ropriation for this publication as a contribution 
toward the jiromotion of a great productive interest. 
He thought it would be a most excellent and excus- 
able application of the " paternalism " of which the 
world was now hearing so much. The matter was 
left to a committee, of which Mr. Lelong is chairman. 

Thi' I'l rL itiK Proems. — Incidental to the above dis- 
cussion, Mr. Hatch remarked that it seemed impos- 
sible to get the fruit growers of California to do any- 
thing toward the promotion of their own interests if 
it cost anything; and he emphasized the point by re- 
ferring to the fact that nothing had been done toward 
testing practically the Perkins process of fruit car- 
riage, which seemed so feasible and promised so 
much. " I will," he said, " be one of twenty to give 
the plan a thorough, practical trial; and I would like 
to find the other nineteen." We quote the remark 
because it seems of very great importance, and we 
commend it to the fruit shii)i)ing interest. 

SulpliitriiKj. — Mr. Manning, in his ])aper on the 
dietary value of fruit and nuts, touched upon their 
great aid in the conservation of health: and this led 
Prof. Hilgard to reiterate his familiar objections to 
the use of sulphur for bleaching. The discussion was 
joined in by Mr. Hatch, Mr. Freeman, Mr. Hall of 
Carpenteria and others. Prof. H. did not, he said, 
expect producers to stop sulphuring when the mar- 
ket called for a sulphured product, both of fruit and 
nuts, but he contended and demonstrated that sul- 
])hured fruit was a less nutritious and less wholesome 
food than fruit in its natural state. 

From this subject the talk ran to the treatment of 
prunes with lye. Prof. Hilgard declaring that this 
process was not unwholesome, though, other things 
Ijeing equal, he thought it would be better to prick 
the fruit if it could be done practically and success- 

Mr. Lelong told of the practice of Mr. Mosher (in 
the Santa Clara Valley), who, after the dipping in 
lye, gave the fruit a dip in varni water. He found 
warm water much more cleansing than cold, and that 
the fruit began to dry much sooner than when spread 
upon the trays chilled by its plunge in cold water. 

Referring again to the subject of bleaching. Prof. 
Hilgard said, in response to a question, that a harm- 
less substitute for sulphuring was a dip in a solution 
of sulphide of soda. It was, however, more expen- 
sive, and failed to accomi)lish all that the market 
seemed to demand. This method, he said, was prac- 
ticed in Europe where our suli)hui--bleached fruits 
could not be sold. 

Mr. Freeman said that he would not take issue with 
l^-of. Hilgard on jioints of chemistry, in this matter 
iif sul|)huring. but as a jjractical man and a merchant 
he was hound to maintain the value of sulphuring as 
re' 'ed to tlu^ market for fruits. In markets when- 
sulphured fruits went off rapidly and at fine prices, 

tmsulphured fruits of relatively the same quality 
could not be sold save at vastly lower rates. 

Till R(iilro(i<l Sfrihr. — Mr. Hatch called attention 
to the situation as to transportation, and intro- 
duced a resolution in which the action of the strikers 
was denounced as contrary to public polic-y, unreason- 
able and crhninal. After .some little discussion it was 
carried 1)V unanimous vote as follows: 

Hexoh'i-ii, It i.s the sense of this society that the ai-tion of 
railway employes in striking and stopping traftio and publie 
busineks, not "because they have any complaint whatever 
against their employeis, but because cars of a certain owner- 
ship are used, is against good government and citizen.ship, is 
criminal and lawless and is denounced as such by this society. 

Siihjict for Xi\rt Mcitiii!/.— The packing of dried 
fruits' will be the subject of the July meeting. 

Reliance on Resistant Plants. 

It is encouraging to think that ere long we shall 
have done with spraying and dosing and shall place 
fair dependence upon the natural pest destroyer to 
reduce injurious insects and upon the inherent vigor 
of a resistant plant to repel fungoid invasion. Get 
the best plant in the best place and success will 
achieve itself. It is an old doctrine perha])s and yet 
it will take several life times yet, perhaps to deter- 
mine which is the best variety and which is the best 
place for it. We are, however, learning much and 
doing much to learn more. At the last meeting of 
the Southern California Pomological Society, Mr. 
Newton B. Pierce of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture spoke of this hojie of the liorliculturist in this 
way : 

To illustrate we may note the great variation in the 
resisting qualities of different peach varieties to the 
disease known as peach leaf curl. Some varieties are 
seriously att'ccted by this fungous disease, while others 
are mostly free. All degrees of resistance and sus- 
ceptibility are found. The grower of peaches, guided 
by i)ast observation, stimulates the nurseryman by 
his request for curl leaf varieties to the selection and 
projjagation of the resisting kinds. Thus hardy stocks 
replace those more tender, and man's selection, added 
to nature's variation, accomplishes in a few years 
what would otherwise requii-e centuries for its accom- 
plishment. It is along this line that not alone the 
grower and nurserymen are moving, but the vegetable 
pathologist is turning this method of ])reventing dis- 
ease to account. Within the past few months the 
United States Department of Agriculture has issued 
a circular letter to the peach growers of the United 
States, askhig for their experience as to the resist- 
ance of leaf curl of the different varieties of thei)each. 
A large number of valuable facts have thus been 
gathered for use and presentation with the results of 
a study of this disease which is now hi hand. Another 
line of lesearch of like nature is also being instituted 
by the Department, and this is the prevention of the 
rusts of grain by the growth of hardy or rust-proof 
varieties. After an extensive and thorough test of 
all of the best known fungicide's for the preventk)ii of 
these diseases. Proft'ssor fialloway says that on the 
whole there seems no good reason for believing that 
spraying, even with the most ai)prove(l iiiethcxls with 
which we are now familiar, would be i)racticable or 
profitable on a large scak-, but that the introduction 
of rust-resisting varieties is a far more promising Vino 
of work. This work on rusts is now receiving the at- 
tention of a special agent recently api)oiiit<'d by the 
Secretary of Agriculture, besides much atteiition at 
different experiment stations. 

Besides the selection of rust-jiroof grains, of rust- 
proof blackberries, of curl-proof peaches, of blight- 
proof pears, etc., a direct illustration of the use to 
which the results of natural selection among our 
cultivated plants may be ])ut is found in thi> use of 
the "Malaga" grape in this State. This vine has 
been developed among the varieties of IV/Av riniffrn, 
and is of exceedingly vigorous growth, hardy, and 
resistant to unfavoral)le soil and atmospheric con- 
ditions. It will live on alkali soils and in light sandy 
sit uations where the Muscat of .Mexandria would die. 
and as the grajie which it bears makes a very good 
raisin, and the vine only produces first crop bunches, 
the variety is being ])lanted in situations unfavorable 
to the successful growth of the Muscat. The root is 
also being used as a stock upon which to graft the 
Muscat, where the .soil is too light to support that 
grape upon its own roots. 1 will again refer to this 
vine when considering t he use being made of the laws 
of heredity by the student of plant diseases. 

As already indicated, the law of natural selection 
alows those plants to survive winch are best adapted 
to their environment. Now it is evident that the 
environment of a plant will vary greatly in the dif- 
ferent paras of our country. Could the entire United 
States be set with peach trees, a few years would 
suffice to kill, in one way or another, all of those 
trees not adapted to their environment, and we would 
find them only surviving in favored places. Peaches 
planted on the west shore of Lake Michigan would die 
from cold, while those set upon the east shore would 
foi-iii one of the finest fruit belts of the country. 
Peaches planted on Mount Shasta might die, those at 
it.s base might thrive. Again, figs grown on too dry 

soil would drop their leaves, on too wet soil would 
.sour their fruit and yield no returns. Grapes on low 
groimd or near the sea would mildew more than 
tho.s(> on dry ground or farther inland, and in the 
former situation the vine might prove unprofitable. 
This matter of adaptation of a plant to its environ- 
ment, then, is a proper factor in a study of plant 
diseases, and nowhere in this ctmntry does this be- 
come more evident than in the varied situations 
where fruit is grown on this coast. The vegetable 
pathologist keeps constantly in mind the conditions 
under which the diseased plant has been grown. At 
the present time this phase of the subject is being 
most thoi'oughly considered and the interests of 
horticulture most rapidly advanced at several of our 
experiment 'stations in different States and parts of 
the Union. This is being accomplished through their 
work in the testing of varieties. The Berkeley sta- 
tion of this State, with its substations in Amador. 
San Luis Obispo. Tulare and Los Angeles counties, 
is doing, together with other stations, very valuable 
work in thus testing the adaptation of fruits and 
grains to their environment in various parts of the 
country. In 1892 the Berkeley station compared 142 
varieti<'s of wheat as to their growth and rust-resist- 
ing qualities; the Amador station 51 varieties of 
peaches as to their season and fruiting qualities; the 
San Luis Obispo station many peach and grape vari- 
eties; the Tulare station 37 varieties of the pear on 
alkali soils; and many varieties of grapes are being 
tested at the Pomona station. At the University of 
Illinois — the Chanii)aign station — nearly lOU varieties 
of American graj)es are being tested for their dis- 
ease-resisting and fruiting qualities. Fifteen vari- 
eties are given in a recent bulletin from this station 
which have failed to succeed at Champaign. In this 
manner the selective work of nature is greatly 
abridged by the selective work of man. This class 
of labor is not the exception at present but the 
rule throughout the country. Recent tests of 
the varieties of the potato, for instance, have been 
made in 2'.i States and in Canada. The sugar beet 
has been tested in 27 States and in Canada. At 
least 17 States are now testing the varieties of the 
peach. The apple is being tested in 21 States and 
the i)ear in 19 States. The varieties of peas have 
just been tested in 2:^ States. The grape varieties 
are being ti'st(>d in 2H States. Tests have just been 
onducted in 152 States on the varieties of wheat. 
Apricots are now being tested in nine States. Com 
has been tested in H2 States within the past three 
years. Blackberries are now being tested in 20 
States and strawberries in 'M) States. 

This is but a mere mention of a small part of the 
work now in active progress in this country alone. 
In nearly every instance one of the prominent objects 
of this work is to avoid varieties of plants easily af- 
ft^cted by the diseases to which the plant is subject 
in the localities where the work is ct)nducted. This 
line of investigation furnishes one of the most strik- 
ing examples of man's desire to adjust his work to 
the laws of natural selecticm; and this work is now 
accomplishing for agriculture and horticulture what 
could never be so thoroughly accomplished by any of 
the more artificial methods of combatting disease 
now commonly followed. 


Gardening in the San Joaquin. 

In the Ri:r.\i, of June 9 we gave the first of a 
series of letters on gardening which F. M. Reynolds 
of Delano is prei)aring for the Kern County Cultivat- 
or. It is getting late, of course, for putting into 
practice now the suggestions made by Mr. Reynolds, 
but we trust all will read them and adapt them to 
their t-onditions and get a good ready for a tine run 
of gardening next season. One of the great needs 
of California farms is gardens, and where one has a 
water sui)i)ly and a taste for small cultures there is 
no difficulty in getting a good family supply of the 
most delicious vegetables anywhere in California. 
People who say gardening is a failure make .some sad 
mistake in their practice, either in poor preparation 
of the land, ill use of water, neglect of proper culti- 
vation, or some other thing neglected or wrongly 
done. Such persons should try again and resolve to 
do better. 

In our issue of June 9 Mr. Reynolds gave his plan 
of laying out garden ground for satisfactory applica- 
tion of water by the throwing up of ridges and the 
making of ditches for even distribution of water. 
The reader should refer back to that article in con- 
nection with the present one. The application of 
this ridge system is discussed as follows: 

Do not allow the water to raise up over the beds under any 
circumstances. If the work is properly done the water will 
run through the ditches in the high ridges and from their ter- 
mination will continue from one trench to another, till each 
bed in the plat is nicely moistened, and after once thoroughly 
wet and settled it will" not require more than one-half of the 
water it does at first, the soil is very sandy and loose. 
Remember it is the small stream long drawn out that counts 
and gives you the best results. The preparation of the ground 
as herein outlined mav seem like a useless, puttering job, a 
large amount of work and small returns, but don't get dis- 
couraged in advance, for when the ground is once prepared it 

July 7, 1894. 

is once for all, as you can continue to plant crop after crop uppn 
the same ground without any material change, except workmg 
in a little fine well-rotted manure with each succeeding crop. 
What! Use manure in California's rich soil? Yes. Why? 
Because most of the soil is unaerated, but becomes rich and 
highly productive with irrigating and cultivating. Remem- 
ber, a rich, sweet, tender vegetable is one that grows quick. 

Concerning practice with the different vegetables 
and the preparation of ridges and beds for them, 
Mr. Reynolds gives the following suggestions; 

Plant melons and winter squash seven feet apart on each 
side of the ridge, which .should be eight feet apart for these 
varieties, and about live feet apart for corn, beans, summer 
crook-neck squash, cucumbers and tomatoes. After preparing 
the ground and planting the seed neither the ditch nor plants 
will require much attention more than to keep the weeds out. 
For the growth of other vegetables, such as peas, cauliflower, 
cabbage, carrots, parsnips, radish, beets, lettuce, a.sparagus, 
egg plant, spinach, peppers, onions, garlic, rhubarb, and 
tomato plants, prepare the ground by forming it into beds 
fourteen inches wide and two inches higher in the center than 
on either ridge, with a small trench between them six inches 
wide and three inches deep. Thej' can be made wider and 
deeper if a lai-ge amount of water is available. After the 
beds are prepared run the water through them and recrossing 
the beds that are defective, so the water will to a uni- 
form height on each, within about one inch of the top, and 
upon the beds you to plant to onions, turnips and cabbage 
.scatter wood ashes at the rate of one quart to every ten feet 
of the bed. Make a depres.sion on each side of the bed two 
and one-half inches from the edge with a big or small hoe and 
one and one-half inches deep. Sow the seed not less than one- 
half inch apart and be very careful not to cover the seed more 
then one-half inch deep. Every good seed will grow. Omit 
the peas, cauliflower, parsnip and garlics until later in the 
season. Plant only the earliest radish at first. Plant onion 
.seed sparingly (just enough for green onions) until later; .sow 
tomato seed early in June and don't neglect the asparagus 
and rhubarb seed, so you ma.v have plenty of plants for reset- 
ting later. 

Thin the turnip plants, leaving them fj'om Ave to six inches 
apart, according to variety. Spinach, beets, carrots and let- 
tuce should be thinned to six inches apart in the row. 

Mr. Reynolds seems to advise sowing in o])cn 
ground seeds of plants which are to bo transplanted 
later. Others will of course prefer the use of frames 
or other protection by which seed of such plants can 
be safely sown earlier and the plants be ready for 
setting out at the time he puts his seed in the ground. 
Modern gardening runs largely in the lin(> of the use 
of protected seed beds, so as to get tlie transplanting 
done as early as it is safe. Where nattii'al moisttn-e 
is relied upon this is almost essential to success. For 
an irrigated garden, where moisture is constantly a 
Full supply, late transplanting is jiracticable. The 
following suggests such practice : 

Do not neglect to sow celery seed by the middle of June. 
Dwarf Golden is a good variety. Sow in 14-inch seed beds and 
cover not more than one-quarter of an inch deep, and keep 

If any kind of vermin trouble you by digging up seed, ap- 
prehend them by .scattering a small amount of poisoned wheat 
over the surface of the beds ; fifty cents will buy enough to 
protect the gai-den for a year. The small black flea, which is 
so destructive to turnip, cabbage and cauliflowei' plant.s, is 
easily routed by dusting fine soot from the stove pipe over 
them after they have been sprinkled. The sauio remedy is 
applicable to string or snap beans. 

When tomato plants are from three to five inches tall, trans- 
plant them on either side of the high ridges, five feet apart in 
the row. Ti-an.splant cabbage and egg plants when they 
are from two to three inches tall in vacant beds, the 
former eight inches apart in the row for early and close 
heading varieties, and 2.S inches apart for iate and .spreading 
varieties, and egg plants 24 inches apart in the row. A pint 
of fine manure from the cow yard placed six inches below the 
surface under each plant will insure a cabbage from nearly 
plant. Pepper plants should be transplanted IS inches apart 
in the row. 

The making of permanent beds of perennial plants, 
including small fruits, from plants grown in the open 
groimd is thus pursued : 

After thinning to four inches apart, allow rhubarb and 
asparagus to remain until January or February before trans- 
planting to permanent beds, but don't neglect to commence 
the preparation of the ground now, by digging a trench 18 
inches deep and 14 inches wide ; fill two-thirds full of stable 
manure, wet thoi'oughly and stir frequently to prevent burn- 
ing until well rotted, and at different times of handling stir 
in the dirt and thoroughly mix with the manure until the 
trench is full ; but for asparagus, draw in only about three 
inches of dirt and thoroughly mix. Prepare ground for setting 
blackberries, red and black raspberries and strawberries in 
the same manner, except the depth of the trenches, which 
need to be only eight to ten inches deep. The trenches for 
rhubarb and asparagus .should be 24 inches apart, rhubarb 30 
inches apart in the row, and asparagus 18 inches apart. Black- 
berries and raspberries should be set five feet apart each way 
upon a low ridge to prevent the water from touching the 
plants above the ground, and they may be set out from Jan- 
uary to March inclusive. Set strawberry plants in the center 
of the 14-inch beds with the six-inch trenches between them, 
18 inches apart in the row. They may beset out from Sep- 
tember to March inculsive, but early setting will give you 
more berries the sea.son following. 

Beans are quite a popular field crop on moist or ir- 
rigated valley lands this year. The following is Mr. 
Reynolds' knowledge of beans: 

Beans for a general crop may be planted until July 4th, and 
more should be raised in this valley. They <^an be turned into 
cash with less labor than any crop raised (except alfalfa). 
Their cultivation is easy, yield abundant and a sure crop, and 
no machinery whatever is required to place the thi'eshed ar- 
ticle in the sacks, which makes them pre-eminently the poor 
man's crop. The pink bean is very hardy and prolific, but 
other varieties may be rai.sed if preferred. If the bayo bean 
is selected, they should be planted .soon. If the soil is .sand.v, 
and water readily sinks below the surface after irrigation, 
beans will do nicely if planted on level ground in rows 80 
inches apart and 30 inches apart in the row. Three plants are 
sufBcient if planted in hills. Plant after the ground is well 
irrigated, with hoe, hand planter or drill, but do not cover 
them more than one and one-fourth inches deep. When they 
need irrigating, it may be done by running the water over the 
entire surface of the ground just at sunset, but never in the 
middle of the day. If the soil is heavy and retains water on 
the surface, they should be planted on ridges about one furrow 
high after harrowing lengthwise so the water will not stand 
a,rpund the plant above the soil. For garden cvtltivfttiou, plant 

all the 14-inch beds 18 inches apart in the row. They will 
yield a profitable crop without ahy cultivation, if that way is 

The last remark of course applies to a garden 
where water is always present from ditches which 
are calculated to hold water continuously, and thus 
keep the ground always moist. Of course without 
such water supply, beans must be cultivated. Beans 
on a ridge without water would perish before half 

There is of course an issue between Mr. Reynolds' 
system as a whole and flat culture with occasional 
irrigation followed by cultivation. For a house 
garden to be run almost wholly by hoe power, and to 
fill a small piece of rich, mellow land with as much 
stuft' as it will carry, his plan has many points of 
favor. For a horse-power garden and for all com- 
mercial gardening, except that carried on by 
Italians and Chinese, according to their peculiar 
methods of hand labor, we should say the flat culture 
system is infinitely superior. We hope we shall hear 
from our readers on all these points. We could all 
learn valuable lessons from such discussion. 


Canned Fruits in the English Markets. 

There has beon for years a constant donand for 
information concerning the jjresent and probable 
future demand for California canned fruits and veg- 
etables in the English markets. Sanguine people 
have anticijjated an English outlet which would re- 
ceive very large amounts of oin- fruit products. 
Others have claimed that other near supply regions 
in the south of Europe had the call on this trade and 
when fruit came from long distances English colonies 
like Australia would have the advantage of us 
through a patriotic feeling among loyal Britishers. 
At the me(>ting of the Horticultural Society of this 
city last we(>k Mr. A. G. Freeman held to the latter 
view and argu(>d that except in certain specialties we 
could not make great calculations on the European 
demand, but must count upon doing most of our 
business with the millicms in the States east of the 
Sierra Nevada. The proof of this matter must of 
course come in future experience, and yet an intelli- 
gent forecast is of the utmost importance. 

We are able to giv(> our readers below what is 
probably the most careful study ever made of the 
English market as related to the introduction of 
catined goods from distant countries. It is made by 
Mr. F. C. Smith of South Australia, whom our read- 
ers will remember as a frequent contributor to our 
columns and a sojourn(>r in this State all during the 
fruit season of 1893. Mr. Smith has tlte advantage 
in this inquiry of being a canner himself, and he also 
possess(>s the ability to write im])artially of facts 
which he is quick to discern. We believe his state- 
ment will be exceedingly interesting to many read- 
ers of the Rural. We quote as follows from 
manuscript which we have just received from Mr. 
Smith: • 

The credit is due to California for having established trade 
in canned fruits in the market, and it is safe to .say 
that three-quarters of the ti ade is in California brands. The 
three chief fruits, and those that pay best, are pears, apricots 
and peaches; smaller quantities of tomatoes, cherries, plums, 
quinces, apples, nectarines, etc., being sold, and mostly 
at prices which do not pay the American packei'. For years 
certain well established brands have held tlie market here for 
(Choice goods, one company in particular, viz., San Jose Pack- 
ing Company, holding by far the best position. This '-ompany 
has spent immense sums in advertising. 1 was astonished to 
find how widely and etfectively their fruits were advertised 
all through the United Kingdom in every large city. Most of 
the leading grocers and scores of the restaurants had large 
glass jars of pears, peaches or apricots, generally whole, pre- 
served in sulphur water, in their windows, and many thou- 
sands of these must have been used by the San Jose Company 
in this way. The consequence is that their "extra" canned 
fruits are leading the market. They use several brands of 
labels, only the best of which bear their name. These brands 
are always up to the mark, being of uniform quality and value 
from year to year. Their cheaper brands have to stand the 
same chances as newcomers from any country. 

Quite a contrast with this concession which Mi-. 
Smith makes to the enterjn-ise of one of our can- 
neries is the sketch he gives of Australian movement 
in the same direction. It is interesting to us as 
showing clearly the way not to do it if other Califor- 
nia producers wish to exploit the markets. 
He writes: 

Australian fruits might years ago have established them- 
selves upon this market ; however, we have been foolish 
enough to let the opportunity pass by, and although several 
attempts have been made, they have not been continuously 
followed up. In some cases this has been due to seasons being 
so unfortunate or diseases so virulent, or both. In conse- 
quence, sufficient quantity of first-ciass fruit has not been pro- 
curable for the purpose. In other cases the market for certain 
colonial brands has been completely spoiled by shipping large 
quantities of altogether inferior goods. 

Good fruit was sent at fii'st and a position gained, but the 
subsequent large shipments were very bad ; and the result is 
these brands are now quite un.salable and have proved very 
unprofitable to both cannei- and bnytn-. Hundreds of grocers 
have these fruits still on their shelves, unable to move them, 
and they are only — along with otliei- unequal and inferior 
brands from other places — being got rid of, at a great loss, to 
the restaui'ant-keepers and others. 

Ther(> seems to be a chance to sell in England c(m- 
siderable quantities of unlabeled ciinn(>d goods, but 
naturally these will ha,ve to be manufactured at low 

prices to suit the ideas of English wholesalers. Mr. 
Smith does not see much profit in such supply, but 
this is the description of it : 

Very often when a parcel of fruit is hanging fire, the grocer 
gets a new label with a different brand and re-labels his stuff, 
and so at low prices manages to get rid of it, and in cases of 
this sort the efficacy of a particularly attractive label in sell- 
ing goods is most marked. Unless one is prepared to spend 
thousands a year for two or three years in advertising his 
fruit in an attractive manner and so creating a demand, he 
must just take his chances with the rest, and this means 
either a bare margin of profit or none at all for a year or two 
if the market happens to be well stocked, as it is this year. 
Some of the large wholesale prefer, if they cdn be as- 
sured of a regulai- supply of uniform quality, to buy them un- 
labeled, and then put their own label on, and so make an extra 
profit. That would be right for the grocer if he could come to 
an arrangement with the buyer by which he would be sure to 
make at least a profit and not be driven by too hard a bargain. 
Some of the large London houses, employing seventy or eighty 
commeriual travelers over the United Kingdom, much prefer 
to sell g(K)d stuff under their own brand — so getting the ben- 
efit of the advertisement — to helping to establish a reputation 
for some one else. 

Large retail distributors have told me that, owing to the 
lowering of prices of canned fruits during the last two or 
three years, the increased consumption has been most marked. 
This lowering of prices has been brought about by the in- 
creased competition by different foreign countries. 

The fact that many different fruit supply countries 
both distant and adjacent are contending for the 
English trade in canned fruit, places great limitations 
on the business. Probably many of our readers have 
no conception of the extent of competition which has 
to be met. Mr. Smith writes: 

In one shop where I chatted with the proprietor, I found can- 
ned apricots from Buenos Ayres, in South America; fine 
peaches from Italy; plums from Germany, France, Switzerland 
and England, and apricots from Italy, France, Spain and Por- 
tugal. This place, however, was not supplying the West End 
trade, and on inquiring at the Army and Navy stores, where 
only the very best goods are sold, 1 found only one brand of 
continental canned fruit outside the Fi-eni-h, and that was a 
line of Portuguese apricots of really high quality. 

The fact that so much cdniiictition from foreign countries 
outside of California has to bo faced was at first a staggering 
blow to me, especially when upon going to interview the 
agents of some of the continental houses, I was met with the 
following statements to prove that their fruits were destined 
to eventually drive all other fruit out of the market : 

First, that wages were about one-third only of those paid in 
the English colonies and California, and that these were paid 
in the de|)rcciated currency of those countries, viz., Italy, Spain 
and Portugal, while the pi-oducts realized full value in the 
English market. 

Secondly, that cheapness of freights and nearness to mar- 
kets would all be in their favor. 

But while all distant supply regions labor under 
such disadvantages as the above, there is also a local 
line of fruit produce which sells at incredibly low 
prices, and, with people of moderate means at least, 
will always take the place of higher class goods. We 
often hear of the great English jam consumption, 
and our producers are urged to enter the jam trade, 
but Mr. Smith gives facts which indicate that it is 
really a good thing to keep out of. He writes : 

A large trade is done in Great Britain in jams, but it is all 
put up in glass or earthenware jars, instead of tin cans as with 
us, and a good deal of fruit pulp for jam making, especially 
apricot, is put up in 10 or 20-poun<l cans in Italy, Spain and 
Portugal. In may last a lot of Cont itumtal pulps were sold in 
Loudon at auction at the following prices : 

Apricot, in a large case containing 10 20-pound cans, at .'!2s 
per case. 

Damson plum.s, in cwt. puncheons, at £2 1.5s per ton. 
Malaga orange pulp, in 28-ix)und jars, for a half penny per 
fxjund, and the empty jars were worth 7y„d alone. 
Red Gooseberry at £'i per ton. 
Red currant at £2 15s per ton. 
Black currant at £1 2s per ton. 

C'herry at Is P^d per 28-pouud jar, inclusive of the latter. 
Green Gage, in 28-pound jars. Is per jai', inclusive. 
Blackberry at 10' ^d for 28-pound jars. 

Except for the apricot, these prices would land the exporter 
heavil.v in debt for charges, etc., in addition to making no 
profit; and yet this system of consignments keeps on, new 
men not knowing the risks, or the market coming forward to 
venture their goods, and generally making a loss ; though, oc- 
casionall.v, when seasons el.sewhere have been unfavorable, 
making a good profit, the report of which has been sufficient to 
encourage others to venture. 

The prices Mr. Sfnith thus gives must be a mini- 
mum, but the chance of striking such a level is 
enough to close all our ambition to undertake such 
goods. To sell jam for $."> to ^?li> per ton. and throw 
in the crockery that it is ])ut, in. and pay the freight 
on it all, might be called ;i i)oor jam business or a 
jam ))oor business, according to the patience of the 

Mr. Smith also gives a point on labeling, and that 
is tliat lab(>ls should go in a bunch in the case and be 
put on in England. Labels on cans are almost sure 
to take on rust spots from the cans or other dis- 
figurement. A fresh label is as inHu(Mitial in Eng- 
land as elsewhere. 

Qreen Plums for Pickled Olives. 

There is a story current in Eastern journals which 
we imagine is an ing(Miious hoax, built upon the old 
story of the sea captain's first expei-icnce of pickled 
olives. Still it is entertaining and is as follows: 

Those who have a nat\iral or acquired taste for olives cannot 
help but be interested in llie fact that John F. White, of Lei- 
cester county, has in his fruit- orchards 7,000 plum trees. The 
connection between oliv(!s and Mr. White's possession may not 
be quite clear at first, but it is explained by the Genesoo Ur- 
piihlicnii, which remarks that many of the trees will yield 
three bushels of fruit. "A branch from one of the trees was 
shown us," adds the Hciiiililii nii, "and the plums were strung 
on it about as thickly as they could be. One naturally wonders, 
where Mr. White isgoing to find a market for fifteen or twenty 
thousand bush(!ls of plums, but his wonder ceases when he is 
told the purixise for which they are used. The fruit is picked 
long before it gets ripe and when it has the greatest resem- 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 7, 1 804. 

blance to olives, for which, both French and Italian, it is sold 
and eaten." The large dealers in preserves, piokles and other 
such commodities buy them and they arc sold and oaten as the 
imported articles. But we believe, with the !{• inililimn. this 
selling of sour plums to a trusting public for gn^en olives is a 
good deal of an imiX)sition. Bntnvia Dnilii Srirx. 

We have not the faintest idea that a green plum 
salted eonld pass for a moment as a pickled olive. 

The appearance is essentially different, the flavor 
wholly dissimilar, the pit would f^ive away the fraud 
if any doul)1 of it lingered until the pit was foimd. 
We do not advise olive growers to dig up theii- trees 
on account of thes(> rejxjrts. (> reen plums are not a 
success as a substitute. California canners tried 
green Hungarians for yellow egg, until they nearly 
wrecked their business and then they sto])ped. The 
Eastern green plum will never get so far as that; it 
will stop awhile before it begins. 


Progress in Floriculture. 

Mrs. Jeanne C. Carr of Pasadena has held for a 
generation a most honored place in the annals of or- 
namental horticulture in California. Old readers of 
the RuR.\l, will be glad to have again a word from 
her pen. Al a recent meeting of the Southern Cali- 
fornia Pomological Society, she read a brief paper as 

Your invitation to prepai-e a ])ai)er for this occa- 
sion reminds me that it is more than M years since 1 
read my first one in a schoolhouse in the State of 
V'ermont — the youngest performer in the closing ex- 
ercises of the year. The hall in whii-h this took place 
was lavishly decorated with old-fashioned flowers of 
our own raising, interwoven with Pimcis nine, Win- 
tergreen and partridge berry, the exquisite greener \' 
of New England woods. As I turn the leaves of 
memory one by one, and the grass pinks diffuse their 
sweetness — mingled with odors of sweet lavender, 
balm and thyme— 1 wonder if there has ever been, in 
any part of the world, so much of rational enjoyment 
obtained at so little cost. From the earliest jon- 
quils in our borders to the latest fiaunting hollyhocks 
there was a continuous feast of fi<nv(>rs. If we had 
fewer grass plots, there were beds of camomile 
which needed no mowing. My window gardens were 
rich at Christmas with hyacinths and other bulbous 
plants, imbedde'd in moss of which I laid in a plente- 
ous store; and even old carriagt' s])onges were col- 
lected and saved to be afterward enclosed in coarse 
netting, when they were then converted into iii'sting 
places for the tiniest winter bulbs and kept in l)looni 
for the holiday festivities. The first gazanias I ever 
saw were rarities in a winter garden. [ little thought 
at that time that 1 should have miles of gazanias 
bordering in sight upon the street where? 1 live; and 
a description of such .scenes as we have witnessed 
within the last few weeks in southern California would 
have been relegated to the shelf containing the 
Arabian Nights entertainments. In our limited 
window garden grew a frost plant with small pink 
flowers, often carried into the cellar on the severest 
winter nights. T have grown more than 50 species of 
this succul(Mit grouj) in southei'n California; and 
though one wearies a little of their su])erabundance, 
they are more approj^riate to this dry simny lancl 
than almost any othei- family. 

As California horticulture is working along the line 
of Nature's admirable copies, set in her golden poppy 
fields, we can hardly have too much of anything 
beautiful, and need only to avoid unnatural combina- 
tions in our ]ilanting. remembering that we always 
create a weed wIkmi we ]>ut a plant in the wrong 
jilace or scK'iety. 

There has lieen a great advance in Pasadena horti- 
culture within th(> past three or four y(>ars through 
the introduction of rare aquatics and the employment 
of choice bulV)s for color offects. After driving 
through the dazzling poppy fields in the height of the 
season, one is refreshed by the rich, cool luxuriance 
of the water lily pond as seen at Mr. Armstrong's, 
where the great buds are pushing among the lovely 
stars of water anemone, or the rich larkspur blue of 
the water hyacinth; their insect lovers meanwhile 
flitting about on gauzy wings. It is a glim))se in 
miniature of th(> larger privileges Pasadena will yet 
l)rovide for her citizens in h(>r public parks and gar- 
dens. If we have not yet a George W. Childs among 
us to create a model country .seat like that near Bryn 
Mawr, we have unbounded faith that he is getting 
his education somewhere on the planet, and the delay 
is equally beneficial to him and to us. 

Travelers of taste and expert horticulturists are 
never tired of extolUng the Japanese n)iniature gar- 
dens. We have not in Pasadena a lot too small for a 
repetition of these. Out of a yard wide expanse of 
gray stone croj) may be mad(> to arise a bunch of 
scarlet anemone in the early months, to be succeeded 
by lilies and tulips, and later by splendid gladioli, 
while behind this little pictm-e a rampant bunch of ' 
varied hollyhocks would seem to rise up as a protect- 
ing background. ; 

The same effects may be obtained in a little more ! 
space by a selection of shrubs. And in our hot | 
svimmers (at mididay) all this may be so canopied with | 

a grapevine as to make a retired nook, or, better 

still, by a wisteria or yellow bignonia. There is an- 
other rare decorative vine recommended in the Lon- 
don (linih II, the Prtriii vohihills — not unlike wisteria, 
and blooming later in the soason. 

Ruskin s teaching is a gospel for horticulturists as 
well as for other artists. I can say nothing out of 
my own mind half as good as a few lines of his: "All 
ornament is base, which is merely carving our own 
work, setting; it up for admiration in a miserable 
complacency, instead of being an expression of our 
delight in God's work. All noble ornament is an ex- 
pression of delight in God's work, and its object is to 
increase happiness." Every plant form, every tree 
and shrub, is a new lesson of creative skill and love; 
and as we dig and delve in the hard soil, we must 
find our greatest consolation in the thought that we 
also are capable of deriving our highest happiness in 
increasing that of others. 

The Horist's art is not one which "doth mend na- 
tui-e. but itself is nature " — to borrow a line from 
Shakespeare. So thought Shaw, who dedicated his 
w^ealth to a garden in St. Louis. So thought Dr. 
Hooker, as he toiled through laborious years to es- 
tablish Kew Gardens. So thought our own Downing, 
as he taught, that no amount of expense in surface 
work, in the variety of collections and specimens, 
that miles of glass or mowing could not make a 
lovi'ly country seat. 

I cannot look ujxm our wild pastures in their glory 
of E.schscholtzia gold and purjjles of many names, 
without thanking God for this daily bread broken for 
the spiritual hunger for beauty, which exists either 
dormant or active in every human soul. If I were 
rich enough to endow a public park or garden, there 
should be a place for gratuitous distribution of flow- 
ors to the poor, whose tickets would be as good on 
present;iti()n as the coin of the realm. 

by the direct action of fi 
times, as Mr. John Muir. 
perienced student of the 
in California, suggests. 


The Monterey Cypres3. 

•All Californians will be interested in an ai)preciative 
sketch of the Monterey cypress, like that which we 
shall quote from the last issue of Garden and Forest. 
This tree is perhaps the commonest ornamental tree 
in the State. It vies with the blue gtim in the hold 
which it has taken upon the attention of the ordinary 
tree planted. It forms hedges and windbrakes 
everywhere in our valleys fn^m end to end of the 
State, and it shows handsome individual specimens 
in sheltered interior situations which could never be 
pi-oduced upon the immediate coast, where it is so 
vexed and deformed by constant winds. Garden and 
Fnrcsf writes of the tree as one who knows it, and 
this is easily understood when one 1-efiects that the 
writer is Prof. C. S. Sargent, of the Arnold Arbor- 
etum of Harvard College, who has had frequent occa- 
sion to study the tree in this State. We quote as 

The forests of Pacific North America are peculiar 
in the presence of several cone-bearing trees, each 
now confined to a small area — a remarkable fact, for 
conifers are usually jilants of wide distribution. At 
the north the Lawson's c^'press {('/lamtn-ypan's Lnir- 
siiniiiiia), the largest, stateliest and most valuable 
tree of its kind, occupies a few square miles of terri- 
tory in the coast region of south-western Oregon, 
with an outlying post or two on the headwaters of 
the Sacramento in northern California. The grace- 
ful /'ii rii liri in riiinii is still known only in two or 
thi-ee small groves high up on the slopes of the Siski- 
you mountains, near the boundary line of Oregon 
and California, with only a few hundred individuals, 
old and young. ,l/;(V.s- ifniista. perhaps the most 
beautiful of the American firs, occupies with a scanty 
growth a few of th<> interior valleys of the Santa 
Liu-ia mountains of California; and Piniix Torn i/-iii<i, 
the most local of pine trees, has only succeeded in 
retaining a foothold on the bluffs near the mouth of 
the Soledad river in San Diego county, where it is 
scattered in open groves up and down the coast for 
a distaiu-e of five or six miles, with an outpost on the 
island of Santa Rosa. 

But the most restricted in natural range of the 
Am(>rican Conifers is the Monterey cypress {('iij>r)ssiis 
nKu-riiciirpii). This tree only grows spontaneously in 
the neighborhood of Carmel Bay. in Monterey county, 
California, and there are two groves; the larger 
stretches from Cypress Point southward to the shores 
of Carmel bay, a distance of two miles; the smaller 
occupies Point Lobos, the southern boundary of the 
bay. The larger grove extends from the very edge 
of the sea cliffs for about 20(1 yards inland, when the 
trees begin gradually tf) mingle with the Monterey 
pine (I'iiiiis iii.iif/iiis). which on this particular part of 
the coast forms a large pai't of the forest growth. 
In some portions of the grove the trees are crowded 
together, running up with tall stems and narrow 
pyramidal crowns; in others they are more scattered, 
displaying the fiat heads of horizontal branches, 
which distinguish the oldest individuals. On the 
lK)i-ders of grassy lawns scattered here and there 
through this grove are many noble single-specimens; 

and on the very edge of the cliffs trees gnarled, 
twisted and dwarfed by centuries of conflict with the 
fierce winds, laden with salme moisture, that sweep 
in from the Pacific, show with what tenacity this tree 
has strubjgled to preserve its last foothold. ' But it is 
hardly possible to conceive that a tree of such vig- 
orous constitution did not at some earlier period 
occupy a largei- territory, or that it has not been 
driven to this inhosjiitalile shore by the gradual dry 
ing of the California climate which followed the dis- 
appearance of the great glaciers of the Sierras, or 
•e in comparatively recent 
the most careful and ex- 
changes of forest conditions 
The adaptability of the 
Monterey cypress when transplanted by man to 
flourish in climates very unlike that of the present 
home seems to confirm this view. 

Discov(>red less than 50 years ago by the German 
collector ?Tartweg, Ciijtnssiis rnnrrocn rjni was soon 
carried into the gardens of Europe, where in all 
temperate countries it grows with extraordinary 
rapidity and vigor; and now on the Pacific coast, 
from Victoria, in Vancouver Island, to San Diego, it 
is everywhere the most universally i)lanted con- 
iferous tree, growing apparently in all climates, soils 
and exposures as freely as the young trees in the 
groves bf Carmel bav. 

No picture can fully display the picturesqueness of 
these venerable trees or do justice to the whiteness 
of their bark or the dark green of the foliage that 
covers their ancient crowns; and nii one who has 
not wandered through this gi-ove on a sunny day in 
early si)ring can obtain from any picture or from any 
written words an idea of its beauty. Nowhere else 
on the shores of this continent, at least, can a picture 
of .such unsurj)assed beauty be seen or such a com- 
bination of bold, dark red, ragged clitis, perpetually 
bathed in th(i spray of mighty breakers, of skies of 
the brightest blue and lawns clothed with grass of 
the tenderest green and studded with flowers of 
many brilliant hues, while above them the white 
trunks, sometimes twisted into a thousand curious 
shapes, sometimes straight and shaft-like, rise on all 
sides and spread their dark and somber canopy. 

Tens of millions of young plants of Cupressus 
miicroriirjKi planted in British Columbia. Oregon and 
California, in the countries bordering the Mecliterra- 
nean and in western Europe, in Australia and New 
Zealand, will insure the preservation of the species; 
but its last natural stronghold should be jealously 
guarded, for Cypress Point is one of the most inter- 
esting spots in the world to the lover of trees; and 
there are few places in any country which so stir the 
lover of nature. One bad fire would sweep away 
every cypress tree in either of the two groves, and 
the animals, which are now allowed to browse at will 
and in large numbers in the larger grove, destroy all 
seedlings as they spring up, and, by imjK)verishing 
the soil, hasten the decay of the older trees. Self- 
interest on the part of the men who now own this 
grove and use it as the chief attraction to the guests 
of the hotel at Monterey will make them anxious to 
prevent fires, although apparently they have not 
established any .system of fire guards. The same 
interest ought to induce them to prevent its injury 
and devastation by bands of battle. 


The Dog Power in the Dairy. 

Notwithstanding the development of the creamery 
business, by far the larger portion of the butter is 
still made on the farm, says E. C. Bennett in Omnffr 
Jiidd Former, and made under grievous disadvan 
tages. C)ne of the most serious is the impossibility 
of controlling the temperature of the churning room. 
To make good, fii-m butter in a room where the ther- 
mometer stands at ItO degrees is an art which we 
have no right to demand of man or woman. The way 
out of this trouble is to churn in early morning in 
summer. W^hen the air is fresh and pure and cool, 
the making of good butter is an easy matter. The 
trouble is that so many other things demand atten- 
tion at that time. There is the household work for 
the women, the milking and the calf, i>ig and horse 
feeding for the men, and every one has his hands full 
of business, and so the churning is put off for a more 
convenient season. This is wrong, however. It is 
wrong to spoil the most costly iiroduct of the farm 
right at the finishing stage, ffir it brings to naught 
all of the previous labor of pi-oduction. Where the 
milk can be sent to a creamery this does not apply. 
It is written to help those who have no such con- 
venience, and will readily help one to do as well as 
the creamery patron, provided on(! wishes to churn 
at home. The writer is convenient to two creameries, 
yet does not find it necessary to patronize either one. 
"for the morning air is just as good at home, and the 
only thing to settle is which is more convenient. As 
a rule, the creamery is a great convenience, but 
where, for any cause, churning is done at homi\ it is 
almost a crime to make the ordinary butter seen on 
our markets, for the creamery gra<le can be made 
right at home. To have the churning done in th*' 
cool of the Jiiorning, and yet uot take tho women 

July 7, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press 

from their preparation of a good breakfast, nor the 
milkers from their chores, I have found nothing so 
cheap and satisfactory as to have the dog churn. He 
lias nothing else to do then, and he can churn just as 
well as any steam engine ever made. When the 
milkers commence to milk, the cream is put into the 
churn and the dog into the tread power, and lie — the 
dog — does the rest. As the milkers come into the 
dairy to strain the milk, they notice the progress of 
the job, and when the butter comes the churn is 
stopped. By the time milking is done, churning is 
also done. The buttermilk is drawn off and the but- 
ter rinsed clean with water from the tank in the 
dairy house, after which the salt is put right into 
the churn. 

After breakfast, the salt being dissolved by that 
time, the butter is packed into jars or printed, ac- 
cording to the demands of patrons. The whole thing 
is finished and the pigs are busy digesting the but- 
termilk before one could get home from the creamery, 
and the horses enjoy standing in the barn better 
than hauling milk. Is the butter equal to creamery 
butter? I don't know. The buttermilk is as good 
as creamery buttermilk — not even an anarchist would 
deny that — and as for the butter, it sells as well as 
creamery butter; but this is not what this article is 
written for — to prove the relative merits of private 
and factory butter — but to show how to im])rove th(> 
quality of the butter which is home made, by churn- 
ing it at the right time of day, and by having the 
drudgery part of the work done by other than a 
human being. Sparing the dog, and overworking 
\he wife, and spoiling the butter, too, is nonsense, 
and, like most foolishness, brings sure punishment. 


Preservation of Eggs. 

The egg-shell is perforated by a myriad of small 
pores, which can only be pei'ceived by the aid of a 
microscope. Their effect is evident, because it is by 
them that day by day the albumen evaporates and 
gives place to air. When the egg is c-ompletely Full, 
a fluid passes constantly towards the pores, and is. 
the principal agent of corrujition; this corruption is 
manifested more ra])idly in warm than in cold 
weather. An egg absolutely fresh is absolutely and 
])roverbially full, but in the stale eggs there is a pro- 
portionally empty place caused by the loss of albu- 
men by evaporation. If the tongue is applied to the 
end of a fresh egg, it is felt to be completely cool; if 
applied to a stale egg, it is found to be warm, be- 
cause the albumen of the new egg, being in contact 
with th(> shell, absorbs the heat of the tongue more 
rapidly than the air contained in the shell of the 
stale egg. By intercepting the air and preventing 
it from penetrating the shell, so as not to kill the 
germ and prevent its hatching, the egg can be pre- 
served longer than in any other way. There have 
been obtained, says a French writer, chickens liatch- 
ed from eggs kept for two years in varnish (glaze.) 
This, he states, may be thus prepared: Dissolve some 
gum-lac in a sufficient quantity of alcohol to make a 
slight glaze; put in each egg, and when all the eggs 
are completely dry, pack them in bran, wool or saw- 
dust, taking care to place the large end upwards, 
and preventing them from damage or rolling about. 
When the eggs are wanted, carefully remove the 
glaze with some alcohol, and they will be found in the 
same state as when they were enveloped. This 
method is said to be the best and the most sure that 
has yet been tried. 

Capons as a Source of Profit. 

Our i-eadei-s who are experimenting with caponiz- 
iiig will be interested in what the Poultry AW^rrsays 
at-)out Eastern prices and methods. It says that 
capons in New York city sold at 22 cents per pound 
on .lanuary 1st, and they will be in demand until 
May or June. When we consider that a capon grows 
larger, and can be more easily kept than entire cocks 
or cock(>rels, the subject of caponizing all males is 
worthy of consideration. A cajxin that is well bred 
can be made to weigh 12 pounds, worth $2.50, while 
a cock of the same age may only weigh eight pounds 
and bring but 50 cents. This difference is great, and 
the profit on a capon is greater than on a sheep. It 
is hardly necessary for us to discuss the fact that 
capons will pay. The great drawback is a lack of 
knowledge by farmers of pro])erly performing the [ 
operation. Would it not pay some young man in | 
each community to place hims(4f under instruction, 
and learn how to caponize, in order that he may do 
the work for himself and neighbors? In New Jersey, 
l^arties make a business of travelling over quite an [ 
i^xtent of territory in order to caponize all males set | 
apart for that purpose, asking only a small fee, from 
which they derive a large sum, and at the same time 
they add hundreds of dollars to the value of poultry. 
We recently witnessed the caponizing of nearly a 1 
thousand .young cockerels by one operator, and the 
loss was only one bird, and not a single one has died 
since. While all operators may not be as expert as 
this one, yet practice will, in a short time, render an 
operator so efficient as to reduce any possibility of 
loss to tlie lowest minimum. ' 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

{Continued from page 3.) 

in Pullman cars. If the railroad companies should 
be under any real obligation to the Pullman Com- 
pany in the matter of operating its cars, it would be 
as nothing in contrast with the larger obligation to 
carry the U. S. Mails and to perform the usual car- 
rying business of the country, which could be done 
with entire efficiency without the use of the boy- 
cotted cars. 

In the second stage of the fight, when the issue 
became a direct one between the S. P. Co. and its 
men, it became in the view of the unionists a contest 
for ])rinciple and self-protection. If it be granted 
that a man may be discharged for acting in accord- 
ance with the commands of his union, then the vital 
principle which lies at the basis of organized labor is 
gone. Unless this principle be recognized, there 
would be no point or advantage in union, and the 
men would become mere ciphers, to be used as the 
railway managers saw fit. And under such a sys- 
tem, as the men view it, they might as well be 

Now, the right of a man to use what is his own 
as he sees fit, dependent only upon considera- 
tions of humanity and the related rights of others, 
is recognized by law and conceded by universal 
judgment. It is the basis of that individual 
identity and liberty upon which modern civilization, 
government and religion rest. The right of one man 
to do with his capital and of another to do with his 
labor that which suits himself, provided it does no 
violence to his obligations to others, is beyond ques- 
tion. Therefore it follows that the employer has a 
right to discharge liis men and lock up his shops; and 
as ti'uly it follows that the employe has the right to 
quit work — to strike — where the terms of his en- 
gagement do not suit him. Reasonableness, 
prudence, kindliness and many other consider- 
ations of decency and propriety enter into such 
proceedings; but they do not and cannot limit the 
basic rights as outlined above. As a matter of rea- 
sonableness and humanity trainmen ought not by an 
arbitrary policy to plunge the country into distress; 
but in the present instance they deny that they 
have done it. Their boycott was not upon ordinary 
passeng(>r and freight trains, but only upon Pull- 
man cars. It has been all along, they declare, and 
is now, within the power of the company to o])erate 
its trains as usual, minus the Pullman cars. If the 
mails are sto])ped, if traffic is paralyzed, if the coun- 
try suffers, it is. they declare, the fault of the rail- 
road company, which accepted this responsibility 
through its wish to aid with the Pullman company 
in its controversy with its brakemen. 

There is, in our judgment, reason in this claim. 
The railroad company has had it in its power any 
time these five days past to break the blockade — to 
send its trains forward — but it has declined to do it, 
because of its engagements with the Pullman Com- 
pamy. Strange, it seems to us, that it .should hold 
such an engagement as superior to and more binding 
than its obligation to the people of California! Its 
managei's see the mails stopped, they see traffic of 
every sort at a standstill, they see our fruit rotting in 
their cars and in our orchards, but they stubbornly 
declare that not until the men will agree to haul the 
Pullman cars shall the transjmrtation service be re- 
sumed. They will have the whole loaf of their con- 
tention or the people shall have no bi-ead. 

Mr. Huntington supposes a case in connection with 
the Baldwin I^ocomotive Works — as above quoted — 
but the analogy is not exact. In the matter of a loco- 
motive, it is profitable to the Locomotive Company 
only when it is sold; and it ceases to be I'elated in 
any way to that company after it leaves their shops. 
It is very different in the case of the cars of the Pull- 
man Company, i)ossession of which is not parted with 
when it leaves their shops, but which are operated 
under their management for their continuing profit. 
To boycott a locomotive of Baldwin make could in no 
way damage the Baldwin Company, but to boycott a 
Pullman car is a direct way of reaching the Pullman 
Company. This is a distinction- and it is a vital one 
— which Mr. Huntington ignores. 

Let us, as Mr. Huntington hiis done, use tlu; uame 

and business of Mr. A. T. Hatch, the fruitgrower and 
shipper, for the sake of illustration. Suppose you— 
the reader — be in the business of fruit hauling for Mr. 
Hatch and suppose he has entrusted you with a 
wagon load of perishable fruit for delivery to market. 
Suppose you direct your hired driver to hitch up and 
draw to market not only Mr. Hatch's load of fruit 
but another wagon as well. Suppose he declines for 
any reason or no reason to haul the second wagon, 
but annomices his willingness to haul the fruit. In 
this situation would you be justified in declaring that 
he should take both wagons or neithei-? Would you 
be justified in your wish to discipline youi- ser- 
vant, to throw over your obligation to Mr. Hatch 
and to allow his property to rot? If you think you 
would be, turn the illustration about; imagine Mr. 
Hatch the carrier, yourself the owner of the goods; 
and then ask yourself if Mr. Hatch would be justified 
in sacrificing your property for the purpose of making 
a point in the management of his business. You 
would, we think, declare that his immediate and 
foremost duty was the protection of your perishable 
freight and that the question of discipline should b(^ 
subordinated and postponed. 

As it looks to us, the position of the S. P. Co. in 
its relations to the California public is a most blame- 
worthy one. It is allowing every interest dependent 
upon transportation — and in this age all interests are 
in a measure so dependent — to suffer and languish, 
that it may stand in with an associated corporation. 
It makes choi(;e between a petty contract obligation 
to the Pullman Co. and the infinitely larger and 
more vital obligation to the people of California; and 
it is a choice not warranted by any princijile that is 
worth a moment's serious consideration. 

But ai)art from and independent of the rights and 
wrongs of the case, there is in this great battle a 
lesson which cannot but be impressed profoundly 
\i\)on the American people. Not alone in California, 
but in every other State, business is at a standstill, 
interests, public and private, are suffering — and 
why? Because of the alternating aggression and 
stubboi-nness of employer and employed in the rail- 
way service of the country. A private quai-rcl, in 
which the public is in no wise interested, is being 
fought out at the public's ex])ense. It is unnecessary, 
unreasonable — unspeakable! To us it ajipears the cul- 
minating demonstration of the inefficiency of private 
management in the administration of the riulroads of 
the country. As society and business are now organ- 
ized, all interests hang upon facility of transportation; 
and jwe submit to the judgment of our readers if 
these interests be not too vast and too vital to be 
entrusted safely in the hands of private ownership, 
and thus subject to the whims either of men like 
Mr. Huntington on the one hand or Mr. Debs on the 
other? It is high time our transportation system 
were put beyond chances which rest upon the human 
passions of selfishness, aggressiveness, stuiibornness 
and pride. 

Later. — Tuesday evening. — As the Riir.m, goes to 
pi'ess, news comes of collisions between strikers and 
"scab" train hands at Oakland, and of a free fight 
between the sti-ikers and the [J. S. Marshal a1- Sac- 
ramento. In attempting to protect a train carrying 
U. S. mail, it is reported that Marshal Baldwin was 
knocked down and that his ])istol was taken from 

Poi- these acts of violence on the part of the 
strikers there can be no apology, though it is only 
fair to say that they are the miauthorized acts of 
individuals contrary to the instructions of their 
leaders and condemn(>d by the Unions. However, 
they must stand against the caus(> of the strikers. 

At the request of Marshal Baldwin, U. S. trooj)s 
have been ord(>red to Sacramento and Los Angeles 
to protect the transportation of the mails. 

To-day's events — including the dispatch of troops — 
has increased the passion on both sides, and the situ- 
ation is deemed criticiil. Both sides continue 
defiant — and the public continues to suffer th(> con- 

A LETTER from Black's says that many fields in 
that vicinity "are turning oft' twelve to fifteen sacks 
of wheat this year. Indeed, Northern Yolo seems to 
be the banner wlieat-growing section of the State 
thLs year,'" 

July 7, 1894. 


Seein' Things. 

I ain't afeared uv snakes, or toads, or bugs, or 

worms or mice. 
An' thinps 'at girls are skcered uv I think are 

awful nice 1 

I'm pretty brave, I guess; an' yet I hate to go 
to bed, 

For, when I'm tucked up warm an' snug an' 

when my prayers are said. 
Mamma telis me" "Happy dreams!" an' takes 

away the light 
An' leaves me lyin' all alone an' seein' things 

at night 1 

Sometimes they're in the corner, sometimes 
they' re by the door. 

Sometimes they're all a standin' in the mid- 
del uv the floor: 

Sometimes they are a sittiu' down, sometimes 
they're walking 'round 

So softly and so creepy like they never make a 
sound ! 

Sometimes they are as black as ink, an' other 

times they're white, 
But the color ain't no difference when you see 

things at night I 

Once, when I licked a feller 'at had just moved 

on our street. 
An' father sent me up to bed without a bit to 


I woke up in the dark an' saw things standin' 
in a row, 

A lookin' at me cross-eyed an' p'intin' at me — 
so ! 

Oh, my! I was so skeered that time I never 

slep a mite — 
It's almost alluz when I'm bad that I see 

things at night ! 

Luckv thing I ain't a girl or I'd be skeered to 
death ! 

Bcin' I'm a boy, I duck my head an' hold my 
breath ; 

An' I am, oh ! so sorry I'm a naughty boy, an' 

1 promise to be better an' say my pi-ayers 
again ! 

flran'ma tells me that's the only way to make 
it right. 

When a feller has been wicked an' sees things 
at night I 

An' so when other naughty boys would coax 
me into sin, 

I try to skwush the Tempter's voice 'at urges 
me within ; 

An' when they' s pie for supper or cakes 'at's 

big an' nice, 
I want to- - but I do not pass my plate f'r them 

things twice I 
No, ruther let starvation wipe me slowly out 

o' sight 

Than I should keep a livin' on an' seein' things 
at night 1 -Kuutur Firld. 

The Surprise Party. 

H F2RE S Koinj^ to be a yood 
hard frost to-niyht," said 
Doacoii Cummino's as he 
))ull('d tho ra<^f^f'd hutTalo 
i-ob(> over his knees, 
touched uj) old Diek with the extreme 
point of his whij)-lash. 

■'It is cold," asserted Clara, her blue 
eyes intently fixed on the evenincf star. 

The Deacon was yrini and hard feat- 
ured with a nose that reminded one of 
Cape Cod on the map, and a complexion 
like a badly tanned piece of leather. 

Clara was j)lump and pretty, with 
skin like a rose-leaf, lon<jr-lashed eyes, 
and a dimple which no one had ever 
been able exactly to locate. 

"Hey! " said the deacon. ''What's 
that air in your lap, Clara'.' A nand- 
box? I didn't buy nothin' that would 
likely be packed in a bandbox." 

"No, I know you didn't," said Clara. 
Its a bonnet for mother. There's the 
surprise party, you know, at the par- 
sonaf^e to-night, and I am going to trim 
up something decent for her to wear." 

"A — bonnetl" The deacon jerked 
the reins in a way that had nearly col- 
lided old Dick with the churchyai-d wall. 

"Ain't your mother got a bonnet? It 
does seem, Clara, as if money burned a 
hole in you young folksos pocket." 

"Got a bonnet'.' Of course she's got 
a bonnetl" retorted she. The same she 
had for five years, until I'm sick of the 
brown satin bows and the black j)oppies 
on it. Mother's a real pretty old lady, 
father, or she would be if you'd give her 
a chance." 

"And who's to pay for all this finery "i*" 
demanded the deacon after an ominous 

"It is'nt finery, father, its only bare 
decency; and I'm going to pay for it. " 
said Clara. 

"Hvtmph!" grunted the deacon. "I'm 
glad you feel so rich. 1 don't. Ge up, 
Dick, or I'll let you know I'm here, ye 
lazy, idle crceturl " 

"The bonnet was only fifty cents — I 
couldn't let mother go to the surprise 

party with that horrid old brown 


"I don't myself see no occasion for 
goin' gallivantin' around to surprise 
parties— the hull kit and lx)odle of us I 
mean! Of course folks expect to see 
you there, bein's I'm a deacon." 

"And everybody else will be there," 
I quickly retorted Clara, "and I don't 
mean mother shall stay at home. She 
gets so few chances to see anything or 
anybody! There! you tii)ped over the 
vinegar jug. father, with Dick canter- 
ing in that absurd fashion, I knew 
something would ha])pen." 

"Whoa, Dick— whoa! " bawled the old 
man. "There ain't nothin' broke, luckily 
I didn't realiz(! we were goin' so fast, 
an the roads is froze pretty stiff. You 
see I'd calkilated to carry a nice bag o' 
dried apples for my share, and if mother 
goes — " 

"I dare say we can find .something for 
mother to carry," said she. I shall take 
a ten-dollar gold-piece. My salary was 
paid last week, and 1 .shall never forget 
how good Parson Pottei- used to be 
when I was a child." 

"Ten dollars! " echoed the deacon. 
•'Be my ears a-deceiving of me"'"' 

"Yes, ten dollars. It s my own, isn't 
it, to spend or keep, as 1 please"?"" 

"It's a downriglit fiingin' away of 
money!" gasped the deacon. ''Is the 

gal crazy'?' 

"Here we are, " cried Clara, joyously, 
sprmging over the wheel. 

Mrs. Cummings hurried, smiling, to 
the door; hut the deacon looked sour 
enough as he drove around to the barn. 

"I hadn't thought of going. " faltered 
Mrs. Cmnmings. 

"But you must go. mother, " said 
Clara, with the bow of ribbon twisted 
around her finger. 

''I hain't nothin' to take. " 
"There's the loaf of pliuncake that 
you baked for Simday's tea. Nothing 
in the world could be nicer. " 

"I ve got a piece o' blue gingham — 
three yards — that I hain't made up into 
ajji-ons yet. Would that do"? " wistfully 
questioned the poor woman. 

"It would be just lovely! " jirotested 
Clara, and then she confided to her 
mother the secret of the ten dollar gold 

''You see," said- she, "I feel somehow 
as if T were paying a debt to these dear 
old peo])le, who have worked so hard 
all th(>se y(>ars for so ])itiful a salary. 
And I've ])ut the money in the little, 
fiat shoi)i)ing bag — just like the one I 
gave you, dear— and I shall slip it into 
Mrs. Potter s hand. Won t she be sur- 
prised when she comes to open?" 

Clara Cummings, however, had an 
auditor to their sweet filial confidences 
of whom she little knew. 

"It's sinful." said the deacon to him- 
self— "absolutely a-temptin' o' Provi- 
dence! T(>n-doHar gold pieces! Ging- 
hams! Loaves o' cake, not to say 
nothin' of the dried apples I was calki- 
latin' to fetch! I— don't — see" 

Suddenly the deacon's dull ey(\s 
brightened. He came to a dead stand- 
still on the stairs. The deacon had an 

Going softly to his wife's bureau, he 
abstracted the little leather reticule 
which Clara had given her on her birth- 
day, and quietly substituted it for 
Clara's lying on the pillow of her bed, 
first, however, placing in its outside 
pocket a squarely folded one-dollar bill. 

''That'll be a deal more suitable," 
thought he. "The bags is just alike 
and Clara won't know the difference. 
And I'll keep this ere gold piece to- 
ward the shinglin' of the barn ruff. 
Goodness knows. I need money a great 
deal more than Parson Potter does, 
and Clara ain't no business to be so 
wasteful and extravagant. " 

And he went down stairs chuckling 
softly to himself. 

''Ahit supper ready?" said he. 
"What! Cold corned beef and parsnips? 
.\nd biscuit! There wan't no need of 
anything but bread and cheese, seein' 
we'r(> goin' to liave a slap-up supper to 
the par.sonage. Here, Clara, put this 
meat on the shelf for br(>akfast to-mor- 
row mornin'. And set them preset rves 
back in the closet! Humph! We'd all 
fetch up in the poorhouse if we went 
ahead in this fa.shion.'' 

Mrs. Cummings would have enjoyed 

her evening -at the parsonage if her 

husband had not glared so severely at 
her new bonnet. 

"Gloves, eh?" said he, as she climbed 
out of the wagon. "Squire Sillcock's 
wife don't wear no gloves. I'll go baO 
them cost fifty cents! Hump! " 

"But they're mended, father — and 
I've had 'em a year! " 

"Hump!" was all the reply he vouch- 

The parson, a withered little man in 
a threadbare black suit, received his 
guests in a truly Christian spirit of 

"I hope there'll be enough for them 
to eat," whispered he to his better half, 
a tall, pale woman. 

"I guess likely there will." she re- 
sponded. "Most of 'em has brought 
victuals — and very Httle else. " 

Ev(>rything was there — plates and 
di.shes which matched nothing; brass 
warming pans, of no use except for 
senseless decorations; tissue ]iaper flow- 
ers and gruesome worsted work; 
painted banners and embroidered 
"splashers; " cro<'het lace and damaged 
tidies; and as they kept arriving Mrs. 
Potter's heart sank correspondingly. 

Presently .she came to Clara with 
tears in her faded eyes. 

"Oh, Clara!"" she faltered, "how can 
I thank you enough for your kindness, 
your noble generosity? Mr. Potter is 
as grateful as I am, but his voice is 
.simply gone. He can't speak." 
The deacon hugged himself. 
"I knowed that dollar bill would be 
plenty," said he. "Bless me! there's 
that young Lawyer Harrison, the par- 
son"s nephew, goin" off to the study 
with Clara. He once had quite a no- 
tion to the gal. Wonder if they re ; 
goin" to company keepin' again? Kind 
o' singular he should be here to-night. | 
Folks say it was him wholjrought the 
handsome, black walnut desk in par- 
.son s study. Strange how (>x1 i-avagant 
folks will be! "Si)ecially young folks. 
Kh\ what s that they re sayin"? A fire i 
— and in oui- direction! Now, 1 wonder 
if Clara didn t leave the taller candle 
burnin" hi her room an" the cat knocked 
it over? And there was that hundred 
dollars Di-. I'ettibonc paid me for hay, } 
in the house. Polly, look here, " to his 
wife, ''do you see that blaze? My eyes 
ain't as good as they was. Is it any- 
wheres out our way?" 

"La, no. deacon," said his wife. "It's I 
only little Peter Pettibone's bonfire." 

"I m glad on"t,"' said the deacon. 
"Polly, what did you do with that hun- 
dred dollars I give you to keep for me 
till I got a chance to bank it?" 
Mrs. Cummings looked puzzled. 
"1 ])ut it in my little reticule — the 
one Clara gave me,"' said she — "in the 
bureau drawer. Where vou goin'. dea 

"I just remember that I didn't fod- 
der the cows afore I started," said he. 
"I guess I'd jest better stej) home an' 
look arter 'em. Gimme the key of the 
bureau drawer, Polly." 

On the outer doorstep he paused, 
however. There was a little buzz and 
hum of gossip in the air. 

"Mrs. Potter has been cryin' ev(>r 
since,'' said the widow Purkiss. " Teai's 
o' real, ginooine joy, you know. .She 
.somehow can't get over it. A hundred 
dollars ! And fi-om little Clara Cum- 
mings that teaches school over to 
Green's Mills. Folded away in a leather 
bag with steel trimmin's. " 

For a second or so the deacon stood 
motionless as the Sphinx. Then he 
went back into the house. 

" I guess,'" muttered he, there ain't 
no use in my goin' home to git them 
may as well stay 
I'ts like to cost 

"No,. don't do that!" precipitately 

uttered the deacon. "Jest let things 
be as they are. I — I'd ruther not hev 
no more .said about it ! " 

And he could not repress a sepulchral 

"I always knew father had a gcMier- 
ous heart. " said Mrs. Cummings. ''And 
the Potters deserve it, if anybody does. 
And now, Clara dear, we must talk 
over your wedding things."' 

" The leas tsaid, the soonest mended, " 
said Deacon Cummings. "One thing's 
l)lum sartin". though — you won t never 
catch me at any more surprise parties! " 
— Saturday Night. 

Fashion Notes. 

cattle foddered. I 
and eat my supper, 
me enough." 

Clara's face was 
came to breakfast 
'' Father," she said, 

radiant when she 
the next moi-ning. 
" two such strange 

things have happened! Aleck Hai-rison 
has asked me to be his wife, and. " 
added Clara, "our two leather reticules 
somehow got mixed up last night, and 
instead of the ten-dollar gold piece I 
had intended. I gave Mrs. Potter 
mother"s bag with a hundred dollars in 
it. Of course you intended it for a 
.surprise, for the gold piece was gone 
out of the other bag. Father, dear, it 
,wa,s a noble act, and I shall explain it 
all to Mrs. Potter. ■ 

Notwithstanding all that has b(>en 
said about shirt waists, says r'x 
H(i:;<ir. another chapter could be written 
about them. .\t Tuxedo, Lakewood, 
and by visitors in country houses, they 
are worn in the morning, afternoon and 
ev(>ning, day after day. With one oi- 
two well-cut skirts, black, beige or 
white, of canvas, crepon. taffeta or 
moire, and a variety of pretty waists, 
one can be suitably dressed for most 
occasions, and have a varied wardrobe. 

In the morning, Madras or cotton 
cheviot shirts of some becoming color 
are worn with a jacket and skirt of 
Oxford-gray wcmiI. beige or black can 
vas, or tan covert suitings. The shirt 
is cut in simplest tailor fashion with a 
yoke back and full front, or i-lse with a 
stiffly starched shield-shaped front with 
standing collar. The nai-row necktie is 
of black satin tied in a small bow, and 
the black belt ribbon has a buckle and 
slide of silver or gold. 

For the afternoon, when making calls, 
the silk waist worn is of checked taffeta 
or of cross stri))es. or else with chine 
flowers. The designs for these are 
most elaborate, among the favorite lie- 
ing those with drapery across the bust 
below a yoke of tucks or a lace collar. 
The Paquin waist, as it is called, is 
especially rhic in cheeked silks. It has 
bias folds across the front like a yok(\ 
with ecru muslin (>mhroidery drooping 
below, while a collar of the einhi-oiderv 
crosses the back and is pointed on the 
wide sleeves. This is handsome with 
white or beige canvas skirts, or with 
taffeta of the color of the check. 

The chiffon waists worn in the evening 
are charming when of light colors and 
made very full over a silk lining. Some- 
times they are striped with in.serfions 
of Valencienn(>s or of guii)in-e. ])assing 
around or lengthwise, as is most becom- 
ing to the wearer. There are still many 
accordion-plaited chiffon waists, while 
others are mad(> of the transparent 
fluited silks, put on with great fullness 
in the neck, th(> shoulders and at the 
belt. The drooping effect is 
given to these for very slight figures. 
"VVlien ribbon is used for trimming it is 
of the glossiest satin, about three 
inches wide, drawn u]) from the belt to 
each shoulder in front and back and 
knotted there. Elhnw sleeves of two 
large i)uffs, with a smaller puff at the 
end and a ribbon bi-acelet, are very 
effective in these gauzy fabrics. The 
high collar may lie of the ribbon, or else 
of the material drapped around the 

George Wm. Curtis on 


The speech of George WiUiam Curtis, 
in the New York State Constitutional 
Convention in 18(i7. has been printed as 
one of the pamphlets issued by the com- 
mittee in Rochestei'. One portion of 
his speech was directed against the 
phrase. " Provided that idiots, lunatics, 
persons under guardianship, felons, wo- 
men, and persons convicted of bribery, 
etc., shall not be entitled to vote," and 
it has been considered an oratorical 
gem : 

I wish to know, sir, and I ask in the name of 
the |X)litical justice and consistency of this 
State, why it is that half of the adult popula- 
tion, as vitally interested in good government 
as the other half, who own property, manage 
estates, jMiy taxes, who discharge all the du- 
ties of go(3d citizens, and are perfectly intelli- 
gent and capable, are absolutely deprived of 
political power and classed with lunatics and 

The boy will became a man and a voter; the 
lunatK^ may emerge froin the cloud and re- 
sume his rights'; the' idiot, plastic ondtfr the 

July 7, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

tender hand of modern science, may be molded 
into the full citizen ; the criminal, whose hand 
still drips with the blood of his country and 
liberty, may be pardoned and restored ; but 
no age, no wisdom, no peculiar fitness, no pub- 
lic service, no effort, no desii-e, can i-emove 
from woman this enormous and extraordinary 
disability. Upon what reasonable gi-ounds 
does it rest ? Upon none whatever. It is con- 
trary to natural justice, to the acknowledged 
and traditional principles of the American 
government, and to the most enlightened po- 
litical economy. 

Hints to Housekeepers. 

A sandbag is a useful household arti- 
cle. Its virtues are equal, if not su- 
perior, to the hot-water bag, and the 
cost is considerably less. The sand 
should be fine and clean, and should be 
thoroughly cleaned out before being 
bagged. It is better to cover the flan- 
nel bag which holds the sand with a 
cotton one, as it prevents the sand from 
sifting out. 

In preparing a turkey for roasting, 
sponge the inside of it thoroughly with 
several waters, and then rinse with 
water in which a teaspoonful of baking- 
soda has been added. Wipe dry and 
season well with salt and pepper. The 
bird is quite done if when pierced with 
a fork the liquid runs out perfectly 
clear. The least tinge of red indicates 
that it is underdone. 

Rice water is recommended in which 
to wash challies. Boil a pound of rice 
in five quarts of water. Cool it to the 
tepid point; then put in the goods and 
and wash well, using the rice as soap. 
Pour off the water, leaving the rice sed- 
iment. Rub the challie well in this, 
rinsing in the poured-off water. Use 
no rinsing water, but hang' the materi- 
als to dry direct from the rice water. 

Simple as the operation may seem, 
there is a way to clean windows and a 
way not to clean them. The following 
suggestions may be of use to .some, as 
they save both time and labor: Choose 
a time when the sun does not shine on 
the window, else it will dry streaked, 
and no amount of rubbing can prevent 
it. Brush off all the dust inside and 
out. Clean the wookwork around the 
glass first. Use for this warm water 
and ammonia; do not use soap. Wipe 
dry with cotton cloth. Do not use 
linen, as it leaves lint on the glass 
when dry. Polish with tissue or old 


Ti-aveler: "Now, what ought little 
boys to say when a gentleman gives 
them a nickel for carrying his bag ?" 
Small boy. " 'Taint enough." 

Young wife : "I took great pains 
with that cucumber salad, John, and I 
hope you enjoyed it." Husband (anx- 
iously): "I'm afraid, my dear, that I 
took great pains with it, too." 

Landlady: "This is a very bright, 
pleasant room, and" — Mr. Henpeck: 
"Well, I'll have to see my wife first; 
for she may want a room where she 
can have the morning sun in the after- 
noon. " 

An old couple were walking down 
street the other day, reading signs, 
when they ran across one which the 
old man read thus: Johnson's Shirt 
Store. " Well, I declare!" exclaimed 
the old lady; " I wonder how he tore 

Young doctor: "Here I've had my 
shingle out two weeks, and not a case 
yet. I've been sitting here like pa- 
tience on a monument." Friend: 
" Never mind; you will eventvially get 
a chance to put the mommients on the 
patients. " — Philadelphia Record. 

Little Frank had long importuned 
his father to buy him a pony. At last 
papa said: "If I were to get you a 
pony, Frank, you would'nt know what 
to "feed him.'. "Oh, yes, I would, 
papa," replied the boy, " I'd feed him 
on horseradish."— Pittsburg Chronicle. 

Elder sister: " Coniej Stanley, take 
your powder like a little man. You 
never hear me making any complaint 
about such a little thing as that." 
Stanley (peevishly) : ' ' Neither would I 
if I could daub it .on my face. It's 
swallerin' it that I object to," — jBi'pok- 
lynLifeV ~ ..,,.»:•,. 


'When Ma 'Was Near. 

I didn't have one bit o' fear 
'Bout nuthin' 'tall, when ma was near. 
The clouds could bank up in the sky. 
Or 'fore the wind in white streaks fly. 
But somehow 'nuther I didn't keer 
A snap for them — when ma was near. 

Goblins that sneak at night to sk>'er 
Us little folks — when ma was near 
Jes' fairly flew, and would'nt stay 
'Round there one bit, but runned away ; 
An' didn't seem to be one bit queer — 
They couldn't help it when ma was near. 

It wasn't bad to be sick, where 
You felt the joy that ma was near ; 
The throbs o' pain couldn't stay much 
Under the cooling of her touch, 
But seemed to stand in mortal fear 
Of ever' thing, when ma was near. 

— Edward N. Waod. 

A Tomato Story. 

SLEASE have another to- 
mato, Johnny," said 
grandma, as she saw the 
last red slice disappear 
from Johnny's plate; "I 
think you like tomatoes." 
"I do," said Johnny. I 
like them raw and stewed and baked 
and 'most every way." 

"I wonder if you would like them the 
way I ate them last summer in Wyo- 
ming?" Cousin May said. "They were 
not plenty there; and we ate them like 
fruit, with cream and sugar." 

"Well," Johnny said, "I'd just like to 
try them that way!" 

"Why, bless the child!" grandma 
said. We'll have some for supper. 
That's the way we always used to eat 
them, but it's gone out of fashion now." 

"Didn't you like tomatoes when you 
were little, grandma?" Johnny asked, 
as he saw grandma looking at his plate 
with a .smile in her eyes. 

"No," grandma said: "but that's be- 
cause I was a big girl before I ever 
tasted them. I never saw any until I 
was thirteen years old. 

"I can remember it so well ! A peddler 
who came by our farm once a mouth, 
briiagmg buttons and thread and such 
little thmgs to sell, brought the seed to 
my mother. 

"He used to cari-y seeds and cuttmgs 
of plants from one farmer's wife to the 
next, and they liked to see him come. 
He could tell all the news, too, from up 
the road and down. 

"One spring morning he came, and 
after mother had bought all she needed 
from his big red wagon, and he had fed 
his horses, and was sitting by the 
kitchen fire waiting for his dmner, he 
began fumbling about in his big pockets 
in search of something. 

"Finally, he drew out a very small 
package, and handed it to mother. 

" 'I've brought you some love-apple 
seeds,' he said. 'I got them in the city 
and I gave my sister half, and saved 
half for you. ' 

" 'Thank you kindly,' mother said, as 
she looked at the little yellow seeds. 
'I'm right glad to get them. What 
kmd of a plant is the love-apple?' 

" 'Well,' said the i:)eddler, 'the man 
who gave me the seeds had his plants 
last year m a sunny fence-corner. 

"'The flowers are small; but the 
fruit is bright red, and is very jDretty 
among the dark green leaves. You 
can't eat the fruit, though; it's poison- 
ous. It's something new. The man 
who gave me the seeds got them from 
the captain of a ship from vSouth Amer- 
ica. They grow wild there.' 

" So mother planted her ' love-apple' 
seeds in a warm corner, and they grew; 
and the little yellow blossoms came, and 
aftei' them the pretty red fruit. 

" We children would go and look at 
it and talk about it, and wonder if it 
would hurt us if we just tasted it. 

"One day mother heard us talking 
about it, and she called us away and 
told us that if we could not be satisfied 
to look at the pretty fruit without 
wanting to eat it, she would have to 
pull up her ' love-apple' vines, and 
throw them away. 

' ' We knew she would hate to do that, 
for no one else about had them, and she 
was very proud of them. So we kept 
away from them; and the vine grew 
and blossomed, and the red showed in 

new places every day. The birds didn't 
seem at all afraid of the poison fruit, 
and ate all they wanted of it. 

' ' One day in the early fall my uncle 
came from New York to make a visit. 
When he went out in the garden he 
stopped in surprise. ' Why, Mary, 
what fine tomato vines you have ! ' he 
said to mother. ' Where did you get 
them ? ' 

" 'We call them love-apples,' mother 
said; and then she told him how the 
peddler had brought the seeds But, 
when my uncle found we were afraid to 
eat them he had a hearty laugh at us; 
and then he told mother how to get 
some ready for supper. 

"And that was my first taste of to- 
mato. Johnny," grandma said, "and 
you shall have some the same way, with 
cream and sugar, for supper. " — Youth's 


Soft Gingerbread. — One cup each of 
molasses, sugar and butter, three cups 
of flour, three eggs, one tablespoonful 
each of ginger, allspice and cinnamon, 
one teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a 
cup of cream or milk and added the last 

Charlotte Russe Cake. — One and 
one-half pints of cold, rich cream; 
sweeten and flavor with vanilla to taste. 
Beat until quite stitt', then add a quarter 
of a box of Cox's gelatine dissolved in a 
Uttle water, and continue beating until 
it is stift' enough to put between layers 
of sponge cake. 

Boiled Potatoes with Cream 
Sauce. — Wash and scrape new jjota- 
toes and put over the flre in boiling 
water. When done, drain and shake 
thoroughly in a current of air. Put in 
a hot dish and pour over them a cup of 
cream sauce, to which has been added a 
tablespoonful of chopjied parsley. 

T()M.\To AND Mutton Pie. — Butter a 
deep dish, put in a layer of sliced toma- 
toes, then a layer of mutton cut in 
rather small pieces. sprinkl(> lightly 
with flne bread crumbs, and season witifi 
pepper, salt and bits of butter. Con- 
tinue until the dish is full, having the 
crumbs foi- the top. Bake an hour and 
a half. 

Boiled Beets. — Wash the beets care- 
fully, and do not cut off the roots, for 
by .so doing the juice escapes and the 
color is spoiled. Boil them several 
hours; the time varies accordmg to the 
age and season. When young and small 
they require about an hour. When 
they are done, pour off the hot water 
and cover them with cold water. Rub 
off the skin, cut them in rather thin 
slices, and season with plenty of fresh 
butter, salt and pepper, and, if you like, 
a tablespoonful or less of vinegar. 

Rennet Custard. — Beat the yolks of 
three eggs with two spoonfuls of sugar 
and whip the whites to a stiff' froth. 
Put this into the dish in which it is to 
be served, and add one quart of milk 
and a few drops of vanilla or peach 
flavoring, and when these are well 
mixed, stir in a spoonful and a half of 
rennet wine. In cold weather the milk 
should be warmed a little. It will hard- 
en soon, perhaps in flve minutes. Some- 
times a spoonful will be sufficient. It 
is more economical to warm the milk a 
little, sweeten it, and add only the ren- 
net wine and grate nutmeg over the 

Corn Starch Pudding. — One pint of 
milk, two tablespoonfuls of corn starch, 
a scant half cupful of sugar, whites of 
three or four eggs, a little salt and 

flavoring to taste. Beat the eggs to a 
stiff froth. Dissolve the corn starch in 
a little of the milk, stir the sugar mto 
the remainder of the milk, which place 
on the flre. When it begins to boil add 
the dissolved corn starch. Stir con- 
stantly for a few moments, when it will 
become a .smooth paste; now stir in the 
beaten whites of the eggs and let it re- 
mam a little longer to cook the eggs; 
flavor with vanilla and pour into a mold, 
or, flrst, before pouring into the mold, 
add one-half a cocoanut, grated. Serve 
with whipped cream aromd it, or a 
sauce of boiled custard made with the 
yolks of the eggs. 


A laugh is worth a hundred groans 
in any market. — Lamb. 

Love never turns back because it 
hears a lion roar. — Ram's Horn. 

Hatred stirreth up strifes, but love 
covereth all transgressions. — Proverb. 

Life, however short, is made still 
shorter by the waste of time. — Johnson. 

Nothing is more simple than great- 
ness, indeed. To be simple is to be 
great. — Emerson. 

Men do not sin because they are 
blind, but because they shut their eyes. 
— L. C. Randolph. 

He that worries himself with the 
dread of possible contingencies will 
never be at rest. — Johnson. 

The less water there is in a bottle, 
the more noise it makes coming out. 
Some men are like bottles. — Anon. 

It is not enough to have great quali- 
ties; we should also have the manage- 
ment of them. — La Rochefoucauld. 

Emulation is not rivalry. Emulation 
is the child of ambition; rival is the un- 
lovable daughter of envy. — Balzac. 

Life is a short day; but it is a work- 
ing day. Activity may lead to evil: 
but inactivity cannot be led to good. — 
Hannah More. 

When you have got to the end of 
your resources in planning and schem- 
ing how to get rich, pull oft' your coat 
and go to work. — White. 
Those who toil bravely are strongest; 

The humble and poor become great, 
And so from these brown-handed children 
Shall grow mighty I'ulers of state. 

M. H. Kraut. 

In activity we must find our joy, as 
well as glory; and labor, like every- 
thing else that is good, is its own re- 
ward.— E. P. Whipple. 

It is trial that proves one thing weak 
and another strong. A house built on 
the sand is, in fair weather, just as 
good as if builded on a rock. A cobweb 
is as good as the mightiest cable when 
there is no strain upon it. — H. W. 

Snap Shots. 

Learn to laugh; but not at a disgrun- 
tled rival. 

The man with the push beats the man 
with the pull any day. 

Man is naturally inclined to believe in 
his own whiskers. 

When a man sells one of his convic- 
tions he sells all of them. 

Some men tell lies because it is their 
only means of getting quoted. 

There is no rest for the man who does 
nothing to make himself tired. 

A wise man is one who knows when 
his prejudices are leading him astray. 

Men and women waste half their time 
commenting on each other's comments. 

Highest of all in Leavening Power. — Latest U. S. Gov't Report 




The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 7, 1894. 

An Indictment of Weeds. 

It is being clearly seen at the east 
and south that the sound doctrine in 
summer cultivation of the soil is that 
which California learned long ago, viz. : 
Keep the land level, and cultivate suffi- 
ciently, not only to kill all weeds, but 
to keep the surface mulched with fine 
loose soil. Speaking on this question at 
a Farmer's Institute at Columbus, O., 
Prof. Thos. F. Hunt made this striking j 
arraignment of weeds: ' 

What does cultivation do? It kills 
weeds and stirs the soil; two entirely 
different things, although stirring thi' 
soil kills the weeds. 

What harm do weeds do in a corn- 

First. They consume plant-food. A 
ton of pig-weed contains as much phos- 
phoric acid, twice as much nitrogen, 
and five times as much potash, as a ton 
of ordinary barn-yard manure. On the 
other hand, it is entirely possible to 
supply, in an available form, all the 
fertility that was used by the weeds. 
Yet, if you did so and allow the weeds 
to grow, you would not get nearly as \ 
good a crop of corn as you would if you 
applied no fertilizer and kept the land 
free from weeds; hence weeds must 
do something else. 

Second. Weeds shade the ground. 
They obstruct the sunlight, and hence, 
perhaps, make the soil cooler. Corn j 
needs plenty of warmth and sunshine. 
Potatoes, however, are raised success- 
fully when mulched; but who ever | 
heard of a good crop of potatoes in a 
weedy potato patch; hence weeds must 
do something else. 

Third. Weeds evaporate large quan- 
tities of water. Experiments made in 
Germany and England show that for 
each pound of dry substance produced 
in a growing plant about HOO pounds of 
water are evaporated or transpired by 
the plant. Different plants were ex- 
perimented with, and did not vary 
greatly in this capacity. The evapora- 
tion in a dry climate would be greater 
than in a humid one. and hence would 
probably be greater in this country 
than in Europe. 

I have known corn to increase in one 
week at the rate of 1300 pounds of dry 
matter per acre. This would require 
the evaporation of 345 tons of water — 
equal to three inches of rainfall. Weeds 
growing on the same land would also 
be pumping water out of the same 
reservoir, and rob the corn to the ex- 
tent of their evaporation. 

The yield of corn in a given field is 
controlled more largely, undoubtedly, 
by the rainfall than by any other 

What does stirring the soil do? 

First. It increases the plant food of 
the soil by causing the air to circulate 
more freely and by bringing the par- 
ticles of the soil into different relations 
one with the other. When a chemist 
wishes to increase the chemical action 
between two substances he stirs the 
compound. Roots not only cannot 
grow in the absence of oxygen, but 
oxygen is essential to the micro-organ- 
isms which are all the time making 
plant food available. 

Second. Stirring ordinarily makes 
the soil looser so that roots may pene- 
trate more readily. 

Care of Harness for Farm Horses. 

The capacity of the horse foi" work 
depends much upon his harness. Stiff 
harness tires and worries him. Oiling 
the harness will make it flexible and 
will also make it more durable. There 
is no better time for oiling harness than 
some stormy day on which outdoor work 
is forbidden by the weather. A mix- 
ture of three parts neat's-foot oil to one 
part of beef tallow, is a splendid appli- 
cation. A little lampblack may be 
added, to blacken the leather; and also 
a little castor oil. to prevent the mice 
from nibbling. But the best way to 
prevent the mice from nibbling the har- 
ness is to hang it in a tight closet and 
keep two or three good mousers about 
the bani. When the harness is being 

oiled, is the proper time 'to make any 
needed repairs. This work also can be 
done indoors on stormy days. It is cer- 
tainly much better to do it then, and 
not to have vexatious breaks when 
plowing is pressing to be done. Very 
nearly all the repairing that is neces- 
sarv can be done at home. It will pay 
to have on hand at all times a supply of 
linen thread, wax. a half dozen assorted 
needles, awls, and especially an assort- 
ment of copper rivets. Strengthening 
weak places will not only avoid vexa- 
tious breakages when one is very busy, 
but may also avoid runaways, not a few 
of which are caased by the" breaking of 
the harness. 

The Eastern Fruit Crop. 

190. Dutch 178, Austro-Hungarian 71, 
Italian fi7. Norwegian .')0, Ottoman 34, 
Spanish 2!). Russian 24. Portuguese 10, 
Egyptian 5. American 3, Belgian 1, 
Brazilian 1. Japanese 1. 

The report of the statistician of the 
Department of Agriculture for June 
says that a glance at the percentages 
of condition of peaches on June 1st is 
sufficient to show how disastrous the 
season has been thus far. As fruit 
does not recover from a low i-ondition 
early in its history as other products 
often do. it is safe to construe the ex- 
tremely low figures into a practical 
failure of the crop. The condition for 
1894 in the States producing the com- 
mercial crop, as compared with 1893, 
makes a poor showing for this year, as 

1893. 1894. 

104 ta 

93 l,i 

93 21 

63 15 


New Jersf.v 




Gi'orjrla w v 

Ohio ^* 

Mlchlsan 86 70 

California S.S 85 

The best prosi)ects east of the Rocky 
mountains are in New Jersey and 
Michigan. The condition of apples is 
somewhat better than that of peaches. 
In sections of New England, where the 
season is far enough advanced for the 
fact to be determined, prospects are 
unusually ]n-omising. In New York, 
trees have bloomed fully, but som(> 
counties report damage from frost and 
cold rains. A sudden decline in the 
conditions begins with New Jersc}' and 
Pennsylvania, due to the causes just 
stated, and the increased damage from 
the freezing weather of March farther 
south is clearly indicated. 

Weather Crop Bulletin. 

Sacra-mento, July 2. — Director Bar- 
wick of the California Weather Service 
in his crop bulletin for the week end- 
ing July 2d summarizes as follows: 

A heat deficiency is maintained along 
the coast, while in the interior valleys 
the heat is about normal, which has 
ripened fruit, and it is about all 
orchardists can do to kee]) it picked as 
fast as it ripens, and owing to the tie- 
up on the railroads the greater portion 
of the crop will have to be dried, which 
cannot be done to the entire satisfac- 
tion of the fruit-growers. 

The weather during the past week 
has been of the very best, with plenty 
of sunshine and warmth, so much so 
that everything has rapidly advanced 
from an unripe to a ripe condition, and 
harvesting has been carried on suc- 
cessfully and the output of both wheat 
and barley continues to surprise the 
growers by the increased quantity and 
better quality. The increase in quan- 
tity has been so much greater than 
anticipated that a second order for 
sacks has been made. The first order 
was not nearly sufficient to sack the 

Three thousand three im ndrkd 

AND KORTV-ONE SHIPS, of 7. <>.")!•. 00(1 tOllS. 

passed through the Sviez Canal in 1893. 
yielding sixty-eight millions in dues. 
According to the report of the com- 
pany, about to be issued, passengers 
numbered 186,495. and yielded 1.8(i4.- 
OOOf.. while sundry accessories yielded 
384,000f. . making a total of seventy -one 
millions. Three thousand and eighty- 
two of the shijjs. 92' per cent. i)assed 
through by night. The uvt'ragc dura- 
tion of transit was 20 hours 44 minutes, 
of actual motion 1(! hours 53 minutes. 
There were nine petmleum v(>Asels. As 
to the nationality of the vessels, the 
English were 2405, German 272. French 

A National Movement Against 

At the East they are moving reso- 
lutely and systematically against the 
great dairy danger of the day. A 
Washington dispatch, June 20th, says 
the principal topic of discussion at the 
meeting of representatives of live 
stock boards was based on a paper pre- 
pared by Dr. J. H. Kellogg of Battle 
Creek. Mich., on the subject of tuber- 
culosis. The paper said that numerous 
investigations have shown that the 
products of the dairy are infected in 
some sections to a most astonishing 
extent with the tubercular microbe. 

■'The fact that in older populations 
like those of England and New Eng- 
land the proportion of deaths from 
consumption to deaths from all other 
causes rises as high as 20 to 30 i)er 
cent, while in the newer communities 
of the West the pro])ortion falls to 8 
or 10 per cent, the paper said, is an 
evidence that conditions in highly civ- 
ilized countries favor development of 
tuberculosis. Sterilization of milk, he 
said, was not a preventive, and thor- 
ough insjiection of milk was th(> only 
thing which was effective in restrict- 
ing its spread through the dairy. Mr. 
Trumbower of Illinois read a paper 
entitled 'What shall we do with tuber- 
culous cattle?" in which he held that it 
was necessary to create public senti- 
ment favoring and demanding State 
laws in furtherance of the object be- 
fore they could hope t<i ai'complish 
much in the eradication of tubt^rculosis 
and the protection of consumers of 
milk and meat. 

■'The committee on permanent or- 
ganization recommended the foi-mation 
of a National live stock sanitary asso- 
ciation, to be composed of a repre- 
sentative of the Bureau of Animal In- 
dustry of the Agricultural Dejjart- 
ment, members of the different State 
live stock sanitary boards and com- 
missioners. State veterinarians and 
other State officials having supervision 
of the diseases of live stock. The re- 
port was adopted and a permanent or- 
ganization effected by the election of 
the following officers : President, J. 
A. Potts, Missouri; vice-president. Dr. 
Robert Ward. Maryland; and secre- 
tary, A. M. Brownlee of Illinois. These 
officers constitute an executive com- 
mittee, to which was left the duty of 
choosing the time for holding the next 
m(>eting, which will be held at Chicago. 
A committee of five on constitution and 
by-laws was appointed as follows : 
Messrs. Potts, Missouri; Ward, Mary- 
land; Brownlee. Illinois; Lyman. Mas- 
sachusetts, and Hinds of Michigan. 
The organization is to meet annually. 
A great portion of the afternoon was 
consumed in discussing the subject of 
proper disinfection of farms and 
premises wht^re animals are kept, and 
of the frequency of making tuberculin 
tests to ascertain the pi-esence of 


The objection commonly given to in- 
breeding has its reservations. One of 
these is in breeding swine. All the best 
breeds have been built u]) by breeding 
hi and in. or mating animals nearly re- 
lated so as to best per])eluate their 
good qualities. Of course, in doing this, 
cure should be taken not to breed ani- 
mals that are in any way defective. The 
constant tendency of neglect is toward 
retrogression in body and character in 
every respect. Defects are ])erpetu- 
ated quite as easily and surely as are 
excellencies. If the animals are very 
closely related, the ])resumption always 
is that whatever defects they have are 
of like character, so that inbreeding 
intensifies them. But Lf you have ])igs 
well formed in every way and .suitable 
for breeding, the mating of near rela- 
tives will bring progeny quite as good 
as their progenitors. Whenever sif^ns 

of defective constitution appears it will 
be time to change to another strain of 
the same family. Crosses from very 
different breeds ought always to be in- 
bred, not among themselves' but by the 
male of the breed whose qualities' you 
find best fitted to your locality and cir- 
cimistances. Then you will have a 
three-quarter blood, aiid further breed- 
ing to the same stock will make the 
progeny seven-eights full blood, and for 
most purjioses as good as full bred, says 
Ann riciiii Cvltivator. 

The Grape Adoxus. 

Abiiut a month ago a l(>af-eating 
beetle appeared in the vineyards in the 
vicinity of Knights Landing. It be- 
gan to eat the foliage on the vines. 
H. J. Provost sent one of the insects 
to the Division of Entomology. United 
States Department of Agriculture, and 
received th<> following letter in reply: 

Washixhton (D. C), June !!•, 1S!»4. 
Ml. H. J. Priipmt. (Jrafton. To!. DgAKSnt: 
Thank you very much for your letter of loth 
instant and for the eni-losed speeiinen.s. The 
insect is .■lf/o.ri(» (Kumolpuit) vilin Linn., of the 
eoleopterous family Chrysomeliilie, or leaf- 
beetles. It belongs to the so-called 'Vircuni- 
polar fauna," which comprises those insects 
which are common to all more northern coun- 
tries of the old and new world. In Europe it 
has long- been known as an enemy of the grape 
vine, and its injuries are espei-ialiy severe in 
France, where the beetle is known under the 
popular names -'Ir drihimri," "f Kn iraiii." and 
■•f Humiili)r fU In riy/ic" In North America it 
is widely distributed throughout British 
America and the adja<-ent northern portions of 
the United States, extending southward on 
our mountain ranges. It is known to feed on 
the fire-weeds i Kpilnhinm) and alder (Samhu- 
(■!(*), but has never before been reported to 
injure grapevines. It is evident that grape 
culture on the Pacific slope has reached in its 
northern extension the natural home of the 
beetle, and it is not surprising, therefore, to 
learn from your letter that the beetle is now 
attacking the grape vines. The larvae of the 
Aftii.nix live underground on the; roots and can- 
not, therefore, be destroyed by the ordinary 
insecticides without great ex])enditure. 
Spraying with Paris green or London purple 
would effectually protect the vines, but these 
arsenical poisons can .safely be applied only in 
the early season, i. r., before the berries are 
formed. If the beetles appear on the vines 
after that time, they can be jarred down upon 
sheets smeaied with tar or crude kerosene, 
which are kept stretched out by two sticks. 

L. O. HowAKi), Entomologist. 

The Great Cost of Cable-Laying 
In New York Streets. 

The chief reason why New Yoik, 
aside from the difficulties of obtaining 
the necessary permits from the city 
authorities, was so far behind other 
cities in replacing horse-car lines by 
cable roads was that here the cost of 
laying the cable was much more than 
in smaller cities. The expense of cut- 
ting a path through the network of 
pipes of every description in the New 
York streets frightened capital away. 
At Broadway and Fourt(>enth street 
there were no less than 32 different 
pipes, belonging to more than a dozen 
different companies — gas. water, 
sewer, steam, pneumatic, electric, etc. 
All these companies had rights which 
the cable company was under bonds to 
respect. The work of getting the pipes 
out of the way had to be done without 
interfering with the service of eacli of 
these corporations. Sometimes days 
were wasted in trying to find the 
owners of pipes that had been aban- 
doned, perhaps, for years. Gas com- 
panies and steam comjjanies had gone 
out of business, but had left their pipes 
to make the confusion under the pave- 
ments worse confounded. The enor- 
mous cost of this work explains the 
high price asked by st)ine of the con- 
tractors for certain parts of the lines 
in New York City. Some blocks along 
the lower i)art of the Bowery are said 
to have cost the contractors at the rate 
of 15300.000 a mile. 

A Spanish inventor claims to have 
produced ' an iron automaton whose 
inner organs are machinery and whose 
diet is cartridges. The rifle which the 
monster carries can be turned in any 
direction, and delivers 50.000 shots iii 
15 minutes. Electricity provides the 
moti\^^ |)ovver by which the. coachiaery 
is set in luotioa 

July 7, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


Patrons of Husbandry. 

Random Thoughts. 

By A. p. ROACHB, W. M. S. G. of California. 

Pleasure and profit are sought by all 

And found in full measure in Grangers' Hall. 

Replies are beginning to come in from 
our Senators and representatives rela- 
tive to the Grange Congress resolutions 
asking for the immediate construction 
and government control of the Nicara- 
gua Canal, as follows in substance: 

Senator White says: "I am as 
anxious as any one can be to forward 
the interests of the canal, but it is im- 
probable that there will be anything 
done concerning it of a conclusive char- 
acter at the present session." 

Senator Perkins says: "I will take 
pleasure in presenting the matter to 
the Senate. Senator Morgan, chair- 
man of Foreign Relations, recently as- 
sured me that the prospects of the 
Canal bill becoming a law this session 
were particularly bright." 

Representative Loud says: "I ever 
have, and shall continue, to do all in 
my power to further its completion." 
Representative English says: "I will 
give the matter due consideration. I 
am strongly in favor of the canal." 

Let us hope our representatives not 
yet heard from will reply in equally 
strong terms and show themselves as 
wide-awake for the interests not only 
of the Pacific coast, but of the entire 
Union, as have those who have replied. 

Brains, a good cause and persistent 
pluck will accomplish wonders, as 
witness the signal victory gained by 
Mr. D. Lubin in having his "Novel 
Transportation' Plan " indorsed by the 
Republican State Convention. Less 
than nine months ago he appeared 
before the State Grange and delivered 
a lecture on his plan, then so new that 
none in that large assemblage had even 
remotely dreamed of it, and now we 
find it indorsed by a powerful political 
organization. The success of so new 
and so radical a proposition seems 
phenomenal thus far. Mr. Lubin is 
perfectly sincere in the matter, and as 
he claims the plan will be of great 
benefit to the entire nation, and pro- 
posing to leave no stone untui-ned which 
will fui'ther the enactment of his plan 
into law, he will ask its indorsement by 
the Democratic State Convention when 
it meets, thus proving that he is not 
aiming for any partisan advantage. 
Whenever a man jnits as much time, 
thought and money into a plan as he 
has, without the remotest possibility 
of ever receiving one solitary cent's 
worth of personal benefit and with ten 
chances to one of losing the honor of 
being the founder and promotor of the 
whole aff'air, the most skeptical cannot 
but be convinced that he has an ex- 
ceedingly good cause, and, his success, 
that he is an almost imparalleled 

Hard times, mixed with indifference, 
can't kill the Grange cause. National 
Secretary Trimble tells us that 80 new 
and 45 reorganized granges have been 
instituted during the first four months 
of the present year. 

Watsonville Grange held its regular 
annual picnic at Camp Goodall on the 
23d ult. ; the pleasure of the occasion 
was thoroughly enjoyed by all. 

Children's day and the Fourth of 
July celebration at Merced Grange 
promise to be grand affairs. Worthy 
State Grange Steward will address the 
people on that occasion, and his 
thoughtful, earnest words will be ap- 
preciated by that progressive grange. 
Bro. Shoemaker always speaks to the 
point and leaves no doubt as to his 

To succeed in any of the affairs of 
life a preparatory educational course 
becomes a prime necessity, and often 
requiring years of constant application 
to secure best results; yet we expect 
the ordinary farmer with no previous 
training, with no knowledge of the laws 
of co-operation, with no understanding 
of the benefits and power of associa- 
tion, to come into the grange knowing 
little of its objects and make first-class 
members. This is expecting too much, 
and. like all other cases, requires care - 
ful preparatifw and education, and as 

the most favorable time for education 
is in the formative period of childhood, 
with the view of instructing the boys 
and girls of the farm in those principles 
which will develop not only true 
grangers, but noble men and women as 
well, we will, as a free-will offering, 
send post paid to the first grange which 
will institute a juvenile grange in this 
jurisdiction, a complete set of juvenile 
rituals and private instructions for con- 
ducting the work understandingly to 
the little ones, who must not be over 
14 years old and children of the farm. 

Recalling a Mailed Letter. 

To recall a letter once mailed is al- 
most as difficult a task as to take back 
an assertion once uttered. The sender 
must appear at the postoffice and is 
handed a blank to fill out. In this 
he must state when and where he 
mailed the letter, how it was ad- 
dressed, must describe the envelope, 
state the amount of postage prepaid, 
and testify ' ' that the above-mentioned 
letter was written by me or by my 
authority and I desire to recall it for 
the following reason" — and then state 
the reason, which is usually "mailed 
by mistake. " 

He must then sign his name, so that 
the handwriting may be compared with 
that on the letter, and sign a receipt. 
If the address cannot be shown to 
be in his handwriting, or is printed 
or type-written, he must describe 
some peculiarities of the envelope 
sufficient to identify it. If he is 
unable to do this the letter is refused, 
unless the postmaster knows the appli- 
cant and is satisfied concerning his good 
intentions. If he is satisfied he asks for a 
statement concerning the con tents, and 
the applicant is then obliged to open 
the letter and read portions of it in the 
postmaster's presence, to prove that it 
is the one he described. 

But if the letter has been sent away 
the process of recalling is still more diffi- 
cult. A similar blank has to be filled out, 
a minute description telegraphed at the 
sender's expense to the postmaster at 
the office of its destination. If discov- 
ered in time the letter is then inter- 
cepted and sent to the department at 
Washington with a statement of the 
case. Why should anyone want to re- 
call a letter so much as to take this 
trouble ? Well, there was one case at 
the local office recently where a valua- 
ble deed was mailed and the sender re- 
ceived information that satisfied him 
that the sale should not be made. In 
another case an important contract 
was sent, and information received im- 
mediately after made it imperative that 
it should be revoked. 

Balking the Umbrella Thief. 

Gilbert Theory Concerning the 
Moon's Face. 

The Gilbert theory, recently pro- 
pounded by the well known scientist of 
that nome, concerning the moon's face, 
assumes that material constituting the 
moon once surrounded the earth in the 
form of a Saturnian ring; that the 
small bodies of this ring coalesced, first 
gathering around a large number of 
nuclei finally all uniting in a single 
sphere — the moon — the lunar craters 
being the scars resulting from the col- 
lision of the moonlets. It is argued that 
this hypothesis reconciles the impact 
theory with the circular outline of the 
lunar craters and explains the abun- 
dance of colliding bodies of large mag- 
nitude, such a system also accounting 
for the formation of lunar wreaths, 
central hills, arched inner plains, level 
inner plains, and the association of in- 
ner plains with central hills, explain- 
ing, too, the peculiarities known as 
furrows, sculpture, rills, and rill pits. 
Further, during the growth of the 
moon, it is assumed that many of the 
moonlets must have collided with the 
earth and formed impact craters, which 
have been obliterated by erosion and 
sedimentation; and it is suggested as 
possible that these collisions imitated 
not only the differentiation of conti- 
nental and oceanic plateaus, but the 
series of geographic transformations of 
whicli geolog-W; s^tp«*',tN-»'e w the r<v,r>rd. 

Another long-felt want is about to 
be filled. Drawings for the invention 
were received at the Patent Office only 
a few days ago, and the man is prepar- 
ing to build him a new house in the 
most fashionable part of the city with 
the prospective funds from his inven- 
tion. It is nothing less than an auto- 
matically returnable umbrella. That 
is, one that will make its own arrange- 
ments for its return to its owner when 
lost. The nomadic habit of umbrellas, 
especially when left unchained in the 
neighborhood of a crowd, has long been 
a subject of comment, and it has been 
a serious question whether the trouble 
was altogether with the morals of the 
umbrella that would go off and lose it- 
self, or an innate depravity of the um- 
brella-using public that made findings 
keepings without much inquiry as to 
the identity of the loser. The new 
non-losable umbrella does not differ 
essentially from the ordinary article, 
except that it has a little stouter han- 
dle. Herein is concealed the working 
part of the device. It is a compactly 
arranged phonograph, with a multiply- 
ing reverberator, enabling it to be 
heard for say the length of a street car 
or a good-sized hallway. In connec- 
tion with the phonograph is a combina- 
tion lock which sets the machine in 
action. The owner of the umbrella on 
setting it down simply switches the 
combination, and as soon as it is picked 
up the phonograph gets in its work. 
The remarks can be arranged accord- 
ing to the taste in oratory of the man 
who owns the umbrella, and can range 
from a politely couched request not to 
disturb the rain protector to a stento- 
rian cry of "Stop Thief, "or "This fellow 
is stealing another man's umbrella," or 
any other exclamation of a more forci- 
ble nature, the strength of the lan- 
guage being only limited by the local 
municipal ordinances regarding pro- 

The Earth's Motion flade Visible. 

Place on the floor of a room free from 
tremors and air currents a good sized 
bowl nearly filled with water, and 
sprinkle over the water an even coat of 
lycopodium powder, and across this 
make a narrow black line of pulverized 
charcoal. Place the bowl so that the 
black line shall coincide with a crack 
in the fioor; or, if the room be car- 
peted, lay a stick upon the the floor ex- 
actly parallel with the mark. After a 
few hours it will be found that the line 
is no longer parallel with the station- 
ary object, but has moved from east to 
west, proving that during this interval 
the earth has moved from west to east. 
The reason appears to be that the 
solid floor has, with the earth and 
bowl, moved from west to east, and so 
has the water also, but at a slower 
rate, as there is a slight inertia, of 
which the yielding liquid does not in- 
stantly partake, to be overcome. It 
will be seen that the line or charcoal 
mark always moved from east to west. 

Modern Explosives. 

" I ONOE HAD TO RUN into Chatham 
island, in the South Pacific ocean," 
says an old sea captain, "and was 
amused to see the way in which the 
people accepted their fate in regard to 
the jumping of time. This little island 
is just on the line of demarcation be- 
tween times and dates. In order to 
keep right with the remainder of the 
world, it is necessary to skip from 
noon on Sunday to noon on Monday 
every week in the year, and hence the 
joke that it is possible to spend a whole 
day at dinner without eating an aver- 
age meal. The island is so near the 
antarctic region that days and nights 
are altogether mixed up from the idea 
of an ordinary individual, but this plan 
of jumping the afternoon of one day 
and the morning of the next, so as to 
keep in line with the almanac, is some- 
thing so ridiculous that none but a sea- 
faring man can appreciate it or under- 
stand the necessity." 

The compositions of some of the 
modern high explosives are as follows: 

Dynmiu'te. — Seventy-five parts of ni- 
tro-glycerine and 25 of infusorial earth. 

Diudinc. — Eighty parts nitro-glycer- 
ine and 20 of nitro-cellulose (gun cot- 

Rind rock. — Forty parts nitro-glycer- 
ine, 40 of nitrate of potash or soda, 13 
of cellulose and 7 of paraffine. 

Giant Pinrilcr. — Thirty-six parts of 
netro-glycerine, 48 of nitrate of potash 
or soda, 8 of sulphur and 8 of resin or 
charcoal . 

Mien Powder. — Fifty-two parts of ni- 
tro-glycerine and 48 of pulverized 

Tonite. — Fifty-two and one-half parts 
of gun cotton and 472 parts of nitrate 
of baryta. 

Blasting Gclatinv. — Ninety-two parts 
of nitro-glycerine and 8 of gun cotton. 

Atl((s Foivder. — Seventy-five parts of 
nitro-glycerine, 21 of wood fiber, 2 of 
carbonate of magnesia and 2 of nitrate 
of soda. 

Rackarock. — Seventy-seven and sev- 
en-tenths parts of chlorate of patash 
and 22.3 of nitro-benzol. 

It will be noticed that nearly all the 
explosives are composed principally of 
nitro-glycerine; and it is probable that 
in most cases the other ingredients 
only act as absorbents for this liquid, 
and really add nothing to the explosive 
force. The decomposition of nitro- 
glycerine is practically instantaneous, 
and the slower-acting nitrates and hy- 
dro-carbons must be left far behind 
when the mass is exploded. The power 
of all these substances is due to the 
l^aradoxical element, nitrogen, which 
is by itself the most neutral and in- 
active of all the elements, but, when 
forced into chemical combination, usu- 
ally confers an element of weakness 
upon the entire molecule of which it 
forms a part. 

Theke is talk of lighting with elec- 
tricity about twenty-five miles of the 
dredged channel of Mobile bay. At 
present the path is too dark and tortu- 
ous for night navigation. It has been 
proposed to use copper for the armor as 
well as the core of the cable supplying 
the current, as induction is so great 
with steel sheathing as to interfere 
with the transmission of an alternat- 
ing- current. 

The opportunity of a lifetime Biiiy not 
last ftve seconds. 

An electric railway 300 miles long, 
to cost $2,000,000, and connecting 
Boise City and Lewistou, Idaho, via. 
White Bird, Little Salmon and the 
Weiser valley, is in contemplation. 

Health Restored 

No Strength nor Energy 





— with — 


Ayer's Sarsaparilla 

"Several years ago, my blood was in 
bad condition, niy system all run down, 
and my general heallh very nuich im- 
paired. My liands were covered with 
large sores, discharging all the time. I 
had no strength nor energy and my feel- 
ings were miserable in the exireme. At 
last, I connnencetl taking Ay:'r's Sarsa- 
parilla and soon noticed a change for the 
better. My appelile returned and with 
it, rencweil strength. Kncouraged by 
these results, I l<<'j)t on taking the Sar- 
saparilla, till 1 hail used six bottles, and 
my health was restored."— A. A. Towns, 
prop. Harris House, Thompson. N. Dak. 

Ay8r'Son.;Sarsaperilla | 

Admitted gl 





The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 7, 1894. 

Does Your Farming Pay? 

Every farmer knows in a general 
way whether his business is a success, 
but unless he keeps some form of farm 
accounts he is compelled to merely esti- 
mate his profits, and it would be very 
easy for an actual loss to escape his 
notice under such circumstances. Of 
course the farmer, like the merchant, 
should not spend more time and money 
in keepinfr accounts than they are 
worth, but a simple system will answer 
the purpose, and, for possible lepal pur- 
poses, the time of the hired man must 
be kept, and records made of payments 
where receipts are not given. A simple 
memorandum of all business transac- 
tions as they are made forms the book 
of original entry, which is recognized 
in tlie courts, and from this daybook 
can be deduced the profit and loss of 
the business. On large farms it would 
b(> very difficult to meet the require- 
ments of the federal income tax bill 
unless a set of books were carefully 
kei)t, as where all sales from the farm, 
less the expense of raising such prod- 
ucts, amount to more than *4()(HI annu- 
ally, the excess is to be taxed 2 per 
cent. The federal tax collectors are 
to be authorized to examine the ac- 
counts of the merchants who buy the 
l)roducts from the fai-mer. and unless 
the farmer can show a good set of 
liooks the same collectors are to be 
autliorized to estimate the expense of 
raising such products. Thus th(> whole 
matter may be taken out of the farm- 
ei' s hands, unless he has a good set of 
accounts, and it will be well not to 
t rust tiK) much to the tend(>r mercies 
of the politicians. For the many farm- 
ers, whos(> profits are much less, often 
very much less than $4(»(l(l, a simple 
form of systematic accounts will show 
where more profit can be made, or 
needless exp(>nditui-e cui'tailed. There 
are several forms of account books and 
systems of farm bookkeeping ])ub- 
iished, from which the farmer can glean 
many useful hints for making up the 
system needed for his own farm. 

Clean flanagement for Hogs. 

Hogs have been bred up and refined 
in quality, reducing date to maturity 
over half, till it is no wonder they are 
susceptible to disease more than form- 
erly. Cleanliness must keep pace with 
this refining process and swine growers 
who have suffered in great losses by 
disease for want of attention to this 
matter are coming to undei'stand its 
importance. The les.sons of adversity 
have for the past few years been bear- 
ing fruit. The Ruml Wm/i/. taking 
this view of the matter says that clean 
surroundings, pure, clean, good food of 
the ju'ojx'r kinds for building the grow- 
ing frame work whilst growing or for 
fattening when finishing off is as essen- 
tial to the health of hogs as to any 
other animal, and to reverse these is to 
induce frailty, weakness, loss of appe- 
tite, and, sooner or later, disease. It 
may be in individual cases only, or it 
may attack and decimate the whole 
herd and bring ruin and disaster to the 
owner. Filthy pens, filth fed with feed, 
filthy, rotten, and decayed food, sour 
swill, the dead carcasses of diseased 
animals, the droppings of diseased ani- 
mals, etc.. and a like line of feeding and 
keej)ing are all conductive to unthrift 
and disease, just as surely as dry wood 
will burn when heajied upon a big fire, 
and we do well to recognize the fact 
and act upon it. Hogs as raised and 
fed for market nowadays are the merest 
kind of hothouse plants anyhow. They 
are crowded, and crammed, and made 
gluttonous from their earliest feeding 
days and unless great care is taken 
very easily become feverish, excited, 
overheated, and fit receptacles for 
floating microbes or other animalcula- 
in the air, the grass or on their food. — 
Indiana Farmer. 

The National Dairy Congress. 

At the recent meeting of the Nation- 
al Dairy Congress at Cleveland. Ohio, 
a permanent organization was elTected. 
a constitution adopted, and a full corps 
of officers elected. The secretary is 
D. P. Ashburn of Gibbon. Nebraska. 
Resolutions were adopted recognizing 
the importance of the home dairy as 
being the primary condition of the dairy 
industry in all new and sparsely settled 
communities, as of necessity going be- 
fore and formuig the basis of all subse- 
quent co-operative work. The National 
Dairy Congress will, therefore, in all 
legitimate ways, encourage the estab- 
lishment of dairy schools, and in all ju- 
dicious ways use its influence to carry 
light and help to the isolated dairy 
farmei-. The early enactment of Senate 
bill No. IHTti. was urged for the purpose 
of placing oleomargarine and all imita- 
tion butter and cheese under the con- 
trol of the laws of the several States, 
whether imported from one State to 
another in the original package or 
otherwise. The hand of fellowship was 
extended to "The National Dairy 
Union," which has been organized for 
the single purpose of procuring National 
and State legislation to })rotect the 
dairymen of the United States against 
the sale of counterfeit ])roducts made 
in imitation or semblance of pvn-e butter 
or che(>se. The executive committee 
were instructed to collect and promul- 
gate all available information concern- 
ing the cause and character of the 
dis(>ases of daii-y animals, together with 
the means of prevention and cure, co- 
operating, if possible with the federal 
bureau of aninuil industi-y and the vari- 
ous experiment stations, and to collect 
any other information of interest to 
dairymen. Such st(>ps will tend to se- 
cure the purity of all dairy proflucts, to 
elevate their standard, and in other 
ways will cause the dairy interest to 

Points For Rejection of Horses. 

The English government has the fol- 
lowing set of rules for those who select 
horses for cavalry service: they are 
called ■■ Points for Rejection," but will 
answer equally well as points foi- se- 
lection : 

Reject a horse whose forelegs are 
not straight; it will not stand wear. 
Stand behind the horse as it walks 
away from you, and you will be able to 
notice these defet'ts. if they exist. 

Reject a horse that is light below the 
knee, especially if immediately below 
the knee; the conformation is essen- 
tially weak; or a horse with long, or 
short, or upright pasterns; — long past- 
terns are subject to sprains; short or 
u])right i)ast(n'ns make a hors(> unpleas- 
ant to ride, and. on account of extra 
concussions, are apt to cause ossific de- 
posits; or a horse with toes turned in 
or out. The twist generally occurs at 
the fetlock. Toes turned out are more 
objectionable than toes turned in. 
When toes turn out the fetlocks are 
generally turned in. and animals so 
formed are apt to cut or brush. Both, 
however, are very weak formations. 

Reject a horse whose hind legs are 
too far behind; good propelling power 
will be wanting, and disease as a result 
may be expected in the hocks. And a 
horse which goes (>ither very wide or 
very close behind, and one with very 
straight or very bent hocks; the for- 
mer cause undue concussion; the latter 
are apt to give way. 

Reject a horse that is "split up" — 
that is, shows much daylight from be- 
tween the thighs; ])ro])elling power 
comes from behind, and must be de- 
ficient in horses without due muscular 
development between the thighs. 

Reject a horse with flat or overly 
large f(>et. or with very small feet; 
medium sized are best: a horse 
with one foot smaller than another. 

One of the most delightful things about 
an api)le blossom is that it promises 
some delicious fruit. 

A religious exchange declares that 
^ "the world has very little in it." That 
may be so. but there is enough to go 
, around. 


IT haH hecn fuiiHidcred li.v t hi' lutHltral 
profeHslon that hernia— coiiimoiily called 
rupture — w»h incurable, except by Kurg^i- 
cal operation, which is both danf-crouft 
to life and very rarely ever HucceHKful. But 
DK. J. C. ANTHONY, of KG and K7 (HKONI- 
CI.K BUILDING, lias <»pened a tu w tieltl ri»r 
researcli, and for the past y<*ar ban been mak- 
ing Konie reuiarlcable curcK. He cauHCH the 
patient no pain, and thoHe iivinjq: near enough 
do not lose any time only while in Iiih otHce 
unce or lwi<e weekly. He £:uaranteeK every 
caMe he treatn, and ducH not aHk a man for a 
dollar unleHK he cureti hlin, hu there can be no 
chance of any one iM-in^ <-h4'at«><l. The doctor 
is a n^raduatc of Hellevuc lloHpital Medical 
<'ollefi;«', of New ^'ork . 

14 Sansome Street, 

San F-rancisco. 



CorrngutKiI Mtvel Hinge*. 

They are Stronger. Ilandsomer 
and co»t no more tban the old 
style. For sale by Hardware 
Dealers generally, but If not In 
your \i(-iuity write the Mann- 
faL'turers. Send for " BloKrapby 
of a Yaiikee liinge," mailed free 



Selling : Facilities, 

Oldest : House 






■rri!i.N"<: experts of 


of all kinds. 

Mauul'ac'lurers of Miifhincry iiu<l .Apparatus 
for makinft all kinds of Condensed Milk. 

Instructions Riven in all the Secret Processes 
tor making any kind of tJoudensed Milk Products. 

We are the only tirm in the world who build 
Condensed Milk Factories complete, put them in 
operation and (;uarautee results, and are in no way 
associated with any other person, tinn or company. 

★A Membership 

* ASSOCIATION eiiiihU-K you III order any 
and hU Kinds of SupplH>s with a sHvins; of 
from ten to fifty per rent on n liat yon are now 
paying;. C'orrespoiidenee with us will convince 
you of this fart. Klr«t-rla»» references and 
full Information Kent on application to . .4 

J. H. WOOD & COm Managers. 

BECK ♦ FRUIT "evaporator. 

Now is the time to linilil l:\nporaIorK if you 
d<*sir»' ti» H«'cur*' llie llij;lM*st Trie*- 
for t liis year's l-'ruil Crop. 

For description of machine miaranteed for quan- 
tity and quality of work, send for circular to 

T. & W. A. BECK, 
\V.\Tso.\vii,i.K, California. 


THE KAN« H<> .VitO.MIT.AS — l>rices $:» to 
Jli5 per acre. This is the best lich sediment soil 
property ofTered iu this State for the mon<\v. S. P. 
has station on the ranch, and only few miles from 
Watsonville Sugar Heet Rellni^ry. This is a great 
country for sugar beets. For full particulars appl.y 
E. C. GODFREY, Crocker Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering;, 

Surveying, .^rchilecluru, Drawing and .\ssaying, 


San FEt.AM isni. Cai.. 

Open All Year. : A. VAH DER NAILLEN, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, Bullion and Cblorination 
Assay. Blowpipe .\ssay. IKi. Full course of 
assaying,. Established IHtH. Send for Circular. 


The German Savings and Loan Society, 


For the half-year ending .June .Hi, IHSM, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of Hve (.i) i)ercent per 
annum on Term Deposits, and four and one-sixth 
(4 1-rt) per cent per annum on Ordinary Deposits, 
payable on and after MOND.W, .luly i. 1HH4. 

t;EO. TOURNY, Secretary 





138, 140 and 142 Market St. 



f for your 


Any Bize yon want, 2^ 
to 56 in hiRh. Tires I 
to 8 m.wide— hnbfl t<» 
fit any axle. Waves 
Cost raany times in 
ft fleaaon to have Bet 
of low wheels to fit 
jOQivneon forhaulinK 
irrain, fodder, manure. 
boRB. kc. No resettinK of 
tires. Oatl'g free. Address 
^olucy, 111. 


^iiaai^Mfi'iriiiiirfimiiii iimi 

TREE - \A//\SH. 

Olive- Dip. 

"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pure Potash. 

T. W. JrtCKSOIN dfc CO. 

Sole -VRcntd. - - No. 5 Market Street. 



EWIS' 98 % LYE 

FoiTsssz]) AHs mruvxD 


The St rongeiit and par««t T.y* 

mailo. I tilike other Lye, It belnf 
a Ouo powder ftod packed In a can 
with removablo Uo, the content* 
are always ready for use. Win 
make tlu- beat iierfumed Hard Soap 
In 2(> nitntit*-^ wifboat bolllnat. 
It la the beat for clean!Uag waata 
plpc^ dMiif.-<iliiK sinks cloaet^ 
wasldng liotik-N l alDUs trees, etc 



All kinils of tool». Fun tine fur tht* driller by usloff out 
Adiini.intine procpsts; cnn take ucor.-. I'crfcclod Ecooom* 
icitl Artesinn runiiiini.' ItiL'S to W'-rk hi srcam. Air, Ptc. 
lA'tuMhelpv- n. TIIK AMEklC AN WKLL WOBKft, 
Aurorm 111.; Cblcaso, III.; Dallai, Tex. 

Care of the Weanling's Feet. 

E. T. Riddick in Amei-iran CiiUuntor. 

One of the most important and yet 
most neglected features of the wean- 
ling colt is the feet during the first 
winter. The feet are to the future 
horse what the foundation is to the 
house. If the feet are defective it ii 
certainly an abridgement of the useful 
ness of the horse, as his utility is 
largely dependent on his ability to get 
about, and good feet are the very first 
importance in the general make-up of 
the horse. If the colt's feet are prop- 
erly cared for during the first winter, 
even moderately well developed feet 
may Vje made quite promising. The 
feeit should be trimmed often and kept 
quite free from foreign matter that may 
induce disease of any kind, and the 
trimming will have the greatest ten- 
dency to prevent the formation of pock- 
ets for the lodgment of foul material. 
The feet should be kept level and the 
wall trimmed almost even with the sole 
of the foot, with the edges of the 
trimmed wall nicely roundedj to keep 
them from splitting and breaking. If 
the colt stands with his toes outward, 
the outside of the foot toward the toe 
should be kept a little the lowest and 
shortest all the time. If the toe turns 
inwardly: "pigeon toes." then the in- 
side toward the toes should he kept the 

While the colt is young and his bones 
are comparatively soft, the position of 
his feet may be vej'y much changed, 
and defects almost completely remedied, 
by carefully trimming the feet; where- 
as, if allowed to grow in a defective 
manner, it is next to impossible to make 
any radical change after the bones have 
become solidified. Many valuable horses 
have been radically ruined by the neg- 
lect of their feet in early life. The 
majority of horse-raisers pay little or 
no attention to the feet at all, thinking 
that they will come out all right any- 
way. This is simply trusting to good 
luck, and this alone will not always 
quite do. Particularly is the road 
horse often ruined by the neglect of his 
feet during the first winter of his life. 
His feet are permitted to grow out of 
shape, which induces the bones to take 
on the the form that afterwai'd makes 
him inferior behind, or a " knee-banger " 
in front, to say nothing of the danger 
to his tendons. 

How strange it is that we will go to 
so much pains to breed a good colt, and 
then so neglect the most important 
points as to unfit him for the duties 
that his breeding naturally adapts him 
for. Give the colt's feet the proper 
care and attention while young, and 
very much will be done to make the 
horse with a true and solid foundation 
—the most essential feature for his use- 

tender, the hair long and full ol dan- 
druff, and when the work is heavy the 
collar should be cleaned every morning 
and noon, before commencing work. 
For the first few days one or two 
cleanings during the half day will often 
prevent galling. This can be done by 
rubbing the hand briskly several times 
over the surface. It takes but a mo- 
ment, and can be done while the team 
is resting. The shoulders should also 
be washed in warm water at night, 
rubbed dry, and if then washed in water 
in which white oak bark has been 
boiled for fiftecMi minutes the skin is 
toughened and the galling prevented. 
Colts, particularly, should have their 
collars well fitted. 

Aunt Jane: "Rob, dear, won't you 
try to be a real good boy to-day?" 
Rob: " will, aunty, for I a quarter." 
Aunt Jane: " Why, Rob ! you wish pay 
for being good ?" Rob: " Well, aunty, 
dear, you wouldn't have me good for 
nothing, would you ?" — Harper's Young 

A monument sometimes speaks loud- 
est for the relatives who erected it. 

The Fastest and Best Hay Press 

In the World. 




M ONAR CH JR.<i«»,KA«v.iusfiW« 

^•^r—TTHr ^cW— 5-^ *^ 


MONARCH, Bale 17x20x40. $600 

JUNIOR MONARCH, Bale 22x24x47. $500 

THK MONARCH loads 10 tons iu an orilinary box eai' 
Use.s Wirn Ties— rope will not hold. 

THE JUNIOR MONARCH loads from 7 to 9 tons in box 
ear. Uses either Wire or Rope Ties. 

The .sizes of the bale are given when in the press. Allow 
about 6 inches for expansion for cutting ties. 


iTwo Sizes) also for sale. 

L. C. Morehouse, 

WM. GRAY, General Agent. San Leandro, Cal. 

RUDY'S PILE SUPPOSITORY is guaranteed to 
cure Piles and Constipation, or money refunded. 
Fifty Cents Per liox. Send stamp for Circular and 
Free Sample, to MARTIN RUDY, Lancaster, Pa. 
For sale by all druggists. 

The highest selling citrus fruit in the Eastern 
markets the past season has been the Pomelo 
(grape-fruit), bringing )f7 and even $11 per box. 
The trees may be planted in .July and some Une 
ones can be gotten of I. H. Camniack, East Whit- 
tier Nurseries, Whitticr. Cal. 

Seeds, Plants, Etc. 

Clean Horse Collars. 

One reason why horses gall their 
shoulders when at work is the neglect 
of the attendant in keeping the portion 
of collar that presses against the skin 
free from the dirt, or dandruff, which 
is constantly gathering upon the 
leather. This is rolled into lumps by 
the friction of the collar against the 
shoulder in walking. At the beginning 
of the season's work the shoulder is 

P. SEBIRE & SONS, Nurserymen, Ussy, 
Calvados, France. 

Largest stock of FHi; IT TKKK STOCKS, such 
as Apple, Pear, Myrobolan Plum, Mahaleb and 
Mazzard Cherry, Augers Quince, Small Ever- 
recus, B^orest Trees, Ornamental Shrubs, Roses, 

C. G. van TUBERGEN, JR., Haarlem, 

<;H(HC'K Ul'TCH Hindus and Bulbous Plants. 



Garden and Agricultural. 

Catalogues free. Apply to C. C. ABEL & CO., 
Box 920, New York, or A. H. HARTEVELT, Box 
983, San Jose, Cal. 

Olive Trees. 



Send for our Book on Olive Culture. 

HoxA/land Bros., 



AND- — 


best varieties, l^'ee from 
pcstH of any kind. Primus 
Siinoiii, Bing:, Kostraver 
and Murdoch Cherries; 
Black California Fis:s: Rice Soft Shell ami 
other AlmoiidN; Auieriean Sweet Chestnuts; 
I'rteparturiens \VaInuts. Hardy mountain thrown 
Orange Trees. Our oraiij^cs have stood 'I'i di ;,'r('»*H 
tills winter without injury. l>ollar Straw herry, 
the best, berrv for lionie use or market. Address 
C. M. SILVA & SON. Lincoln. IMacer County. 

Alexander & Hammon, 

RIO BONITO NURSERIES, Biggs, Butte Co., Cal. 


The most Complete Assortment of General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacific Coast. 

1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894=95 in Stock. 

W Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Guaranteed to be healthy and free from 
scale or other pests. 

Send for Calalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander & Hammon, 

Blg:g:8, Butte Countv. Cal. 


4- ^ 




PARAFFINE PAINT CO., 116 Battery St., 


E. G. JUDAH, Agent, 221 South Broadway, Los Angeles. 

Made and Sold 
under the fol- 
lowing: Letters 

No. 1117. in;.. ..Nov. 1.S77 

No. 2fo.4i)S....Deo. :i. 187.S 

No. ;!()(l.(;(lT....Oot. 14. 18S4 

No. 40:!,01!)....Ma.v r. 1889 


Agricultural Machinery. 

The piirpo.sp of this notice is to inform both farmers and merchants, who 
usi- III- sell Horse Forks, that they must not purchase Horse Porks that in- 
I i-in;.'i- I Im alidvc Patents; and to call their attention to the fact that certain 
iKJi-si- i(ii-Us, manufactured by P. E. Myers & Bro.. Ashland, O., and imported 
and sold by the Deere Implement Company, of San Francisco, are direct in- 
frinsjements of the above patent.s, the manufacturers of the infringing forks 
having admitted in court that their forks were an infringement of the above 
pateuts. and are now paying royalty for manufacturing and selling them; and 
they have agreed not to sell any west of the Rocky mountains. 

All parties selling or using these infringing Horse Forks will be promptly 



6:25 Sixth Sti-ee>t, San F'rancisco, Cei\. 

4®' Write for Catalogue No. 1.5, devoted to Pumping Machinery and Steam Engines. "few 



HOOKER & CO., 16=18 Drumm Street, San Francisco. 

Store Your Grain \A/here Your Best -^ssssan^ 
-=ifl2zzzz^!^ Interests \A/in /\I\A/ays t>e Consulted. 



Grangers' Business Association, 


Capacity of Warehouse, 5U,UU0 tons; wharf accommodations tor the largest vessels afloat. 
Grain received on storage for shipment, and for sale on consignment. 


Napa Valley Nurseries. 

Th<~ Fruit Tree Planting Sea.son being over for this season, attention is called to 


CHRYSANTHEMUMS, the best of tho best, now ready. Fine young Plants for fall blooming. 
Ageratums, Achyranthus, Cyperus alternifolius, Palms, Fuchsias, Geraniums, Carnations. Fine 
Plants at low Hgures. 

A great variety of well-grown plants of the most favorite sorts. Send for Catalogue. 
A magnificent stock of fruit trees being grown for next season. 



The Pacific Rural Press 

July 7, 1894. 


Market Review. 

CALVKS— Quotable at 4@6e "f* lb. 

MUTTON— Quotable at 5fe6c V lb. 

LAMB— Sprint;, 6'.jf<i.-!-jc t» lb. 

PORK— Live Hops, on foot, grain fed, heavy ana 
medium, iH("i''i'-'- small Hogs. 4H(" ■•■'»(•: stocK 
Hogs. 3' jc: dres.sed Hogs. eHWiTe V lb. 

Fkancisco. Jul.v 189-4. 

The Produce Exchange has adjourned till July i 
5th. Consequently there is no grain trading, and ' 
quotations are omitted. 

VEGETABLES— The market is crowded with 
stock. Many consignments from Vaoaville show 
the effect of heat and long passage. Quicker time 
Is expected hereafter. We quoleasfollows: Green 
Okra, aOfnioc ft: Kgg plant, -illfn-iic V It.; (-'uoim- 
bcrs 7.5f«'.Klc for VacaviUr, and $1 mnt^. Y box for 
bay; Garden Peas, ic-.J'jc ¥ ft: Summer .Squash, 
lii^aOcV box for Vaoaville and Hl(n5i)c for hay: 
String Beans, If" I'.jC 1' ft; Refugee Beans. !'.;<" j'e 
» ft; Wax Beans, If" l'.;e V ft: CJroen Corn, mn ,.>e 
¥ sack for common and ail(«A'ic V dozen for ba.v : 
Green Peppers. I1.V.1 7.")C V box for (.'hile and .Tllc(a.fl 
« box for Bell; Tomatoes. m-(n$\ ? box: Turnips, 
75c V ctl; Beets, 75c i> sack: Parsnips, $1 2i> V ctl: 
Carrot s..'«^ 40c: Cabbage, 6U(a;75e : Garhc.l'j^S'iC 

ft: Cauliflower. ti(lft7(lc dozen; Dry Peppers, 
17H(«t20c ft. i 

FRESH ERTTIT- Madeline Grapes, first of the 
season, biought 7,ic ¥ crate yesterday. All kinds 
of fruit are now coming in freely, the river txjats 
being heavily laden down. The Watsouville train 
did not arrive yesterday, but growers have ar- 
ranged to ship bv water, via Moss Landing. We 
quote: Peaches. -.Wr .'.<k' t' box and eiifri:i.ic f' bskt; 
Black Figs J.Vn .'lOc "r* box for l-layers and «(ie(«!fl 
for i-layers f< box ; White Figs. Mayer. 2,V" .'Kc : 2- 
lavers " ;Wn f)iic: Cherries. Royal Ann, i(i(u:«lc f" 
drawer and l':.f"-.'e f* ft for loose; Cherries, black, 
•£,(S.4Uc %* box:"do, loose, l(-ie-f ft; Apricots. Royal. 
25(S40c %< iKix. l(lfr.S.x- V bskt, and i'.^ V ft in 
bulk; Currants,*! .50«..J:? T!- chest: Plums, :«ifri,pc | 
box andl.V"40c V bskt; Ctierry Plums. -JDrn.-illc f ' 
drawer; Apples, .•il)(H7,^>c Tt' box. and l.i("-iic "f bskt; 
Pears, 25(a5(ic V box. 

BERRIES— No strawberries are arriving from 
Wat.sonville. Shipments will come by water. We 
quote: Raspberries, $;ir".T "# chest; Strawberries. 
^5Cw6 chest for Sharpless and $8(1. Ill for Long- 
worths: Blackberries, $3. 4 f' chest. I 

CITRLTS FRUIT— We quote as follows: Med- 
iterranean Sweet Oranges, Ifl ;i.=)(« 1 75: Seedlings, 
75cSi$125: Mexican Limes, $3m3.t1I per box: 
California Lemons, .Vlefri -^1 25 for common and 1 
$1.50(3 2 25 for good to choice: Bananas, $1 .T(J(h. , 
2ijO%' bunch: Pineapples, $2(nA 't dozen. 

DRIED FRUIT— We quote as follows: Apples, 
.■ka ec for quartered. .5(o lie for sliced, and «(" 11c for 
evaporated; Pears, «(" He 'f lb for bleached halves \ 
and 2("4cforquartcrs: bleached Peaches. 10(n 11 'jc: i 
sun-dried Peaches. $7(n8c: Apricots. 84c bid for 
July delivery; Prunes. .5(^5' ic for the four sizes, 
-c'for the five sizes and H'-j^ 4c for small : Plums, , 
4te.5c for pitied and l'..c for uupitted : Figs, black. 
3@4c for pressed and l".(3 2c for uupressed. 

RAISINS— California Layers, 60c(o*l; loose j 
Muscatels, in boxes. 75c: clusters, $l2,Vrt I50: 
No. 1, loose in sa< ks. 2'if!.3c "t- lb: -No. 2, do. 2MCa- 
2'/sc: dried Grapes. I'K" Hie V lb. 

NUTS— We quote: Walnuts. BiSTljC for hard 
shell 8(ayc for soft shell and WiSn: for paper I 
shell: California Almonds, nil" lie for soft shell. 
6(Si7c for hard shell and 1 1'jfa 12'2C for paper shell ; 
Peanuts, 3(n.4c: Filberts. lOci in' ; Hickory Nuts, j 
5(a6c; Pecans. 7(f< 8c for rough aud 8C" lOc for pol- i 
Is'hed; Brazil Niits, 8@9c: Cocoanuts. $5 to So 50 

IIXI. 1 

HONEY— We quote as follows; Comb, lii'.cto 
11 He for bright and flffliioc for dark to light am- 
ber; water white extracted. f.'i(n7c: amber ex- 
tracted. C' 7c ; amber extracted, 6' , (ir 7c; dark. [ 
4a4(S5Hc lb. ' 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 24@.2.5c I? lb 

BUTTER— Stocks ample for all current wauls. 
We quote: Fancy Creamery. Hlf" !7c: fancy dairy, i 
15@16e; good to' choice. i:«nl4e; store lots, ll^i. 
12'/.c; pickled roll, new. 17(S lUc V lb. 

CHEESE— We quote : Choice to fancy. Sc to 8'4c ! 
fair to good. 6!i to 7'ic; Eastern, ordinary to ffue. 
14(5. 1.5c ft. 

EGGS— Select ranch' parcels have further ad- 
vanced, being scarce. Store lots are no better. 
We quote as follows; California ranch, 17(n ISic, 
with sales higher: store lots, U^Nc: Eastern 
eggs. 13(a.l4c dozen. 

POULTRY— We quote : Live Turkeys— fiobblers. 
UKfeUc: Hens, lOfo lie; Roosters, ia.ijOCn.W for old. 
*4ra'$6 for young: Broilers, .tl H\ia%-1 for small and 
?3 to *3 .50"for large ; Fryei s. .ji,3 .tO(« -f 1 : Hens. !f3 to 
*4; Ducks, if2 .Vlto if3 for old and f.sra$5 for .young: 
Geese. .Jl for old aud 'hvM %\ 25 'f pair for young: 
Pigeons. *I 25«i*l .5(1 > dozen. 

GAM*; — Nominal. 

PROVISIONS— We iiuote as follows; Easti^rn 
Sugar-cured Hams. 13c f< ft: California Hams, ll's 
(<tl2c: Bacon, Eastern, extra light, sugar-cured, 14 
fd.l.5c: medium. Idc: do. light. 10' .,c: do. light, bone- 
less, 12c: light, medium, boneless. lO'jfu lie: Pork, 
extra clear, bbls. $20; hf bhls. .Jio .■)!): clear, bbls 
$lfl: hfbblsJllJ: boneless Pig Pork. bbls. ?21 .50; hf 
bbls. $11: Pigs' feet.hf bbls.fl 75; Beet. mess, bbls, 
*7 50 to ?8; do. extra mess. bbls. ifH H\Ca *>i; do. fam- 
ily, $U)r.i *10 50; extra, do, lur.ijll .VI V bbl; do. 
smoked, y(u.ll)c; Pickled Tongues, lit hbls.ifK; East- 
ern Lard, tierces. 734f"8e: do. prime, steam. MHc; 
Eastern, pure, lo-ft pails. lO^c: 5-ft pails, lO'^ac; 'A- 
ft pails, lO'ic: California, lO-lb tins, 9c; do .5-ft, 
9''ic: do. kegs, lll'ic; do, 20-ft buckets, 10c: com- 
pound, 7c for tierces. 
WOOL— We quote spring : 

Year's fleece, ft 5® 7c 

Six to eight months, San Joaquin, poor Uiv ti 

Do fair 6(a. 8 

Oregon and Washington- 
Heavy and dirty 6(S 7 

(Sood to choice 8@10 

Valley 10@12 

Heavy 6fti 8 

Choice, light 9fe 10 

HIDES AND SKINS— Quotable as follows: 

Sound. Culls. 

Heavy Steers. .M lbs up, V lb 4':.fo4^.iC .3?4(n4c 

Medium Steers. 78 to Se lbs 3'4(,i Mi 3 f,i — 

Light, 42 to 47 pounds 3 «r3'4 

(;ows, over 50 lbs 3 fn 3'4 

Light Cows, .')0 to 50 lbs 3 (ii — 

Stags 3 (n — 

Kips, 17 to :^0 lbs 4 ill — 

Veal Skins. II) to 17 lbs 5 fa — 

Calf skins. 5 to 10 lbs 7 (« — 

Dry Hides, usual selection, BVie; Dry Kips, 6!4c, 
Ca'lf Skins do. (I' .e; Cull Hides, Kip and Calf. 4c: 
Felts. .Shearlings. Iii((i20i- each: do, short. 2.")fti.')5c 
each; do. mecli\im. 4iif" 50c each: do. long wool. 50((i 
7.5c each; Dci r Skins, summer. 2.5c; do. good 
medium, 15fo 21k- ; do. winter. .5c "t" lb: Goat Skins. 
2.Vn40c apiece for prime to perfect. 1U(«20 for 
damaged, and 5c to Uic each for Kids. 

TALLOW— We quote: Refined, 5'4^,,5?^c: ren- 
dered. 4>i@4Hc: country Tallow. 4c: Grease. 3(a3Hc 
■f lb. 


Following are the rates for whole carcasses from 
slaughterers to dealers: 

BEEF— First quality, 5!'4c ; second quality, WIk : 
third quality, 8H(&»4c ^ lb. 

2 hi 

2 (a 2' s 

2 («- 

3 @- 

4 fli- 
ts ^- 

Tide Wells in the West. 

Scientists favor the opinion that 
Nebraska, Kansas and parts of Indian 
Territory are situated over an immense 
underorround lake or sea. It is a well- 
known fat^t that in several places in 
Kansas whole sections of land have 
suddenly disappeared, leaving only 
fathomless lakelets to mark the spot 
where they were once situated. Proof 
that there is somethinfr peculiar with 
the foundation of the section of coun- 
try mentioned may be found in the 
celebrated "tide wells" of Polk, Butler 
and Colfax counties in Nebraska. Polk 
county is best ])rovided with these 
curious wells, havinfj between a dozen 
and twenty, which roar and ebb and 
flow with tin unseen tide. The roaring 
of these renuirkal)U> curiosities (they 
cannot be called natural wonders, be- 
cause they are the work of man. at 
least so far as excavation is concerned) 
is caused by the inhalation and exhala- 
tion of immense quantities of air. 
There are hours, regular-and uniform, 
in which the air will rush out with a 
loud, hissing sound, and again an 
equal space of time in which it seems 
that all the air of the Platte valley will 
be sucked into th(> cavernous depths of 
these wonderful wells. The i)eriod of 
this eblj and flow does not seem to de- 
pend u])on either the seasons or the 
state of the weather, but is thought to 
htive some mysterious connection with 
the high and low tide periods of the 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans. A meteor- 
ologist of national reputation, who 
sought to fathom the mystery of the 
"Platte river tide wells," and who 
issued a little pamphlet with the title 
"Roaring Wells of Nebraska," gave it 
as his opinion that the roaring phe- 
nomenon was in some way connected 
with the prevailing direction of the 
wind, lieing strongest in time of west 
or southwest breezes. The farmers in 
the three counties mentioned as being 
best provided with these tide-regulat- 
ing, air-expelling wells believe that 
the water supply is connected with a 
body large enough to have a regular 
ebb and flow of tide. All the wells in 
the counties of Polk and Butler which 
are tide regulated are of about the 
same depth, those of Colfax being 
deeper, but all extending to a porous 
stratum having the same general char- 

A French physician has devised a 
vibrating helmet for the cure of nerv- 
ous headache. It is constructed of 
strips of steel, put in vibration by a 
small electro-motor \^-hich makes 600 
turns a minute. The sensation, which 
is not unpleasant, produces drowsi- 
ness; the patient falls asleep under its 
influence, and awakes free from pain. 

Greenland's interior is estimated to 
be covered by a shield-shaped cap of 
snow and ice not less than 5000 feet, 
or one mile, in thickness. 

Every Inventor Wants a Good Patent 

Or none at all. To secure the best patents Invent 
ors have only to address Dkwey & Co., Pionee; 
Patent Agents, No. 220 ?Iarket St., San Francisco. 

Tliert are many ijood reasons wh;/ Pacific d'Ott In 
ventors should patronize thtg Ilnmc Agencii. 

It is the ablest, largest, best, most convenient 
economical and speedy for all Pacific Coast patrons 

It is the oldest oil this side of the American couti 
nent, most experienced, and every way reliable 

It has the largest library of I'-iteut Law books 
American and Koreign Patent OfTice Reports, scien 
tific and mechanical uewspaj>cr files, latest works 01 
science, art, inventions, and mechanical and othei 
new discoveries. 

Conducted from 1863 by its present owners (.\. T 
Dewey, W B. Kwcr and Geo II Strong) tins arrency 
has the best knowledge of patents already issued 
and of the slate of the arts in all lines of iiiventionf 
most common on this coast. 

Patents .secured in the Cnite J Stales. Canada, Mex, 
ico, all British colonies and provinces, England aud 
other civilized countries throughout the giobe. 

Caveats filed, assignments duly prepared, exjimi 
natiors made, and agencral Patent Agency busines> 

listablished aud successfully and popularly con 
ducted for nearly thirty years, our patrons numbci 
many thousands, to whom we refer with confidence, 
as men ofinfluence and reliability Old and new in! 
Venlors are cordially offered the complimentary use 
of our library and free adWce, etc. No other ageiicy 
ran afford Pacific States inventors half the advan- 
tages possessed by this old, well-tried and experi- 
enced firm. 

The second century of the electric 
age has begun this year. The discov- 
ery of Volta was first published in a 
scientific journal at Pavia, where he 
was professor. Volta's theories are 
not exactly followed by modern scien- 
tists, but his pile is in all hands, and it 
was the origin of that extraordinary 
development in the application of elec- 
tricity that has transformed interna- 
tional and social relations, and added 
an altogether new phase to human life. 
Perhaps Volta's discovery has been 
the most fruitful in its effects of any 
that has ever been made. 

Commission Mercliants. 

The Congo has twice the extent of 
the navigable waters of the Mississippi 
and its tributaries, and three times its 


Ton ic 



f*> bax. 


'Dr. VIL1.1AJJS' 
Schenectady, K.T 

•nd BrockrlllCi H'H, 

Of Interest to Consumers ! 

^_ — 

DURING these tiiiips when grain Ih low, 
fruit ditnc'ult to sell and produce of all 
kinds less remunerative tlian it has l>een, 
farmers and fruit-growers find tlieir in<-oineH 
are less tlian tliey expected, aiul as a result it 
is eHsential tliat wliat tliey use sliould be sup- 
piled to tliem at tlie lowest posst1>le cost. Tlie 
Pacific 4'oaHt Home Supply Association lias for 
a number of years supplied a larg^e number of 
families tlirouKliout tlie coast witli tlieir 
necessities and liave been so sueeessfnl in pur- 
cliasinf; advantageously for their patrons that 
their business sliows a constant increase, and 
tliey are still at the old stand ready to attend 
to the wants of the public. Other organiza- 
tions of similar nature have started, and some 
of them have gone out of existence, while in 
other cases tliey have failed to give the best 
of satisfaction. This has sometimes operated 
to destroy eonlldence, but there Is no question 
the plan of shipping direct to consumers and 
making the road from manufacturers to con- 
sumers as direct as possible is the most eco- 
nomical wa3' of conducting business, and as a 
result you <'an obtain better goods for l<'ss 
money by using the Association than through 
any other source. Those who are not mem- 
bers would do well to write to headquarters 
for Information, wlilch will gladly be sup- 
plied, and If their representative sliould be In 
your nelghborliuod at any time, he will lie In- 
structed to call upon you and explain the sys- 
tem thoroughly. 

KEMKMHKU. the address of tills .-Vssocia- 
tlon is 13a .Market street. San Francisco, with 
branch houses at I.os .Vngdes and I'ortland. 


As 's:iresse(l In oli, Ilazor Bark, wti,, was slroppln' 
hlssell' un a balib wire. "Speakur er de eberlutlon 
Ob fences; fust, desmoov wire made ns alllalT, 
nextde balibwire bad on brer hiise; den, wire 
nettln' skeered we'unslU we foun' It uldn't las' 
obcr night; forf. de big wire wid de long stitches 
bovercd ole mis cow glttln' her hohns back, but de 
good Lawd BHbe us f rum dis yer new Spring fens, 
I bleeb de 'debble' Is colled rlt« Inter hit." 



Loans nesfOliated on llrst-elass securities. Mines 
and mining prospects of guaranteed value sold on 
working bonds. t'. H. UWINELLK, Cirand 
Hotel, San Francisco, t'al. 


404&^06 DAVIS STS.F. 




ifi General Commission Merchants, ^ 

310 C.^I.II-OKM.V ST.. S. V. 

Members of the Siiu Francisco Produce ?2xchange. 

Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on coDsignments at low rates of 



Capital Paid I'p «!il, (100,000 

Reserve Fund and Undivided Protits, 130,000 
Dividends Paid to .Stockholders.... 833,000 


A. D. Lf)GAX President. 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President. 

A LBERT MOXTPELLlER. . . .Cashier and Manai;er. 
FKANK M< ML'LLEN Secretarj-. 

General Uanklnp. Deposits Received. Gold .ind 
Silver. Bills of E.^ehaiiire Hout'lii and Sold. Loans 
on Wheat and Coiuurv Prodne,' a Spt'elalty. 

January 1. WM. A. -MOXTI'ELLIEK. Manat'i'r. 


tl.t.mUDtRII. FUUVWtRRtirrn 

DaUnnA M rear K. K iit«tk>« u4 wnpM tuM M 
Bnildiac aa^ UatiD* tilotna bafcn TT-rrttnt«. 

taGOOO « THOMPSOH. Binghoarton. A k 


Twenty-five per ctiit cheainr than any other on ihe 

market. Semi for ( ';ita!o{;up. 

C. H. LINDEMANN, A?ent, 

186 i.E.VKN V ^STK^;KT, SAN FK.\NCIS< <). 

Davis' Cream Separator Chum, power 
hot water and feed cooker combined. 
Agents wanted. Send for circular. All 
sizes Hand Cream Separators. 
Davis Si Kankin B. & M. t-o. Chicago. 

,.^^•^20 MARKET. ST.S.F.,^ 
V_£LEVATOR la FRONT. ST.S.F._-i'^ 

July 7, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


Bulletin No. 11, of the California 
State Fruit Exchange. 

July 3d, 1894. 
The reports of our correspondents in the in- 
terior are very meager, no mails having 
reached us since Friday morning, June 29. 
H'rom Oregon and Washington we have re- 
ports of good crops of Apples, Plums and 

The Apricot crop of the Sacramento and San 
.luaquiu valleys is generally being dried. 
VVith bright, warm weather and the improved 
appliances for bleaching and drying, a very 
e,\cellent article of dried fruit is being pro- 

A few firm offers have been made for dried 
Apricots for early July delivery, at prices 
l uiiKing from S% to 10 cents per lb., f. o. b. 
interior terminal points, for Eastern shipment. 
VVith reasonably good management, it is safe 
to predict that the entire output of really 
choice Apricots can be marketed within this 
range of prices. 

The brokers who are offering dried fruit in 
Eastern markets at ruinously low prices be- 
fore there is I'eally any fruit for sale by grow- 
ers, relying on consignments later on to supply 
all such sales, may realize that the growers 
do not readily forget their severe experience 
of last year. There is a determination on the 
part of gj'owers and responsible dealers o^ in- 
sist upon i. 0. b. .sales. The great advantage 
of this method to the fruit industry needs but 
to be compared to the indiscriminate consign- 
ments of former years to be appreciated and 
generally adopted by all. 


This most important matter to growers, 
packers and dealers in dried fruits has for 
some time past been under consideration by 
the Santa Clara County Exchanges, the San 
Francisco Fruit Exchange, and the California 
Fruit Exchange, and the following standards 
and names for the various grades have been 
agreed upon as follows : 

/''ii;icj/ AprU-dtx (tml Nfi-Uiriiien. — Made from 
luUy ripened fruit, two inches and largei in 
diameter, well bleached, bright, clean and 
well cured. 

JVo. I At»icols aiiii IS'irlartncK. — Made from 
fully ripened fruit, from \% to 2 inches in di- 
ameter, well bleached, bright, clean and well 

Standard Apricots and JVccfartnpx.— Merchant- 
able fruit, not fully up to the standards re- 
quired for No. 1. 

I^rimr Aprirotn and Xfctarittfs. — Comprising 
small fruit, slabs, over ripe, not perfectlj- 
ripened, culls, etc., and all fruit not meeting 
the requirements of Standards. 


Faniy Peaches. — Made from fully ripened 
fruit, inches and larger in diameter, clean, 
well bleached and well cured. 

A'", I Peaclien. — Made from fully ripened 
I'l'uit, from 2 to 2J4 inches in diameter, clean, 
bright in color and well cured. 

Staiidaril Fi ac)ie>i. — Good, merchantable fruit, 
not meeting the requirements of No. 1, and 
may average smaller, 

I'rime Pfdc/if.s.— Embracing all dried peaches 
so defective in quality as to render them un- 
suitable for the above grades to be sold by 


h'ancy Pc(/r,s.— Made from fully ripened Bart- 
letts, 3% inches and larger in diameter, either 
halves or quarters, clean, bright and well 

iVo. 1 PfiiuK. Made from fully ripened Bart- 
letts, from '.i to 2% inches in diameter, either 
halves or quarters, clean, bright and well 

Standard Peam. — Made from well-ripened 
Bartletts, not meeting the requirements of 
No. 1 in size, color or general conditions. 

I'rime Pears. — Inferior dried pears, to be .sold 
by sample only. 

Peeled peaches and pears shall be graded 
by the same standards of excellence as un- 

In grading plums and other fruit the same 
terms shall be used to indicate the various 

The grading of prunes will conform to the 
present method. 

The Fresno standards for grading raisins 
will be generally adopted to avoid i-adical 

In this connection a grading committee was 
provided for, consisting of three representa- 
tives from each of the three leading exchanges, 
whose duty it is to secure and select samples 
as standards for the various grades and kinds 
of dried fruit, certify to the same, and cause 
such standards to be provided in sufficient 
quantity to supply all growers, packers and 
dealers ordering them in accordance with such 
rules and regulations as the exchanges may 
from time to time adopt. 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or less In this directory at 50c per line per 

Horses and Cattle. 

F. H. BUKKK, (BK Market St.. S. F. Al Prize Hol- 
steins; Grade MUch Cows. Pine Pigs. 

H. P. MOHR, Mt. Eden. Cal. Importer and Breeder 
of Clydesdale Horses, Holstein-Frleslan Cattle and 
Berkshire Pigs. Young stock on hand and for sale. 

JKRSEYS— The best A. J.C.C. registered prize herd 
is owned by Henry Pierce, S. F. Animals for sale. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma. Registered Shorthorn 
Cattle. Both sexes for sale. 

PKTKR SAXK & SON, Lick House, S, F., Cal, Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

.JERSEYS AND HOLSTEINS, from the best But- 
ter and Mflk Stock; also Thoroughbred Hogs and 
Poultr.v. William Niles & Co., Los Angeles, Cal, 
Breeders and Exporters. Established in 187H. 


.J. W. FOR(JElIS, Santa Cruz. Cal. Tliree well-bred 
Brown Leghorn cockerels or 2 pullets and 1 cock- 
erel for A handsome lot of Barred Plymouth 
Rocks. I shall breed from 20 pens of P. Rocks this 
coming season. All interested visit my .yards or 
correspond. Mammotli Pekiii Ducks. Satisfaction 
guai-aiiteed. Reference: People's Bank. 

A. HrsCHKK, Tracy, Cal. Breeder of S. C. White 
Legliornsand B. P. Rocks. Eggsjl, Sil.51) per setting. 

VVII.I.IAM NII,KS&('0., Los Angeles. Cal. Nearly 
all varieties of Poultry, Dairy Cattle and Hogs, 

<'AI,IK()RNI.\ P<)l!LTKY KAltiM, Stockton. Cal. 
.Sentl for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

Sheep and Goats. 

.1. i{. IIOVT. Bird s Landing, (^al. Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; a Iso breeds Cross- 
bred Merino and Shropshire Sheep, Rams for s.ilc. 
Prices to suit the times. Correspondence solicited. 

R. H. CRANK, Petalunia; Cal, Bi-eeder & Importer, 
Southdown Sheep, also Fox Hounds from Missouri, 


F. II. HCRKK.trii; Market St,, S. F,— BERKSHIRES. 

THOS. .1. KERNS, Downey. Cal. Breeder of Regis- 
tered Berkshire Hogs. 

■J. I". ASHI.EV, Linden, S;in Joaquin Co,, Cal. 
Breeds Pol.aiid-C'liina, Essex :uui Yorkshire Swine. 

."VIONROK IMIM.ER, Elisio, Ventura Co,, Cal, 
Breeder of Registered Berkshire Hogs, 

H. .1. I'HII.POTT, Niles. Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Tecumseh and other clioice strains of 
Registered Poland-China Hogs. 


Best Stock; also Dairy Strains of Jerseys and Hol- 
steins. \Vni. Niles & <'«., Los Angeles. Est. 187t;. 

1". II. Ml'ISPHY, Perkins. Sac. Co. Breeder Short- 
horn Cattle. Poland-China and Berkshire Hogs. 

TVI.KR REACH. San Jose, Cal, Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

CH.VS. A. STOWK. Stockton, Regist d Berkshires, 

In These Dull Times 

You Can',I^argely Increase 

Your income b,v buying an Incu- 
bator and engaging in the chicken 
business. Send stamp for otir 
catalogue of Incubators. Wire 
Netting. Blooded Fowls and Poul- 
ti'v Appliances generally. Remem- 
hn- the fjf.ff i.'i the Wirapcsf. PACIFIC 
INCUBATOR CO., 1:117 Castro St,, 
Oakland, C;il. 

Wvo.MiNG has 80,000 .square miles of 
coal deposits. There are 5000 miles of 
irrigatino- canals, waterinij' 2.000,000 
acres. The canals cost over $10,000,000. 
The live stock interests exceed $100,- 
000.000 in value. Over $5,000,000 in 
bullion has bern taken from the mines 
in one county. 


SANTA ROSA. CAL. (Care Santa Rosa National 
Bank.) Importer. Breeder. Exporter. 
S. C \A/hIte Leghorns, 
S. C Bro\A/n Leghorns, 
Barred F*ly moult h Roo k s, 
Blacic /Vllnorcas.""^'^ 
Eggs, $.3 per 1.3.'4» «S^Send for Circular. 

, . THK 


o'j*b CO/VlF»/\NV, 

rjj ! .Myrtle Street, Oakland, Cal. 

■'•I ' Send Stamp for Circular. 



y^Ji^ BOOKlNCUBfinONjCTs^ U5ES &S.^S 

Short ■ Horn Hulls ! ■ At lf..|tspe." dozen. K .youdo^n it, write me 

For Sale, 


Baden Station. San Mateo Co.. Cal. 

The cai^ o{ the S. F. and San Mateo Electric Road 
pass the place. 

At 12 cents per dozen. If you doubt it, write 
ind 1 will tell you how. Give plainly your name, 
address and business. H. K. STARKWEATHER, 
310 California street, San Francisco. 


Hot Water: Venlliation: Moisture; Self-Regulating; 
No Watching; Chickens removed without oiienlng 
niachlne-f20, $40, $7li. Now is the time to use 
Wei.i.inoton's Imphovko Eoo Foon. Every grocer 
keeps it. B. P. WELLINGTON. Prop., 420 Waahlne- 
ton Street. San Francisco. 

Write for Catalogue No. 1.5. 








With only one valve and GREATEST ECONOMY OF FUEL. 
Cheaper than Single Engine of same horse power. 

^^^^^MANUFACTURED BY -^^^^^ 


635 Sixth Street, San Francisco. 


^_.Maaak. SAN .lOSE, CAL. ^^Mmm..^ 

Agricultural Imple^m^nts. 


-~ „,nrrnf^P^ Write for Circulars and Prices. Sent free. 

Gem Steel Windmill 

With Graphite Boxes. 

Guaranteed more durable without oil 
than other mills that are oiled. Prac- 
tically these mills require no attention. 
TRULY A GEM. and worth its weight 
in gold. It combines beauty, strength, 
durability and simplicity. Governs 
itself perfectly, is easily erected, and is 
sold on its merits; in fact, it is the 
best mill on earth. The mill is made 
entirely of Steel and Cast Iron, Each 
one of our Gem Windmills is guaran- 


We carry a full line all kinds Pumps— for hand, windmill and power use. 
Pipe, Pipe Fittings, Brass Goods, Hose, Tanks, etc 





312-314 Market Street. 

San Francisco, Cal 

Pigs of all ages for sale. 


p. O Box 686. Los Angeles, Cal. 


The numerous diseases that are usually preva- 
lent among very Young Turkeys may 
be prevented bv the use of 


Send for Circular, 

E. FOUGERrt <fc CO. 

30 North William Street. - - - New York. 


Porteous Improved Scraper. 

Patented April H, ISSH. Patented April 17. lSK:i, 



I'ost Street, 


i College, 

San Francisco. 


This CoUegre InstructH in .Shorthand, Type-Writlnf;, 
Uookkeepiii);, Teletrraiihy, Penmanship, Drawiufr, 
all the English branches, and everything pertaining 
to business, for full six months. We have sixteen 
teachers and give individual instruction to all our 
pupils. Our school has Its eradnates In every part 
of the State. Send for Circular. C. S. HALEY. Sue. 

Manufactured by G. LISSKNDEN. 

The attention of the public is called to this 
Scraper and the many varieties of work of which it 
is capable, such as Railroad Work, Irrigation 
Ditches, Levee Building, Leveling Land, Road Mak- 
ing, etc. 

This implement will take up and carry its load to 
any desired distance. It will distribute the dirt 
evenly or deposit its load in btilk as desired. It 
will do the work of Scraper, Grader, and Carrier. 
Thousands of these Scrapers are In use in all parts 
of till- country. 

Z i'' This Scraper is all Steel— the only one manu- 
ractui-eii In the State. 

Price, all Steel, fotir-horse, KII40; Steel, two-horse, 
!1|i;{l. Address all orders to 



6IT vioioua 

73,000 sold In 1891. 
1 00,000 sold In 1892. 


Sample mulled X C for ♦ I flfl 

Nickel, 81.50. 
Stallion Bits SO cts. extra. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

Jiilv 7, 1894. 





The Schuttler Improved Tubular Axle Wagon. 

This represents the very latest, and, in many respects, the most important improvement that has ever been effected in metal-axle 
wagons, whether with solid iron axles, or hollow steel tubes. 

The cut shows its application to the popular " National Tubular Axles," in which it entirely supersedes the grooved wooden axle- 
stock, and in its stead insures even bearing, as well as a firm, direct and positive connection between bol.stcr and axle. 

The Schuttler improvement consists of a patent re-enforcing sleeve driven onto each end of the axle, leaving flat bearings, to 
which the Bolster or hind Gear, and Sand Board on front Gear, are firmly clipped, thus doing away with the wooden axle-stock, and 
making a perfect, thereby insuring nearly double the strength of the old style Tubular Axle.s. 

^^^►^ WRITE FOR PRICES. -^^^^ 

DEERE IMPLEMENT CO., 305&3Q7Market St., San Francisco. 


j to 44', FkBnONT STkEHT. 

.•iAN f kANClSCO, CAL. 

No. 31.- I -inch Kteel iixl.-. I. atli. r I rliiiint'il. I"i i<-.- f!<t. 

HARNESS, $7. * BUGGIES, $75. * SURREYS, $130. 

^1 Gilman*s Patent Tuk Tree Protector. 


jjfci Cheapfst. Iwsl unii only one to protect trees and vines from Irost. sun- 

burn, rabbits, squirrels, borers and otlier tree pests. 

B''or testimonials from parties who are using them scnil for ilcscriplive 


Sole /V\ f» n LI f « o t ij r e- r of F^a tent Tule Cov/ers, 
■I'^O Ninth Str*'*'t, Sail KraiK-inc-o. <'hI. 

R/\ISIIN \A/R/\F»S, S\A/E/\X F»/\RER, 


WAX OR PARAFFINK PAl'KR, as well as a large variety of other P apers for the wrapping auit 
packing of Green and Dried Fruits and Raisins. 


5. P. Taylor Paper Co. 

"♦lO Olay Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Goods Shipped Everywhere 

♦ ■♦■ ♦ 

No. IX.— 1-inch axle. Price *lft. 

No. 19a. 1-iiicli axle. Price S8n. 




F^ERKirSS* F»uyv\RS 

For All Purposes. 

Use for operation only One-Half Pint Kerosene per hour per horse power. 


-^oannz^^ COMPLETE OUTFIT, 2400 GALLONS PER HOUR, $300. 

Wnti' for niustriilci-i rataluL'u.^. 

PERKINS PUMP AND ENGINE CO., llf Main St., San Francisco. 

fii nuine only with RED 
BALL brand. 
Recommended by Gold- 
smith. Marvin. Gamble. 
Wt'Us. Fargo & Co., etc., 
etc. Il keeps Horses and 
( atllchealthy. Formilch 
cows; it increases and 
i iirichcs their milk. 
Ul» Howard St.. 
San Franclaco, Cal. 

Feed our Poultry Food and you will have healthy chickens and lots of eggs. Ask your dealer for tt. 


Vol. XLVIII. No. 2. 

The Hop-Picking Industry in California. 



Offlcp. 230 Market Strepl. 

The accompanying scenes in the hop fields of Yuba 
county during the season of harvest have the double 
merit of absolute fidelity to nature and of extreme 
prettiness in themselves. The luxuriant and grace- 
ful trellises, the busy camp scene, the Indian family 
about its mid-day " muck-a-muck," the very sweet 
and kissable young woman in the upper left-hand cor- 
ner — all these are realities so characteristic of hop- 
picking as to give something of romantic charm to 
an industry which has a very practical business 
basis. The center 
of the hop indus- 
try in California 
is at Wheatland, 
Yuba county, 
where Dr. Durst, 
the " Hop King," 
has 350 acres in 
vines and where 
there are many 
other smaller 
yards. For the 
following facts in 
connection with 
this d i s t r i c t — 
and for the pic- 
tures accompany- 
ing — we draw 
upon the ' 'Spring- 
time Special " 
edition of the 
Marysville Aj>p<<(l 
of June 10th: The 
first hop plants 
brought to this 
State was in 1855, 
and were i m- 
jiorted by Wilson 
Flint from Ver- 
mont, and experi- 
mented with in 
Alameda and 
then in S a c r a- 
m e n to counties. 
Hops in this State 
yield bountifully 
the first year, 
whereas in the 
Eastern States it 
takes three years 

from planting to get a full crop of seven or eight 
hundred pounds to the acre, compared to 1500 to 
2000 pounds to the acre, which is an average yield 
jor the first year in this favored State. 

The harvesting season is free from rain, wind or 
frost, which causes such great loss in other locations. 
California hops have been particularly free fi'om dis- 
eases that affect them in other States, such as mold, 
lice, grubs, mildew, red spider and scale. They are 
clean and bright, which is much appreciated by 
English buyers, who are very partial to California 
hops. The character of land on which they are 
generally grown is the bottom land of rivers and 
creeks, where there is plenty of moisture to mature 
them without rain or irrigation. The principal 
counties in which they are grown are Yuba, Sacra- 
mento, Sonoma and Mendocino. The first experiment 
with hops in Yuba county was made in 1883 by Dr. 
D. P. Durst, and to-day there are over 1000 acres in 
the immediate neighborhood of Wheatland, and each 
succeeding year sees it increasing. 

There are various ways of training hops. One, by 
poles of sixteen or eighteen feet, two to the hill; an- 

other is with stakes eight feet long, one to the hill, 
with strings or wires drawn horizontally across the 
field at right angles to each other, fastened to top of 
stake by staple. Yet another and the most popular, 
is the trellis system. This .system is the one gener- 
ally used by large hop-growers. It consists of posts 
similar to telegraph poles, about twenty feet long; 
the outside poles are set firmly in the ground, well 
braced; a strong wire is stretched across the top of 
the poles each way, and to these wires are tied 
strong strings, pegged down to each hill of hops. 
The variety of hojis grown in this State is the large 

Solano Wins. 


American. The hop-grower is kept busy the year 
round. Planting is generally done in January and 
February, tying vines to poles in April and May; 
picking begins in August. 

The Winters Express says that a sanguinary fight 
occurred last week on Chas. Langenour's ranch near 
Woodland. It seems that Mr. Langenour engaged a 
company of Japs, who agreed to work eleven hours a 
day. Later he employed another batch, who agreed 
to work twelve hours for the same price. This pre- 
cipitated a war, in which knives and clubs were 
freely used. A number on each side wei-e horribly 
beaten. One Jap was fatally stabbed, having re- 
ceived a deep gash on the neck, nearly severing the 
jugular vein. 

The demoralization of the San Francisco fruit mar- 
ket under the burden of consignments of fresh fruits, 
which under ordinary circumstances would go eiv.A, 
is illustrated by the fact that street hawkers 
were offering fine, luscious peaches for 25 cents per 

The magnificent cup of gold put up by one of the 
San Francisco daily newspapers to be awarded to 
the county receiving the most votes at the Midwinter 
Fair, was given on Friday of last week to the repre- 
sentatives of Solano county. The conditions of voting- 
were that each ballot should be accompanied by a 
coupon cut from one of the issues of the journal 
donating the cup, the project therefore being an ad- 
vertising scheme. The fight was between Alameda 
and Solano counties aad the latter won it by enlisting 

San Francisco in 
its behalf. Nearly 
a million votes 
were cast in the 
contest and not 
one of the fifty - 
seven counties in 
the State was 
without rej^re- 
sentation. It is, 
of course, gratify- 
ing to the Solano- 
ites to win the 
fight, but it really 
signifies nothing, 
since under such 
c i r c u m s t a n ces 
voting, like kiss- 
ing, goes by favor 
rather than upon 
a judicial esti- 
mate of compara- 
tive merits. The 
fight for the cu]) 
has had the effect 
to attract atten- 
tion to Solano, 
which somehow 
seems to have 
escaped the gen- 
eral notice due to 
her i-eal merits. 
I n t h (> w hole 
range of Califor- 
nia there is no 
county w h i c h 
combines greater 
v a V i e t y a n d 
wealll) nf nati\'e 
r e s o u r c e wit h 

such advantages of climate and proximity to trans- 
poi'tation. The editor is under engagement to drive 
over this county in the near future and lie hopes 
within a few weeks to give the i-(>aders of the Riir.m, 
the results of his obsei'vations. 

Mr. C. H. Lbggett of Oroville, having been on a 
visit to the White, Cooley & Cutts oi'chard, on the 
border-line between Butte and Yuba counties, in- 
formR the Register that "he considers it the finest 
orchard along Feather river, from the care and 
attention it receives and the wonderful growth of 
trees. There will be a good crop of peaches and 
prunes." The editor of the Rural, who visited this 
same orchard a year ago, is able to confirm thi.s: 
testimony. The thing chiefly remarkable is the 
effect of thorough culture upon a somewhat heavy 
upland. By giving care and labor to it Mr. Cutts 
has achieved results far surpassing those whose 
advantages of situation are far superior. There 
is no place in which intelligence and diligence 
will yield better results than in the work of the 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 14, 1894. 


OJIire. JJii Mftiki't .St.; Klfralnr. Xo. n Front St. .Sun Frniirixm. Cnl. 

All Hubwrlbers paying W in .ulvjiiiee will rwlve IS months' (oiin 
ywir and 13 week»i oredil. For f2 in advanci'. UP monllis. For $1 in 
:i(lv;incH, livfMnonlliH. 


; Week. I Miiiilh 

I'er Line lasate) * ■■2r> * .M 

Half-Inch (1 sciuarei l.tX) ■2.:<>i 

One Incli l.SO S.IK) 

Lart-c advertisements at favorable rates. SiJecial or reading notices, 
lejfal advertlHements, notices appearing in exlraordinaiy type, or lu 
particular i)art8 of the paper, at special rates. Pour Insertions are 
rated in a month. 

: .\l<,iit'li!<. 
$ l.'.'d 


; IViir. 

if 4.m 


Keristered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mall matter. 

Our latent forms yn to prom H'cdneddai/ eveniuu. 

Anv subscriber sendintr an inquiry on any subject to the Rckal witti a poataffe stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
columns of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be fflven 
as promptly as practicable. 

AI,FKKI> H<H,.MAN Kditor. 

K. .1. WK KSOS Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, July 14, 1894. 


identity of uiH-ortiiin varieties. The work of the 
Ijoard in thi.s ros])eet was ('Si)eeial!y valuable in re- 
lation to almonds and walnuts, coneerninu; whic h there 
is a woeful lack <'f exai't knowledfi-c. Another iiii- 
])ortan1 .sei-vice oi the Boaivt in eonneetion with the 
Fair was the free distribution of fruits, rijie olives 
and oil saiii])les in the i tTort 1o prt mote i>o|)ular 
knowledfje and taste for jjrodutds (■om])arat ivel y little 
v.sed by ])eo])le ^eiiei'ally: also the free (listrii)uti(iii of 
jiriiited matter relative to the fruit interest. Secre- 
tary J^elon^'' and Pi-of. Craw s]yon\ a fjreat deal of 
time in ])ersonal attendance at Hoi-ticultural hall re- 
ceivin": visitors -official and casual — from all parts of 
the world, and in inijjartinf^ int'orniation very im- 
portant to the fruit interest and doubly impressive 
from personal exposition with the aid of the com- 
parative illustrations at hand. Another important 
work was the assistance rendered by Secretary 
Lelon<^ to the several county days, his etTort bein^r 
in tlie very practical and useful line of emphasizino; 
the productive resoui-ces of each county in its turn. 
On the wliole. tlie work of the Board of Horticulture 
at the Fair was a good work well done — anii)ly wor-th 
the three tliousand dollai\s which it cost, brn-ne in 
equal ])ro))(n-tion by the State and by ])rivat(' sub- 

street, wlie)<e business ses.sions are held each mom- 
in>r. .\nyb<Kly legitimately connected with tlie fruit 
trade, either as a dealer cr {grower, is elit'ible for 
membership, tlie entrance fee hf'ing $10 and the 
monthly dues *2. The ofticers are: President, Frank 
Dalton; Secretarv, T. S. Tavlor; Directors— D. K. 
AllLson, A. H. Castle, A. I)'. Cutler. Fi-ank Dalton. 
M. Fontana. A. T. Hatch. D. H. Porter. This or- 
^^anizatioii may. if it will, serve the fruit interest in 
inany ways. Jt is profoundly to be hoped that it will 
Uinit its operations to actual business ti-ansactions 
and not fall into the bad practice of <,'amblin<,' in 
" futures,'" '"options " and other fictions. This is the 
danfjerous tendency of all such conti-ivances: and it is 
perhaps too much to expect that this will prove an 
exception to the rule. It sliould be said that by 
many it has been assumed that the San Francisco 
Fruit Exchange is an organization in opposition to 
the State Fruit Exi'hange: i)ut this idea is wholly 
ei-roneous. The purjioses of tlie two Fxehanges have 
no relation to each other. 

OperatiiiiiK of the 

IT.I.U.STR.^TIONS.— Characteristic Hop-Picking Scenes. I". Scenes 
in and Around Denver, Col.. 'iO. 

I'.iJI'l'OFnA I.S.— Tlie Hop-I'iclsing Industry in (California: Solano 
Wius; Miscellaneous, IT. The Week, 18. From an Independent 
Staniipciiiit. l'.i--^l. 

HOKTICfl^Tl'KlO.— The Strike and the Fruit Interests: Getting 
itid of (Idpher.s; The Pomelo: Choice Sweet i'eas, ai. Thinning 
Down Mixi'd Orchards, 21. 

FKUIT MAKKETINC;.— A New General Co operation in F'ruit Ship- 
ment. 21-^i. 

THE DA IKY. —Churning at a Low Temperature: Making Milk 
Sugar at llreameries; A New Dairy Product: Wliat is Dairying, 22. 

THE IKKItJATOii.— Irrigation Projects in Yolo County. 22. 

TKACK AND FA U.M.— Marketable Horses: Disposing of the Sur- 
plus in the Northwest. 2.'t. 

THE POIIETRY YARD.— Inquiries from a Newcomer: Mongolian 
Pheasants; Chicken Cholera. 2^. 

THE HGME CIRl'I.E.— Visi(ms of Light: A Class-Day Tragedy: 
HeacouslleUrs Idea of Greatness, 2-1. Helping on the (lainins; 
I'leasanlrirs. 2.">. 

Till': Yor.N'G FOLKS.— Picnic Time: Milly. the Horse. 2^. 

1)0MJ-;STIC KCONtiM v.— Cold Meats for Hot Weather. 

PATRONS OF HCSHA.NDRY — Note: San .lose Grangi-. 2SI. 


MISCELLA.VEOTS.— lu and .\round Denver. Colorado, 2B. The 
World's Gohl and Silver l->r(xluction for Twenty Years; Emigra- 
tion from the United States, 28. Weather and Crops: Light on 
Logarithms; The .Iron in One's Body: A Paper Fire l-:hgine: 
Items. 211. Midwinter Fair Premiums, .SU-Sl. 


■ FIx«'<l Prices* 

The Week. 

. The .state has warmed up considtn-ablv 

A> **atlier and * 

^ during the week, and this refers to the 

weather as well as to the indignation of 
those wlio have suffered from interference' witli estab- 
lished means of travel and transportation, as de- 
scribed upon other pages. Almost all lines of pro- 
duction have bet^n inconvenienced and injured. Fruit- 
driers without trays or suiphur, caijners without 
sugar, grain-threshers without sacks, cheese-makers 
without rennet, and liustling interior cities without 
l)eer — it is little wiinder that other things lia\ c been 
warm as well as the weather. Near the coast the 
temperature has favored local industries. Heat be- 
low the normal, moisture above normal and amount- 
ing to preci])itation in some localities, have carried 
verdure a few more days into the dominion of the 
arid, indeed, the season has shaped its ending well. 
There has not yet been a blasting nortlier, but west 
and south winds liave tempered heat and conserved 
moisture. In the interior, heat has lx;en ad(H|uate to 
the needs of tlie fruit-driers and the grain-liarvesters. 
If we can pass beyond the evils of the strike, as now 
seems assured, we shall take a fresh start in the 
effort to pull profit and prosperity out of tlie sloughs 
and pitfalls of a per\-erse era. There is yet time for 
a long run of fruit-shipping and an unparalleled 
amount of di-ying, which should command much gold 
and comfort. 

In last week's Rurai, the editor took 
issue with what lie understood to be 
the position of Mr, H, K. Pratt in 
the matter of " agi'eed " or " fixed " prices of Cali- 
fornia fruits to be sold in the Eastern markets under 
co-operation, holding it to be^ impossible to make 
jn'ices arliitrarily because the conditions which regu- 
late values are constantly changing. But it seems 
that Mr. Pratt was not oorrtn tly understood, as the 
following note will (>xplain: 

S.vx Francisco, July 7, lsi(4, 
'I'll THE KiM'nut : In yotu' tc>-(la.v's issue refeiriiig to an ar- 
tii'le coiii-eniing interview witli me, I see I wan misuixlef- 
stood iis iog-iif(is " tixiuK I'fiees.'" 'la^rec with you lieai'tily 
that these lixeii values he from day to day. The buyer 
11(11' Ihe seller cannot fix these price.s alone or tliey beeonm a 
speculation. Sujiply and deniaiid rofrulates these luatters re- 
gardless of either buyer or seller: and when once you have a 
complete soiling? representation, and your lines well estat>- 
lished ill all particulars, the .shippers must accept the values 
these conibined agencies will give them, and this must be the 
hig'hest value these United States can afford to pay for your 
pi-oducts based on the demand of the coiusumers at large, and 
any other values are fii-titious iind a speculation, Respect- 
fufly yours, H, K. Pkatt. 

We are glad to find Mr. Pratt on the i-ight side of 
this subject, for it is of .gi'eat imiHirtance that the 
notion that prices can be fixed ai-i)iti arily should bi- 
got ten rid of. This fallacy is the chief cause, of most 
co-operative failures in California and elsewhere. 
Peojile start out to accomplish an impossible thing, 
and failing to do it, lose iieart altogether and be- 
come more than before the victims of wrong methods. 
Co-operation cannot change the laws of business, but 
it may conduct busint'ss in accordance with its laws 
for the profit. of the producing class rather than 
against it. This is all that co-oiieration can do: and, 
indeed, it is all that it need to do. 

As recently announced, the State 
Fruit Exchange has gone into the 
lousiness of receiving and selling dried 
fruits, etc, on commission, upon the jilan outlined in 
its terms of organization. Its operations, however, 
are not conducted by itself, but through a new or- 
ganization — the California Distributing Co.— which is 
an enlargement of the commission firm of Schilling A 
Co. The main pohit in the ])lan of operations is the 
retention of fruit in California until such time as it 
shall actually be .sold, the effort being to break down 
tlie practice of consigning fruit to Eastern mercJiants 
or brokers, who often use such consignments to break 
the market in theii- own interest and against the in- 
terest of the seller in California, To go into the 
business oi handling fruit in a large way. and esjieci- 
ally upon the i)lan of f. o. b. .sales, as ab ive outlined, 
requires a very lai-ge capital: and tli • K.\change 
1 found it necessary either to kee)) out of the business 
j altogether, or to operate through others; hence the 
I engagement with the Distributing Co. The Ki'RAi, 
must, to be entirely frank with its readers, say that, 
in its judgment, this engagement is a mistake. 
It would, we believe, have been better to post- 
pone actual marketing operations until such 
time as they might be carried on indepeiui- 
I ently, and to have devoted the energies of the I'lx- 
i change wholly to the work of extending airl strengtli- 
^ ening organization among the growers. The ixili; y 
adojited. if ni^t the wist^st, is at least one that will 
(>nable the Exchange to exert a very consid -rable in- 
; fluiMK I' directly upon the methods of dried-fruit mar- 
keting, and it ought not to fail of some g tod results. 
A leading feature of the Exchang ■ work will the 
! i>*suance of its Bulletin, which will hereaft •!• appear 
j in the RiiRAL Press each week in its full nfTicial f >rm. 
1 it is no longer issued :is a si)ecia! and distinct publi- 
I cation. 

Mr. CJinl's 

It4»ar4l of llortlciill lire 

lit the Fair, 

The exhibit of the State Board 
of [lorticulture, which has b(>en 
so conspicuous a feature of the 
Midwinter Fair, is now in process of removal to the 
Board rooms at 220 Sutter street, where it is again 
to be set u]) and maintained permanently open to 
jiublic inspection. From a strictly Californian point 
of view tliis exhibit has been the most interesting 
and iin])ortant of all the vast disjilay at the Fair, It 
included an immense variety of our fruits, dried and 
in jars, all in l)eautiful and attractive form; also a 
iiiagnific(>nt I'ollection of insects and fungi, both in- 
juriotis and beneficial. Nothing like this last named 
collection has ever before lieen shown here, and rep- 
i-e.sented the work of twenty years in collection and 
preservation, Tlie sjiecial merit of these exhibits — 
both of fruits and of insects - was their perfect idass- 
ilication and arrangement. Each of the many 
thousand varieties of fruits bore its correct name, 
and each of the 5t),0(»0 insects was named with ecjual 
exactness. All this afforded a basis for instructive 
comparison, not only within the limits of tlie exhibit, 
but in relation to the various county exhibits where 
no strict classification was attempted. The Board 
of Horticulture headquarters thus became, in a sense, 
an expert agency for the comparative study of fruits 
and for the settlement of ptizzling questions as to the 

Our friends in the British colonies seem 
so ))rone to revel in titles that they cannot 
appreciate the beauty of a plain Amerii-an 
signature. For example, we find in the Journal of 
the Council of Agriculture of Tasmania an admirable 
article on beet growing for sugar by Richard (iird of 
Chino — just such a straightforward record of ex]jeri- 
ence as he has frequently given to the Rural Pkkss, 
In publishing his signature they use this form, "Rich- 
ard (lird, P. A. D. F, Sec," This is a stunning title, 
and must give the article several tons extra weight 
in Tasmania. The California reader will, how- 
ever. undtM'stand it better if it is ])rinted " Richard 
(iird, Per D. F.. Sec." As a matter of fact, Mr, 
(iird's secretary signed the writing aft(>r it came 
from the typewriter, and used a job lot of hiero- 
gly])hics which the Tasmanians made into the jion- 
derous title P. A. D. F. Fancy fails to determine 
what the colonists could make these letters signify. 

„,, ,, , The times are so prolific of organi- 

T lie San I- rancisco ' 

zations and minors of organizaticms 

Fruit KxcliHiiee. 

m the various branches of fruit- 
growing and selling that it requires some nimbleness 
of mind to keep track of them all. The latest is the 
San Francisco Fruit Exchange, designed, as its cor- 
])orate articles declare, "to jiromote the interest 
and convenience of growers, manufacturers and 
dealers in California fruit and fruit products." It 
is the plan of this organization to maintain an F^x- 
change foi- the inutuiil coin-enience of fruit sellers and 
buyers, just as the well-known Product^ Exchange is 
maintained for the grain sellers and buyers. Besides 
c-onducting a daily session for the business of buying 
and selling, it proposes to compile information, ad- 
just grades of fruit, etc., etc. It is, ])ractically. an 
associatioTi of mercliants for mutual convenience, but 
is not a combiiration like the State Fruit Kxchange, 
which proposes itself to carry on the business of sell- 
ing. It has already opened rooms at 2(t2 Saoramentfi 

The Yolo County .)/'(// is engaged in a 
crusade against wheat -growing, not 
sjK'cially liecause it is no long >r jirofit- 

Wlieut as a Ue- 

able as formerly, but on the broad groun I that it is 
socially demoralizing to the county. The form of its 
latest argument is a comparative review of the 
schoftl census, as illustrated by the official figures for 
the years ISSli and lSi)4: and it must be admitted that 
it is not a pleasant showing. Around Cacheville 
three school districts in IHSli had 2(14 children of 
school age; in 18114 they n-turn I'llt. We quote: 

In the Kniphts T^anding section Ciraftoii and Kureka dis- 
ti'icts contained in; over llJH census children and to day 
there are less than Kill in the two districts, (irafton has fallen 
from \Xi to SJ, and Eureka from :!0 to IT. Around Blacks four 
.school districts in isst; returned U7 children of schiMil ajfe. 
The same this year show up with Willow Spring has lost 

7, Eutei prise :i and Monitor I'.i. Take the school dislricts that 
sutTound Davisville: Franklin has lost 11, Putah 1, Plainfield 
■Jii: Fairfield gained 'J and Willow Slough 1, in eight years; 
WiKxllaiid Prairie had 2(1 school children eight years ago aud 
has 2(1 in lSil4. The aggregate loss in these six districts is :ir>. 
Take four fine districts surrounding Winters : They have all 
lost jxipulation in the last eight years. In Issii they had IXi 
schfHil children, now the rejwrts show but Ills. Apricot has 
lost .s, Buckeye 1, I'nion 12. Pleasant Pi'airie 4. 

There are many more figures in the Mnil's arraign- 
ment, but it is not necessary to quote further, for 
they all illustrate the same fact, namely, that wher- 
ever wheat-growing has been retained as the chief 
])roductive interest, the po]ialation has sharply de 
(•lined. But when the fruit-growing, hop-growing, 
vegetaljle-producing and dairying districts come uii 
der review, the story is a very different one. In the 
fruit-growing district of Winters the i)opulation has 
nearly doubled since 1KH(!: in foui- districts near the 
river, devoted to alfalfa and vegetable growing, the 
increase is the ditfereii'^e between 2!H) aiul HTH; "up 
the canyon, where the railroad company has colonized 
the fruit lands," the past eight years has increa-:ed 
th" school population from 8(! to 207. .An ! so through- 
out the districts devoted to fruits and "small farm 
ing" there has been persistent growth in i)o])ulation. 
just as in the grain disti'icts ther.^ has been p.-rsisleiii 
decline. It does not seem nr-cessary to accompany 
this statement of facts with a sermon, tVir the lesson 
of it cannot be missed. 

July 14, l,S!)4. 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

It is not possible to coinpr-ess the detailed history 
of the past seven days within such limits as the 
editor can command, and there will in this writing- 
be no attempt to do more than to trace the record in 
broad lines. It has been a week of absolute paralysis 
in railroad transpoi-tation, of sta<4nation in all lines 
of business, of universal loss and of terrible appre- 
hensions. Chuss has has been arrayed against class, 
int(>rest ai,niinst interest, passion aj^ainst passion; 
threat has answered threat; duty and law have been 
forgotten; at times it has seemed questionable if 
Government were still supreme. Not since the time 
of deadly civil war has there been such a strain 
upon the foundations of our system. As we write 
(on Wednesday morning) things are looking better, 
but it is the prospect of peace which cheers — not 
peace itself. 

The storm center has been Chicago, where all rail- 
roads entering or operatmg within the city have 
been tied up. Efi'orts to move trains from station to 
station with non-union men under police and military 
protection resulted in a series of lights in which 
there were many bruises and some bloodshed on both 
sides, followed by the beating of '' scabs," the over- 
turning and burning of cars, tearing up of tracks, 
etc. The police have been powerless; the local mili- 
tary forces have been overwhelmed; and th(> rioters 
have only given way before volleys from regular 
troops charged with the preservation of imi)erilled 
pro])erty. Under the protection of U. S. forces the 
railroads are now cleai'ing up the wreclcage and 
i-eorganizing their sei-vice; but the m(>,n are still out, 
and it is claimed that they will not return to work 
luitil the Pullman controversy shall be settled. On 
Tuesday of this week the chief officers of the Knights 
of Labor and of the American Federation of Labor, 
acting in sympathy with th(> American Railway 
Union movement, ordered a general strike, the ob- 
ject being to ])aralyz(^ every industi-y in the United 
States; but the orders have not been generally 
obeyed. About 20,000 workmen in Chicago have 
quit theii' places, but the new strike has scarcely been 
noted elsewhere. Another incident of Tuesday w;is 
the arrest of President Debs, of the A. R. U.. upon 
a charge of conspiracy to hiterfen^ with the U. S. 
mails; but he was promptly released upon bail, the 
arrest serving no other jjurpose than to show the 
attitude of the Government in the ci-isis. At this 
writing the indications at Chicago points to a collapse 
of the strike; but the end, if it should come in this 
way, will leave its purposes still unsatisfied and its 
passions suppressed, indeed, but uns))ent. 

In California events have not gone to such ex- 
tremes, but the time has been painfully critical and 
peace has been preserved only by a combination of 
prudence and good fortune. The tie-up of the 
Southern Pacific system, including the lines in con- 
nection with the San Francisco bay ferries, has been 
absolute; and efforts on the part of the railroad com- 
pany to break the blockade with volunteer and non- 
union help have resulted in violent collisions at Oak- 
land ])ier. at Los Angeles and at Sacramento. At 
the pier the strikei-s declared that no trains manned 
by non-union men should move, and they enforced 
the order by pulling "scabs " from their engines, de- 
railing cars, "killing" locomotives and blocking 
switi'hes. When all patience and resource had been 
exhausted the railroad managers gave up the fight, 
abandoned everything where it stood, stopped the 
ferries and announced that they should wait for Gov- 
ernment protection. What is known as the "Creek 
route," between San Francisco and the east side of 
the bay, has been held open, this being the only line 
of communication between the city and its suburban 
neighbors during the past week. At Los Angeles 
these events have been almost duplicated, though the 
presence of a body of U. S. troops, under waiting or- 
ders but ready for instant service, has been a quiet- 
ing influence. 

tral depot, there has been a continuous scene of dis- 
order and peril. The strikers declared that no trains 
manned by non-union men should pass, Ih-.' mean- j 
ing of this being that no trains at all should ]iuss. To 1 
this end Ihey blocked the tracks, ■"killed" engines 
and took bodily jjossession of the flepot building; and 
all this wa,s not accomplished without some blows, '] 
from which "scab" trainmen wear the bruises. 
Efforts to dj'ive the men from the depot by the local 
police and by a sheriff' s posse proving futile, the 
State troops were called into service, but when or- 
dered to charge the crowd which stood chatting 
with them in good-natured fashion, they declined the 
service and returned to their quarters. This left the 
strikers confident in their power and more than ever 
detei'mined to hold their ground. In connection 
with this military fiasco there were many in- 
congruous circumstances. Befoi'e the crisis came 
the militia were compelled to stand for hours in a 
baking sun, facing the force of strikers who swarmed 
in the depot. The latter, taking pity upon them, 
brought them ice water, supported those who were 
faint with heat, and on the return to (juarters as- 
sisted in carrying their baggage and arms. At night 
the strikers gave the outposts hot coffee and helped 
the OT-dnance squads to haul their guns into position. 
Under these circumstances of mutual kindness and 
sympathy — for four-fifths of the ti'oo])s were with 
the sti'ikers in full heart — it is not sui'prising that 
the men were unwilling to obey orders which in- 
volved bloodshed and death. Fi-om the time of these 
events, six days ago. until now the Sacramento depot 
has remained in po.ssession of tlu- strikers. On Mon- 
day they were warned by proclamaticm of President 
Cleveland to disperse^ and retir(> to their homes. On 
Tuesday, by special proclanuitifin fi-om the same 
.source, they were ordered directly to disperse before 
four o'clock, wit h the implied threat that U. S. forces 
should be brought against them. At 9:80 Tuesday 
night a body of U. S. troops, six hundred strong, ar- 
rived at Sacramento; and it is repoi'ted as we write 
that the men will make no i-esistaiice. This state- 
ment yields profound relief, foi- it has been feared 
that the strikers, who are well armed, would stand 
fight, with bloody and deplorable consequences. We 
shall hojie before this is printed to have definite re- 
ports of to-day's events both at Sacramento and 
at Oakland i)ier, where U. S. forces have been or- 

This great contest ceased fen days ago to have 
more than a technical relation to the affair a1 Pull- 
man out of which it grew. In its larger aspects it 
has been and continues to be a fight between the op- 
posing theories of capital and labor. The conten- 
tion of th(> railroads — the Southern Pacific is but one 
of twenty-three companies combined in opposition to 
the Pullman boycott — is that there are no direct 
grievances between themselves and their men ; that 
they have nothing to do with differences between the 
Pullman Co. and its men; that the espousal of the 
cause of the Pullman men by the train men is an un- 
warranted intrusion into their relations — and be- 
tween the railway service and the public — of a matter 
wholly impertinent .to them. Oiu^ who s])(>aks in 
their interest says: 

The boycott is the most tyraunous and ojipres.sivc instru- 
ment employed by organized labor to enforce unreasonable de- 
mands. To permit its principle to be establishe<i is to expose 
eveiy business and industry in the country to the same venge- 
ful attack now made upon Mr. Pullman. To permit this ef- 
fort to succeed is to put it in the power of organized labor to 
bankrupt any mauufactui'er, any corporation, any firm, any 
business man, large or small, who may incur its displeasure, 
justly or unjustly. 

Thus it is the theory of the railroads that in i-e- 
sisting the operation of the Pullman boycott, the 
railroads of the country combine against a danger- 
ous and common enemy. "They are not," as one 
positive man has exjjressed it, " fighting their battle 
alone — still less Mr. Pullman's battle — but the battle 
of all organized industry and business, of all jn-oduc- 
tion and trade, of societv itself." 

The center of danger in this State has been Sacra- 
mento, where the strikmg train hands, in conjunction 
with the striking shopmen, have made a force 
nearly three thousand strong, supported by the pub- 
lic sentiment of the city. Here, where lines east and 
west and north and south meet and cross in the Cen- 

In direct v)pposition to all this stands the theory of 
the strikers. Labor and capital, they argue, in 
these modern times, are in relations wholly new and 
different as compared with the days when each was 
a personality. Now capital, as it stands related to 
labor in its corporate form, is wholly impersonal — 
without any human impulse of sympathy or frater- 
nity. It seeks, with the directness of a mechanism 
and with as little feeling, to get the most service for 

the least payment; It organizes itself into com- 
panies and progressively into trusts, pnols and corii- 
bines; and alwajs on,' (;f aims i;; tho cutting down 
of labor, not from any conscious enmity to labor btit 
because the price of laboi- is one of the factors in its 
operations and })rofits. Now, this of course will be 
denied, say those who speak for the strikers, but its 
truth is manifest in the very fight now on. One of 
the chief charges made by the Southern Pacific 
manager is that we have lugged in, to disturb the 
relations between them and ourselves, an issue which 
in no wise concerns either of us. Now what are the 
facts ? There is, let us admit, no direct grievance 
between us and the railroad; we are contending for 
the rights of an <i//inl labor interest — the workmen 
in the Pulhnan shops — and for so doing ar(> con- 
demned " on principle" by the railroad managers. 
But, where is the S. P. Co.? It is contending for its 
allied interest — the owners of the Pullman .shojjs. 
Now, let us ask, if we in standing by our friends are 
in any position of prejudice as compared with the 
company in standing by its friends '? What is sauce 
for the goose ought to be sauce for the gander. It 
will, of course, de denied that there is any combina- 
tion by the railroads in behalf of the Pullman Com- 
pany, but if this tie so, how does it happen that 
twenty-three great railroad companies take the 
same action on the very sami^ day '.'' The coincidence 
is rather too exact to be accidental. But, admit- 
ting, in spite of the suspicions here suggested, that 
there was in fact no fornuil coml)ination on the part 
of these twenty-three i-oads, th(> fact of their con- 
certed action shows a c'lose m\ittial understanding in 
relation to labor, none the less serious from the labor 
point of view because it just "hapijened so." This 

happen so '' would seem to justify the claim of the 
strikers that capital — in its i-aili'oad for-m is always 
combined against labor. 

Now, the first organizations of labor grew out of 
the necessity of co-operation to resist the aggressions 
of corporate capital; and as corporations grow into 
pools and combines, the organization of labor, to be 
effective, must expand correspondingly. The critics 
of organized labor, to be consistent and fair, must al- 
so condemn the wide combinations of capital which 
{ make such organizations necessary. As a matter of 
i fact, if the principle of organized labor be admitted, 
i then it mvist further be allowed such rights of exten- 
sion and combination as to make its organization effect- 
ive. To say to labor "you have the right to organize 
j for your own protection, butyoumusn't combine with 
; other organizations and employments." is of a piec(! 
with that parental indulgence which grants the 
small boy his wish to go swimming upon condition 
that he avoid the water. Of course, there can be no 
fair objection to organization on the part of labor 
and no fair objection to such combinations of one- 
class of laborers with another, as will make a force 
great enough to accomplish legitimate ])urposes — 
provided always that it proceed in lawful and l(>giti- 
mate ways. 

While labor has an absolute right- to organize and 
to combine to make itself an effective foi'ce; while it 
has an unquestioned right to strike when the terms 
do not suit, it has no right to stand b(>tween owner- 
ship and its property, or Ijetween. any man and any 
work which he may choose to acce])t. The railroad 
striker, no matter what his grievance or how just his 
cause, has no right to spike a switch, to "kill" an 
engine or to interfere in any way with the )iroi)erty 
of the company whose service he has given up. He 
has no right to drive a man either by threats or force 
from the work which he has himself abandoned. If 
he does these things he outrages the justice to which 
he is appealing and violates the law whose jus- 
tice must in the (Mid be his own i-eliance. He 
puts himself in a position against which the 
oi-ganized forces of society must array them- 
selves. Government must put him down because he 
denies by his acts the fundamental basis of govern- 
ment itself. What, let us ask, is government lor? 
To protect m(>n in their rights of life, liberty and 
property. This is its work; if it fails to do it, it has 
no right to exist. When the owners of a railroad 
cannot, through their agents, make use of their own 
property; when they arc denied the right to enter 
their own depots and to operate their own locomo- 
tives on their own tracks; when a working man — 
he un'tonist, non-unujnist or "scab" — caijnot 


The Pacific Rural Press 

July 14, 1894. 

do the work he has elected to do because of 

the violence of others— in such crises as these, 

government must come to the front with the 

organized forces of society which have been 

entrusted to it and give to each party in interest 

his legal due. It must protect the company in its 

right to its own property ; it must protect the citizen 

in his right to work; it must say to whoever would 

deny rights, ''stand back;" and if thoy do not 

go in peace, it must use force. This is the jirinL-iple 

upon which the Government has interfered at 

Chicago, Sacramento and elsewhere. Judge (iross- 

cup said yesterday at Chicago in addressing a jury: 

With the questions behind the present oocurrent-es 
we have as ministers of the law and citizens of the Re- 
public nothing to do. The law must be vindicated before we 
turn aside to inquire how law or practice as it oufrht to be can 
be effectually brought about. Government by law is im- 
periled and that issue is paramount. The Govcninu'iit of the 
United States has first to protect itself and its authority as a 
government, and, secondly, to protect its authority over 
agencies to which under the Constitution and laws it extends 
governmental laws. 

This is ab-solute truth which the, sympa- 
thizing as it does with the principles for which the 
strikers are contending, heartily commends. The 
principles at issue are one thing; acts of viohmce and 
lawlessness are quite another. The intelligence and of the country will make the just dis- 
tinction; it will not deny justice to a good cause be- 
cause it has been discredited by pa.ssion and folly. 

Choice Sweet Peas. 

I cheaper varieties; to give you a good economical 
! row I would name Adonis, Black, Blanche Ferry, But- 
terflj-. Captain Clarke, Carmine Invincible. Crown 
Princess of Prussia. Imperial Blue, Indigo King. Mrs, 
Gladstone, Mrs. Sankey, Queen of the Isles. If you 
want to add another twelve without much more cost. 
I would say Apple Blossom. Boreatton, Captain of 
the Blue, Countess of Radnor, Duchess of Edinburgh, 
Miss Hunt, Orange Prince, Primrose, Princess 
Beatrice, Princess of Wales, Senator and Splendor. 

The events above described, and the interests re- 
lated to them, and the passions fomented by them, 
have filled the public mind during the past week to 
the exclusion of all minor subjects. The peoi)le have 
read of nothing else, talked of nothing else. Just 
such a contest the country has never seen before. In 
some respects the passions engendered by it are more 
malignant than those which grew out of the civil war. 
To many it seems to presage a permanent division 
of our people upon lines of class interest — a breach so 
cruel as to blunt all human sensibilities and so degrad- 
ing as to involve the loss of what is best in national 
character. The situation is certainly grave — very 
grave — but the Rur.\l has an abiding trust in the in- 
telligence and conscience and manhood of the country, 
which leads it to believe that this viper of class enmity 
will be shaken off like the vipers which have preceded it. 
Sometimes, in eagerness to see the world move faster 
toward desired soc-ial or business results, we are im- 
patient of conservatism, of fixed habit, of blind obedi- 
ence to tradition; and we say the world is slow and 
stupid. But in times of passion, when rage dulls the 
moral senses and makes men heedless of the lessons of 
judgment, the forces of custom and habit often 
guide them safely through deadly perils. In such 
crises as we have just passed through — if, indeed, we 
are yet through it — the reliance of social order, of 
the integrity of law, even of civilization itself — ^with 
all their deep and tender relations — lies in the 
humble virtue which holds fast to that which 
proved a guide and a staff to the ages and genera- 
tions which came before. 

This great eruption cannot fail to affect our social 
and political life profoundly. It will make new lines 
of political division, it will destroy or remold old par- 
ties and create new ones, it will wipe out the old line 
of sectional division and it may make a new one — but 
of these things there will be other times to write. 

Later: 6 p. m. Wednesday — As we go to press it 
is reported that a train which left Sacramento at 
midday under guard of U. S. soldiers was ditched 
three miles west of the city, and that the engineer 
and three soldiers were buried under the wreck. The 
disaster was due to the fact that spikes holding the 
rails in place had been removed, unquestionably with 
intent to prevent the passage of trains. At the 
Oakland and Alameda piers, the railroad company, 
under protection of U. S. troops, are fixing uji their 
engines and preparing to move local trains. 

In his recent address before the State Foral So- 
ciety, Rev. W. F. Hutchins, the sweet pea expert, 
mentioned the following as very desirable collections 
of sweet peas for the garden: 

Everybody used to have the Painted Lady, but 
now the popular favorite is the Blanche Ferry, or its 
Boston synonym. Blushing Bride. Tiiese and the 
Blue-i'dged Buttei'fly make a pleasing ljou(|uet. 

But you a»k(;(l for the best ten or twelve of the 


The Strike and the Fruit Interests. 

The stoppage of traffic through the strike is play- 
ing hav(x> with the early fruits and is causing large 
losses in some regions which supply shipping fruits. 
It is true that current comment exaggerates the 
evil. It is not the fact that the California fruit in- 
terest will be wrecked even by this most unfortu- 
nate experience. We do not have to handle all our 
fruit crop in the first quarter or half of the month of 
July, and though the evil is great enough and most 
earnestly to be deplored, we protest against aggra- 
vating the influence of the evil by shouting that the 
strike will ruin the fruit crop. We have had too 
much of this sort of sensational croaking and outcry 
this last year. It has added to the depression and 
to the hardships of all. Do not create the impres- 
sion, then, that this temporary evil, great as it is, 
will bring ruin to the fruit-growers, and thus give 
the capitalists another excuse for tightening their 
grasp u])on funds which we shall want to use in the 
promotion of all our industries. To do this will be to 
reduce jiroperty values, cast another shadow upon 
agricultural securities and work great hardship. 

And while we insist upon a brighter general 
behavior as to the evils of the strike, we do not mean 
to belittle one iota the losses and deprivations 
actually caused. The following are a few statements 
from leading fruit regions: 

Sackamexto.— Hale's early peaches are rotting on the trees, 
and the loss from that source alone will run into thou- 
sands of dollars. Early plums, including Traged.v and other 
varieties, arc already too rijie for shipment, and the proba- 
bilities now are that the crop will be a total loss. One-half 
the Bartlett (X'ar crop is now ripe enough for shipment, and in 
a few days it will not bear transiwrtation. Growers say 
that if the strike lasts another week the crop will be a total 
loss. Most of the fruit men are drying their apricots, and the 
loss in that fruit will not be large. The fruit men in this 
county have nothing to deixind upon except the Iwal market 
and the loca,l cannery. The latter only takes fruit from day 
to day at its own prices, and as fruit is abundant it is com- 
pelled to reject the loads of many farmers. So far the can- 
nery has gained rather than lost by the situation. 

Placek CorxTV.- The to the growers of Placer county 
up to the present time is about :S.")0,(HH). The estimated loss 
for each day at pi-esf^nt is from 12 to 'M carloads, or from $5000 
to$lU,()(K). The crop now ripening consists of all varieties of 
plums and the peach known as the Early Crawford, which is 
one of the staple varieties and very valuable to the producers. 
Bartlett pears are also about ready for shipment, and all of 
these varieties metitioned will be a total loss unless harvested 
in a very few days. 

Vaoavili.e District. — The stoppage of fruit shipments from 
this point has had a very disastrous effect upon the fruit- 
growers, and many small ones will be nearly ruined. Quite a 
number have nearly all the fruit they raised this year now in 
the blockades, and there is no prospects of realizing a cent. 

Several of the prominent gi-owers and shippers .sa.v that the 
loss to Vacaville town.ship now stands between $50,000 and 
$60,000. Should the strike continue two weeks more, the 
amount will be quadrupled, as the town ships from 30 to 70 
cars of fruit each week. 

Ever.v fruit-grower in Vacaville township has now turned 
his attention to drying. Apricots are easily disposed of in 
this manner, but here another difficulty has pre.sented itself. 
Owing to the heavy demand for drying trays, lumber suitable 
for that purpose is exhausted and more cannot be had at any 

Peaches, prunes and plums arc being dried in hopes of 
getting something for them, but other fruit, grapes and pears, 
for which there is no demand in the dried state, are a total 
loss, as Vacaville township has no cannery. 

Fresno. -Fruit in boxes is rotting in, and more 
is rotting in orchards. Perhaps the loss to date is $.50,000. 
Buyers will no longer engage fruit, .sales are being canceled, 
and, in fact, the condition simply means ruin to one of the 
most prosperous industries in the San Joaquin valley if the 
blockade is not soon raised. 

San Jose.- -The damage to orchardists on account of the 
strike amounts to several thousand dollars, principally on ac- 
(^ount of cherries on cars bound for the East, which are unable 
to get to market on account of the blockade. The canneries 
are not packing cherries this year, and consequently the grow- 
ers depend entirely upon the Eastern market. Before the 
blockade about half of the crop had matlired and had been dis- 
posed of, but the remainder is almost a total loss. The loss on 
other varieties of fruit will not be great, as the bulk of the 
crop is dried. 

Los — There have been no complaints as .vet on the 
jjart of fruit-growers in this vicinity on account of the railroad 
tie-up, unless in a few individual instances. There is little 
fresh fruit shipped at this time, and most of that can find a 
ready market in Los Angeles. 

These are the reports upon which ruin to the fruit 
industry is being i)roclaimed. They are bad enough 
and signify much discomfort and disappointment 
which it makes one hot to think of, and j'et the fruit 
interest, with its millions of value annually, will not 
be destroyed by these losses covering thousands. 

The San Francisco luarket has naturally been one 
supplied from places which command water transpor- 
tation, and prices have disappointed shippers, but 
San Francisco herself cannot either save or ruin the 
California fruit interest. Shf is ikjI neai'ly big 

Getting Rid of Gophers. 

The excellent report of B. M. Lelong, secretary of 
the Board of Horticulture, for 189.3, has just aj)- 
peared. It has many points of value, to which we 
shall allude from time to time. As this is the season 
when gojihcM-s do most harm to cherished plants, we 
take from the report an outline of an anti-go|)her 
discussion held at the last fruit-growers' convention: 

Judge Tilden: I have found strychnine the 1 est 
thing. Take carrots and slice them up. Have a man 
sit down and prepare a quart or two quarts — it de- 
pends upon the land t<i he gone over. Then put a 
little strychnine in each piece with a knife. We find 
we have to dig down; do not put it in the hole. If 
we put the piece of carrot in the hole it seems to ix- 
thrown out. If in the summer, by striking around 
the hole with a pick, you find the main hole, and then 
throw in two or three pieces of carrot with poison 
on them, which you cover up, it is very seldom the 
gophers will be seen in that place again. When 1 
went on to my old place it was full of holes. The 
ground was honeycombed with them, and in a little 
while I got rid of them. Irrigation would, of course, 
if the water stands, tend to kill them off, but many 
of my neighbors do not irrigati', and raise a large 
croj) of gophers. I told my men that whenever they 
found indications of a gopher to stop and poison him. 
and I make it a rule to have green carrots the year 
around by setting them out in the garden at differ- 
ent times. 

Mr. Mosher: I take prunes— open them and take 
the pit out, being very careful not to touch them 
with our fingers. We take one u[> with the point of 
a knife and take as much strychnine as will remain 
on the end of a penknife and put it in the prune. 
Take a stick about the size of a leadpencil and pin 
the prune together. Whenever we see a gopher 
commence digging we go and put one of these sticks 
in the hole. The reason for putting this stick in the 
hole is, if you put the prune in alom^ the gej)iier digs 
it out. The gopher is very fond of prunes. We al- 
ways know whether they eat the prune or not, be- 
cause there is the stick to show. 

A Me.mber: This season I have noticed in the dry- 
ing ground that they have even come up and gnawed 
through dried apricots. Late in the season, when 
the apricots were perfectly ripe, I have placed them 
on a tray for the purpose of sprinkling them with 
strychnine, and we can kill them every time with it. 
In using the apricots I dry them and put them away 
in tin boxes, and they are available at all times. 

Mr. Barry: I take a young inalva, split it with 
my knife along the thick brani-h, leave the leaves on 
top, put the knife in the strychnine and put a little 
of it in the leaf, and put that in the hole. 

The Chairman: I have a \yay of getting rid of 
them without strychnine. Have jilenty of cats. The 
best way to get the cats is to coax them by feeding 
them, and we put out a pan of milk every night. The 
result is that we had a large number of cats. Be- 
tween that and the irrigation, we have very few 
gophers, if any. 

The Pomelo. 

In his last report Mr. Lelong has done a very 
timely thing in calling attention to the pomelo. We 
have all heard of the growing popularity of this fruit 
at the East; it seems, in fact, to have sprung at once, 
almost, from neglect into fashion. It is hard for 
Californians, who have for years looked upon the 
fruit merely as a show thing, fit to decorate a citrus 
fair exhibit or to shine in a Chinese Joss-house, how 
it c'ould be considered not only palatable but delect- 
able by people all the way from St. Louis to the 
Atlantic seaboard. When we have tried to eat our 
pomelos our wonder at the Eastern taste has been 
all the greater, for the combination of .sourness, 
bitterness and acridity was exceedingly unpleasant. 
But it seems that the Easterit popularity of the fruit, 
which is leaduig to considerable profitable planting 
by Florida growers, is based upon a better pomelo 
than we have, and that they are going for improved 
pomelos as we do for improvement in other citriLs 
fruits. In his report Mr. Lelong says : 

The pomelo is a variety of the shaddock. There 
are many varieties m cultivation and of late have 
met with great favor in the Eastern markets. The 
fruit of most varieties vary in size, are generally 
large, and weigh all the way from half a jwund to 
five pounds. The color resembles that of the citron. 
Skin very smooth, pulp sub-acid. The tree is very 
ornamental, has large, deep green foliage; is semi- 
dwarf, and a native of China and Japan. There is 
l)ractically only one variety .so far known in the 
market, and that is the .sour, bitter-rind variety. As 
yet the improved varieties have no commercial 
standing, because enough have not been grown to 
make a shipment that would produce an impres- 
sion. The specimens of the improved sorts I have 
examined far excel the old-fashioned, sour, bitter- 
rind variety. 

However, the medicinal qualities of the pomelo 
have suddenly brought it into great favor. Ten years 

July 14, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


ago there was no sale for this fruit and it was per- 
mitted to go to waste. Now they sell readily for 
from $2.50 to $5 per box, with a steady demand. The 
pomelo was used for many years in hot climates to 
correct acidity of the stomach and other troubles of 
the digestive organs. For the past dozen years 
physicians have prescribed them tor invalids with 
disordered stomachs, and in many cases they are a 
panacea. Many cases are reported here of persons 
suffering with disoi'dered stomachs being cured in one 
or two months by the use of the pomelo, and in 
Florida hundreds of cases are reported. 

It seems that there is a right and a wrong way to 
eat the pomelo. The following from the Florida Ex- 
c/itniffc gives information on the specific value of the 
fruit and the way to eat it: 

"The daily use of grape-fruit for a month will cure 
the most obstinate cases of indigestion and bring all 
the digestive organs into action. Some people do 
not like them at first; this is because they do not 
know how to prepare them for eating. It is better 
to eat them just before meals or with meals as 
sauce. Hemisphere them and squeeze out the juice 
into a tumbler. In this way you avoid the bitter in 
the rind. Some prepare them for the table by peel- 
ing them thin, dividing them by segments, then 
peel the segments for the thin skin (rag). In this 
way you also avoid the quinine. By many people in 
Florida they are preferred to oranges. They are 
always refreshing. The demand is greater than the 
supply, and the prices run better than oranges. It 
is said that the sweet grape-fruit has not got the 
medicinal quality found in the other kind. Whether 
this be true or not we do not know from experience." 

It is probable that our citrus growers have already 
secured some of the improved varieties of the pomelo 
and in the future we shall know more about the 
fruit. Mr. Wiggin, who represented the South at 
Chicago and at the Midwinter Fair, is a believer in 
the pomelo, and what he advocates usually goes. 

Thinning Down Mixed Orchards. 

According to local accounts, they are proceeding 
at Gubserville, Santa Clara county, with a more 
elaborate plan of planting for future removal than is 
common. The account runs that it is much in vogue 
in that vicinity to plant in the orchard alternately, 
and near together, prunes, apricots and peaches. 
Peaches come into bearing when quite young, and 
thus a crop of peaches is secured before the prunes 
come into bearing. This helps to pay expenses. 
The apricots come into bearing next, and the income 
increases accordingly. By the time the prune trees 
get large enough to demand more room, the peach 
trees are cut out, leaving the orchard with only two- 
thii'ds of the original number of trees. The apricots 
are by this time bearing large crops. When the 
prunes come into full bearing the apricots are re- 
moved. Thus crops are secured almost from the 
fii'st, and the land is thoroughly utilized while the 
prunes are coming into bearing. This plan seems to 
work well here, because of the fertility of the soil. 
Upon poor land, such a plan would result in injuring 
the orchard. 


A New General Co-operation in Fruit 

It is a reciprocal blessing conveyed in Mr. H. K. 
Pratt's mission from the orange growers of the south 
to the deciduous fruit growers of the north, inviting 
and exhorting them to a general imion on the subject 
of fruit shipping. It is almost a decade ago that 
H. P. Livermore, in the establishment of the Cali- 
fornia Fruit Union, went to Los Angeles to urge the 
southerners to embark with the northerners. The 
times were not then ripe for it. Now comes Mr. 
Pratt in later and wiser years to urge the same idea 
in a new form. We alluded to this subject briefly 
last week, and now, through the mediiunsliip of an 
address delivered by Mr. Pratt at San Jose, are able 
to set forth the proposition more fully. It is of much 
importance and so timely that we shall give the ad- 
dress at length. 

The Situation in Fruit Shipping. — The orange- 
growers of southern California, with very few excep- 
tions, up to the season of 1892 sold their oranges 
outright to the speculative shipper, with such net 
results as Eastern land -holders would scarcely be- 

The speculative shippers combined in 1892 and 
refused to buy the oranges outright, demanding them 
on a commission basis, and the results of these two 
years, "92 and '93, was not over one-third the net re- 
ceipts of former yeai'S, and during the last year, '9H, 
probably one-fifth net per box was a fair average 
compared to former years, when absolute sales were 

The large owners of orchards and lands saw very 
plainly, with the enormous increase before them, the 
industry would be entirely ruined unless something 
was done to correct the vinbusiuesslike methods used 

in marketing our oranges, and right in the midst of 
the heavy shipping, March, 1893, the organization of 
the southern California fruit exchanges was begun 
and continued right through to October, when they 
found they had under contract over 5000 carloads of 
oranges from growers pledged to support the ex- 
changes and protect the industry from complete 
ruin. In the better sections fully 90 per cent of the 
growers signed the contract, and against the hardest 
financial year ever known; against the most bitter 
opposition of the old-line sliippers, with a heavy 
frost in January putting a question mark in front of 
the quality of every car; against a yield in Florida 
larger than the entire United States had ever before 
known. And even under these extreme unfortunate 
circimistances and their first year in the deal, they 
have averaged over double net per box for every box 
of oranges shipped what they did last year without 
any frost conditions. 

Florida last year averaged nearly three times net 
to their growers that the California shippers aver- 
aged, while this year the tables are exactly turned 
around and the southern California exchanges aver- 
aged fully three times more net to the grower than 
Florida received for her oranges. 

Florida growers are now holding mass meetings, 
and in one recently held, when 3000 growers were 
present, a prominent man said: " We are absolutely 
on the verge of bankruptcy unless we can organize 
and stop this fearful disaster caused by consigning 
our oranges. " 

Florida's position is exactly the same this year as 
last compared to our own, and these two comparisons 
given show beyond question our enormous losses in 
1892 and 1893 shipping on consignment, and our 
great gain this year through the correct business 
methods of our exchanges. 

The success of our exchanges I claim is without 
parallel, and next year we shall be more solid than 
ever, and none of us will live long enough to see the 
good we have accomplished die out. 

Eastern Experience Teaches a Lesson. — The 
Concord grape shippers of western New York up to 
1892 shipped their grapes on consignment until their 
net results made it apparent their vineyards were 
worthless, and in three months' time 85 per cent of 
the growers were put under contract to the Chau- 
tauqua and Northeast Grape Union, and during the 
following season not a car of Concord grapes was 
consigned to the West, neither was the price lowered 
one fraction of a cent, and the net results, with an 
enormous crop, was one-half larger than the former 

Northern Ohio and central New York have fol- 
lowed their example, and altogether now have over 
5000 cars of Concord grapes for sale at the shipping 
point at an agreed price, and they fully realize that 
shipping through or to commission men on consign- 
ment is a worse gamble than wheat margins or buy- 
ing stocks on Wall street, and there can be but one 
result — utter disaster to the producer. 

Evii.s OF the Commission Business. — I could enter 
into the details of all these matters and show to you 
how the shipping of all these large lines of products 
on the commission basis encouraged a business in it- 
self that had not the least shadow of good business 
methods; how it forced upon the producers a mo- 
nopoly where a few found a safe and large commis- 
sion, while the many buyers, as well as all the pro- 
ducers, were unable to see anything but disaster in 
the final results; how bitter competition between 
large shipping commission firms was eating up, in 
their unnecessary strife, the hard-earned dollars of 
the growers. I could show you how these large com- 
mission shippers were aided by refrigerator and even 
railway companies to continue their destructive 
policy, and how when the strife became too bitter on 
the other end among the commission men, so that the 
few heavy commission shippers could no longer hold 
on to their monopoly; how the auction system was 
foisted on the producer to give longer life to this 
grasping, rank monopoly; but should I enter into 
these details, I might get into personalities and I am 
determined to discuss principles and not persons. 

There is no industry on the face of the earth of 
such magnitude as the fresh deciduous fruits that is 
operated on such downright destructive business 
principles. It is a gamble from the beginning to the 
end as far as the producer is concerned, while for 
the commission shipper it is safer than bank stock. 
There is no industry on this green earth that has a 
greater future than the shipping of fresh deciduous 
and citrus fruits from California when operated on 
business methods, and there is no industry so situ- 
ated as to become so complete a disaster and utter 
failure, and that at once this very year or next if al- 
lowed to go on under your present plan in northern 
California. There are no oranges or apples, no 
berries or peaches for you to compete with at the 
present time in the East, yet the growers of these 
fine fruits will see hundreds of cars that will not 
bring freight charges this very year. The Southern 
California Fruit Exchange reduced its marketing ex- 
penses to one-third this year of its cost last year, and 
next year it will not cost us over one-fifth what we 
paid in 1893. 

Great Waste and Poor Distribution. — If your 
shipping gives you fair returns this year your ex- 
penses will average not less than $100 per carload for 

marketing, and on the plan you can and should work 
on, it will not cost you over $20 per car. The East- 
ern selling agents of our southern California fruit 
exchanges will gladly handle yom- entire yield for 
that; and furthermore to encourage you to organize 
I could arrange for $100,000 bonds from our Eastern 
agents to fulfill their part of the marketing at $20 
per car, total expenses. There are no less than 2000 
fruit jobbers who will gladly buy your fresh fruits at 
an agreed daily price if you will organize so as to 
regulate shipments and protect the buyers from con- 
signments and auctions. 

With the quick transit, good refrigerator service 
and with uniform packing, your fruits are looked 
upon by Eastern buyers as staple as oranges and 
lemons, and the buyers will just as quickly buy your 
fruits as they will the oranges and lemons. Wide 
distribution and regulation are two words that mean 
more to the fruit industry of California than all the 
promises, advances and unbusiness-like principles 
that are offered you by all the commission solicitors 
in the land. 

These commission shippers have advanced you over 
$500,000 this season and you are paying them five 
times the expenses you should pay. In return they 
are shipping to a half dozen cities 75 per cent of all 
your fruits, while fully 250 cities outside of these 
auction cities who would buy, were you fully organ- 
ized, get the 25 per cent of your fruits. If auctions 
are the plan for marketing your fruits, then less than 
15 cities will get the entire monopoly, and the thou- 
sands of fruit jobbers outside of the auction cities 
can not nor will not lend you one bit of aid in mar- 
keting your fruits. The auction system means that 
a half dozen branch houses of your largest shippers 
will handle and control three-fourths of all your 
fruits. I understand they claim they will handle 
5000 carloads this year, and my estimate of commis- 
sion for handling will be the enormous sum of 
$500,000. The railway company gets its full pay; 
the refrigerator companies an enormous profit — al- 
ways 100 cents on a dollar. The commission man 
gets his commission on the railway and refrigerator 
charges, whether there is a cent left for the grower 
or not. It means a dozen auction cities will get the 
monopoly of the business. It means this year, in 
order to satisfy all these selfish ends, these bitter 
auction companies, a loss in expenses of marketing 
alone of a half million dollars, and at least another 
million and a half that might be saved by doing our 
shipping on good business principles. 

Value op Local Associations. — You have numer- 
ous local associations already organized. There is 
not a grower in California who will dispute for one 
moment the advantages of co-operation. With it 
wide distribution and regulation can be accomplished. 
With it you can know daily what is the highest value 
these United States can afford to pay you for your 
fruits at your packing houses; with it you can give 
protection to the buyers, and instead of a half dozen 
or more firms fighting competitive, destructive 
battles with your hard-earned dollars, and your en- 
tire future welfare at stake, you will have 2000 fruit 
jobbers who will gladly come to your aid, and wide 
distribution, solid business principles are encouraged 
and put into action. With co-operation your increas- 
ing supplies will not be able to take care of the de- 
mand made by personal systematic representation 
on the only business methods that will insure lasting 
prosperity to your beautiful State and once more 
place a stable value on your fruits, your lands and 
your own homes. Will the deciduous fruit-growers 
be one whit behind those who are now rejoicing over 
the success of their organizations? I beg of you to 
at once commence your work. You have your Cali- 
fornia Fruit Exchange already, incorporated from 
your local associations everywhere. Rally to the 
support of the Exchange; get as large a support as 
the southern California fruit exchanges. They are 
waiting to join hands with you, so we may have men 
of ability and standing whose entire time will be de- 
voted to the developing of the fruit industry of the 
whole State; so that we may have permanent per- 
sonal representation year in and year out; so that 
our fruit industry may be handled and recognized as 
one worthy of a name of its own, and not be mixed 
up with every line of products under the sun. The 
time is right at hand when it is not only policy to do 
.so, but absolutely necessary to take this step, or 
your successful fruit industry will be a thing of the 

Why the Business is so Unproductive. — Even 
now, with light shipping and no Eastern fruits to in- 
terfere, one-third of your shipments are not bringing 
you one cent, and if such be the case, what do you 
expect when your shipments will increase ten-fold? 
You will think of what I have said very seriously 
before the season is half gone, and I beg of you not 
to enter another such a year's struggle with sure de- 
struction only before you. 

Good firms of thirty years' experience have failed. 
Our present firms say it would simply mean financial 
failure to thein if they bought your fruits outright. 
Why? On account of the methods pursued and their 
own bitter competition. Yet these same shippers 
who have a lifetime's experience, their own branch 
houses and partners to advise them, ask you farmers, 
whom they thems(>lves claim scarcely know enough 
to run. your growing correctly, they a»k you to take 


this risk they say would utterly ruin them. I think 
it safe to say that one-third of your shipments this 
year will not bring you one cent for your fruit. Es- 
timating this at 3000 cars, you will pay the railway 
and refrigerator companies $1,320,000. $()0(l,000 for 
boxes and packing, $140,000 for commi.ssioii charges, 
making a total paid out of $2.000,00lt. You pay the 
commission shipper for absolutely making you a loss. 
You furnish the railway companies one and a half 
million revcMiue for a few weeks' work, against a fear- 
ful loss on your part for years of hard labor. And is 
this all? No. sir! A still worse feature faces us. 
The 6000 cars that do bring a little something, the 
net is certainly reduced one-half by being obliged to 
compete with all this fruit selling at a loss, so that 
in all probabilities if these HOOO cars bring you net 
$300 each, or $1,800,000, vou, in all pi-obabilities, 
would have received $3,000,(100 at least if the 3000 
cars that brought you a loss had not been shipped. 
The 6000 cars would'only have to sell at 25 per cent 
higher to bring you the above results, and who would 
dispute for one minute this argument? The grower 
who has worked all these years and owns the prod- 
ucts that give all these revenues that go to pay sal- 
aries of $50,000 and $100,000 per year should be the 
first one to get something for his labor, but under 
our present circumstances after all are paid he takes 
what there is left, if anything. 

Would you rent out your orchards and see a rev- 
enue of $2,000,000 coming in to the renters, and 
accept fi-om the renters nothing? And yet this is 
exactly what you are doing with the commission 
shippers and railway and refrigerator companies on 
one-third of your shipments. 

You say you are anxious to sell. Would you sell 
the ti'ade 3000 cars for one penny per car? Can't 
you see very plainly on the selling basis the 3000 cars 
of fresh fruits, if they would bring nothing would be 
dried and the 6000 you did sell? Every one would 
bring you some value, while on your present methods 
you mast gamble and absolutely force this issue 

What the Growers think ok the Proposition. — 
During the past two weeks I have been to different 
sections that ship fully three-fourths of all your fresh 
fruits, and I have yet to find a grower or an associa- 
tion that did not fully agree with me in all these gen- 
eral principles, and we shall have the hearty and 
prompt support in the organization that will be com- 
l)leted this year, and before another shipping season 
rolls around we shall have 75 per cent of all the 
growers in one body, standing shoulder to shoulder, 
with one determined purpose in view- -the uniform 
packing and sound business methods of marketing 
our fruits, looking to a systematic develojmient by 
personal work, with wide distribution and regulation 
as our chief aim. giving equal protection to both 
buyer and shipper, and once more giving some abso- 
lute and stable value on our work, our fruits and oui- 
orchard interests. Personal selfish interests, either 
of the grower, associations or districts, to a certain 
extent must be laid aside for the general good, and I 
am sure not (me of these interests will deliijerately 
reduce the entire industry to utter failure by forcing 
its own personal but destructive gain. Let every 
grower not only talk, but act in this important 
move. The few can do nothing; tht- many can make 
this industry second to no other in this country. 
United we can succeed. As we are we must see utter 
failure to your entire industry. 


Churning at a Low Temperature. 

The RuR.\L has alluded twice during the last half 
year to the ruling sentiment among Eastern butter- 
makers to more perfect ripening of the cream, and 
then churning at a lower temperature. The same 
practice is being continually urged. In an address 
recently delivered at a Farmers' Institute, Pi-of. G. 
E. Patrick, of the Agricultural Experiment Station 
at Ames, Iowa, said among other things : The mak- 
ing of sweet cream butter, an old subject in Den- 
mark, where such butter has long been produced in 
quantity, has, in America, for the past six years, 
been the subject of much discussion and experiment. 
This work has been fruitful. It has demonstrated 
that sweet cream can be churned at low temper- 
atures— 50 to 54 degrees Pahr.— with but little more 
loss of fat than is incurred with ripened cream at 
the traditional temperature of 60 degnn's, or about; 
also comparing the butter thus made, that the sweet 
cream butter usually contains less water, as well as 
a little less caseine, and, contrary to former belief, 
that it suffers less in flavor by storage at 50 degrees, 
or about, than does the ripened cream ])roduct. But 
the work has been most fruitful in another way. It 
has led to the adoption of lower temperatures of 
churning ripened cream than formerly, and, there- 
fore, to diminish losses of fat; so that now. as for 
some three years past, progressive butter-makers 
throughout the country are churning, when possible, 
at temperatures from 52 to 06 degrees at the start 
of the chum, and thus rcxlucing the fat in the butter- 
milk to about (me'tenth of one per cent, or even less. 
Of coui'se this is iM>i done with a churn two-thirds 

full, or with sweet cream. The experience of 
hundreds of butter-makers, using the Babcock test 
as a guide, has shown that for really close churning, 
the box churn should be not more than one-third 

! full, the cream well ripened and the temperature 
low, as just stated. 

I Rii'ENiNo Crea.m. — As stated , above, this low 
temjierature churning follows ripening of the cream. 
On proper ripening Mr. F. A. Leighton, one of the 
instructors at the Iowa Dairy School, .says: "One 
of the most difficult things the butter-maker has to 

I do this time of the year when the weather is so 

■ changeable is to rijien his cream properly. There is 
one thing that must be done, and that is, the temper- 
atm-e of the cream must be left high enough to allow 
it to ripen sufficient in about 18 hours, and it must 
also be at a low temperature to be ready for the 
churn the next morning, for the operator has not 
time to cool the cream down and get it churned, 
worked and packed before the milk comes to the 
creamery. The way we are managing it at the 
pi-esent time is to commence cooling the cream down 
to 64 degrees as fast as it is separated, and let it 
stand at that temperature until 5 or 6 o'clock in 
the evening. Then, by using ice in the vat around 
the churn to get the water down to about 45 de- 
grees, it is generally about the right acidity and 
temperature to chum in the morning. 

Making Milk Sugar at Creameries. 

Probably most creameries can do better at making 
pork than milk sugar, for we imagine the product of 
a few creameries would soon knock the profit out of 
milk sugar. Still our creamery men may like to 
know what the process of making milk sugar is. It 
has recently been carefully studied by Prof. C. L. 
Penny, of the Delaware Experimcnit Station, with a 
view to finding a method suitable for creameries. As 
a result, he gives the following: 

The skim milk is heated in a suitable wooden or tin 
tank to about 120 degrees Fahr. To this, for each 
100 pounds of milk, li pounds of sulphate of alumina 
is added in the form of a hot solution. The curd pre- 
cipitates at once or in a very few minutes. The 
! clear whey is then separated from the curd by filter- 
ing through wire gauze. It is next heated to not 
less than 180 degrees, and about one-fourth pound of 
powdered chalk to each 100 j)o\mds of milk is added. 
The excess of sulphate of alumina is precipitated, to- 
geth(>r with some nitrogenous matter in the whey not 
precii)itated by the first treatment. From this pre- 
cipitate' a perfectly clear filtrate may be obtained, 
; the large part by simply drawing off, the last i>or- 
i tion by filtering through duck filters. This clear 
juice contains sugar, some sulphate of lime, and still 
a small residue of nitrogenous matter. * * * To 
prevent foaming, which would greatly retard the 
work or cause a loss of much of the .sugar, a treat- 
ment with ground oak bark, or its extract, has been 
i found thoroughly effective. It is indeed believed to 
' be, if not a necessary part of the process, at least 
I one that will greatly facilitate it and diminish the 
: loss. From three to four pounds of ground bark for 
every 100 pounds of milk is found to be enough. In- 
stead of the ground bark, from two-fifths to one-half 
pound of commercial tanner's extract of oak bark is 
more convenient and equally sufficient. Bone-black 
also attains the same end, but it is not reconmiended 
on account of the time, trouble and expense of the 
: treatment. The whey thus purified is boiled in a 
, vacuum i)an just as are .sugar juices. The crude, al- 
most black, product is first boiled to prevent mold- 
ing and afterward purified by being redissolved, 
passed hot over boneblack till it is colorless, and 
again evaporated to the point of crystallization. The 
purified sugar must be dry to prevent molding. 
It is estimated that with this method about 65 per 
1 cent of the refined milk sugar in skim milk, or about 
31 pounds of commercial milk sugar per 100 pounds 
of skim milk, can be recovered at a cost of about 13 
cents per pound, which might be reduced with ex- 
perience. The pi-ice of milk sugar during the year 
(1891) is quoted at 24 cents. The profit from work- 
ing 5000 pounds of skim milk per day, with milk 
sugar at 20 cents per pound, is calculated at $21.09; 
and with sugar at 15 cents, $12.96. 

It is also believed that with actual experience the 
yield could be increased and the cost diminished from 
the figures given above, which are intended ior the 
simplest form of plant, just such as is actually neces- 
sary to the profitable conduct of the business on a 
fairly large scale. The estimates are intended to be 
entirely safe and to overrate the expense and under- 
rate the profit rather than the reverse. 

A New Dairy Product. 

Visitors at the dairy building at the World's Fair 
were shown a new dairy product which a prominent 
firm proposes to manufacture upon a considerable 
scale. It was hit upon by Mr. J. J. Angus, a very 
I successful cheese-maker of Wisconsin, who devised a 
j process through evaporation for combining all the 
j solids of milk into a cheese product, and has already 
I secured letters patent on his process. By his sys- 

tem he claims to obtain double the quantity of cheese 
secured at the factories in the usual way, and it is 
said that when some of the product has been placed 
in the market it has sold well in competition with 
the high-priced, small fancy imported cheeses. It is 
put up in glass jars, has the consistency of thick 
paste, and being of fine texture and having a flavor 
j of well-cured cheese, with a slight smack of sweet- 
ness due to the presence of th(> milk sugar, it is said 
to .serve a most excellent purpose for sandwiches. 
It can also be made thick enough to be sliced and 
u.sed at regular meals. 

What Is Dairying? 

In an address before a Pennsylvania dairy meet- 
ing, Mrs. Kate Busick of Wabash, Ind.. said among 
other things: What is dairying? It is the best pro- 
duction of milk, and its best presentation to the cus- 
tomer, and gets his best money. This is an age of 
specialties, and the object must be soiii/Jii with a ma- 
chine adai)ted to the purix>se in view. The world 
to-day is on a hunt for the best ration for the cow, 
but it will never be found so long as cows — like hu- 
manity — lose individuality. Cows vary; some are 
dainty, some are great feeders, some quiet, some 
active. An uncomfortable cow can never do her 
best, so banish from the stable that relic of bar- 
barism — the stanchion. The milking function is one 
of nerve power, and the secretion of milk is varied 
by violent exercise, fear or intense excitement. 
Men should ever be gentle, quiet in the stable, and 
among the cows. The oflFsi)ring of an abused, half- 
starved cow is to be noted as vicious, ungainly, and 
fails to be desirable; and here is a loss of dollars that 
should and could have been checked. Treat the cow 
with lavish care, feeding and gentle ways. Extra 
attention in little details is what is wanted in the 
dairy. If they are not looked after, th(> dairy will 
not pav, and the man will he inquiring, " Where am 
I at? 


Irrigation Projects in Yolo County. 

Though the year has not proved as dry as was 
feared, it has been dry enough to bring into the fore- 
ground some valuable considerations, and one of them 
is that it is wrong to allow good water to run idly to 
the sea when it could be made very useful by enter- 
prising peoi)le. There has long been discussion of 
the desirability of tui-ning the water of Cache creek 
to such account and Putah creek has also been put 
i forward for its irrigation i)ossibilities. At present 
both these enterprises have been revived and the 
Cache creek proposition is just now being vigorously 
urged. There seems to be quite a general approval 
of the undertaking, though some opjxisition is being 
encountered. Committees are at work and weekly 
public meetings are being held. 

The significance of these measures with our 
readers rests of course not in the local bearings, but 
in the general ai)plicability of the pro])Osition that 
mwh more of California should be made use of and 
the productive value of much more California land 
proportionally increased. In this line the words of 
the late R. B. Blowers, who was so well known for 
his agricultural wisdom, may be used as an exhorta- 
tion far beyond the limits of his county: 

"Irrigation in Yolo county is eminently a success. 
Nowhere in the State is there produced finer crops 
of clover than we raise. Our alfalfa, when i)roperly 
managed, not only yields abundantly, but is more 
nutritious and less woody than in those sections 
which are not blessed with a .soil as deep and rich as 
ours. There is no crop more profitable in this 
county, considering the time and care required. 

"There are thousands of acres of land in our county 
that have been sowed so long and continuously to 
cereals that they are worn out. The sui-face soil has 
been exhausted. Let such land be planted to alfalfa 
and irrigated. Two or three good crojis of feed, and 
green pasturage the rest of the season, will yield 
three times or more profit than the same land can 
produce sown to grain. And more than this, in live 
years, by such cultivation, your worn-out land has 
been renewed and restored in fertility beyond the 
richness of the virgin soil, so that it would be neces- 
sary to cultivate a crop of sugar beets for a season, 
producing 100 tons to the acre, in order to reduce 
the land to a state suitable for a grain cro]). Such a 
system of rotating crops and resting land is beyond 
all computation ahead of the summer-fallow method. 

"The reason why alfalfa will flourish on land worn 
out by long cereal cropping is that the clover roots 
penetrate the exhausted crust and strike deep into 
the subsoil, which is rich in the leachmgs of the fer- 
tilizing salts of the earth that have been washed 
down by ages of rainfall," 

This relates to other crops than fruits. Mr. 
Blowers took it for granted that the horticultural 
value of irrigation in his county was established 
among his people. He was right, and this acknowl- 
edgement was due to his own success in the wise use 
of water in the production of the finest shipping 

July 14, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


Marketable Horses. 

What sort of a horse to produce to get anything 
out of the effort is a question of deep concern to the 
breeder at present. There seems to be much har- 
mony in the Eastern expressions on this subject, and 
so far as we know the conditions here are quite 
similar. L. C. Underhill gives the Country Genth- 
■iiKiii the lessons he draws from a recent horse sale in 
New York City, and pictures clearly the horse that 
brings the most money. The star of the collection, 
ho writes, was a bright bay gelding, 16J hands, and 
one of the most perfectly balanced horses in every 
particular ever seen in harness. His action was 
simply superb, and in addition he could trot very 
fast, one enthusiastic admirer declaring that he coiold 
trot in 2:20. This speed came undoubtedly from 
trotting blood, but the size and high action suggested 
other crosses. With every circle of the ring the 
enthusiasm of the spectators increased and $2000 
was quickly offered. The bidding quickly jumped to 
twice this sum and then slowly mounted to $4500, at 
which price the gelding went to Mr. O. H. P. Bel- 
mont. This is the highest price ever obtained for 
a horse without breeding or speed. There seems a les- 
son here that readers can study with profit. Who can 
produce this type of horse to better advantage than 
the small breeder? To breed and develop trotters 
successfully requires a large sum to be invested in 
the plant and the expenses of ■ development. To 
breed large, fine road and carriage horses requires 
much less capital and but comparatively little ex- 
pense in breeding or developing. Buyers every- 
where report a scarcity of this type, and when a 
city dealer gets a really fine park horse, or a pair, 
he makes a handsome profit. 

Another type that commands a good market here 
is really good trotting-bred road horses, ranging 
from 15J to IS* hands. A dealer from Michigan 
really brought a first-class consignment here and 
sold them by auction at an average of $260 each. 
Many of them had shown speed enough to beat 2:B0, 
and during the flush times would have brought much 
highei- prices. 

The les.sons of the sale-ring at present are plain. 
Really desii-able horses bring fair prices, but others 
have practically no value. The general-purpose driv- 
ing I'eally useful type is in most demand, and prob- 
ably ten devotees of driving use a fancy trap or run- 
about wagon, with a handsome, substantial horse of 
the Hackney type, where one prefers the light road 
wagon and the lighter made horse suited to drive at 

A Chioaoo Comment. — Much the same ideas pre- 
vail in the Chicago region. The Breeders' Gazette 
alludes to the sale of Hackney horses at Brookfield 
Stud Farm, near Tjondon, where 54 head sold for 
$50,000, or an average of at least $900 each. It 
holds that one nmst pi-oceed with good blood to reach 
the results now so desirable in the market. It con- 
tinues: The perfectly gaited saddler comes only 
from stock possessing the blood, the style, the finish, 
the intelligence and the instinct inherited from an 
ancestry distinguished for superior excellence in the 
desired direction. And so of the stout, active class 
of substantially built horses that are required for 
the fashionable equipages of the day. Stock possess- 
ing the requisite weight, substance, quality, style 
and trappy action demanded in front of the solidly 
constructed vehicles now in such common use in and 
around all our great cities cannot be made from 
weeds thrown out of our race-horse breeding estab- 
lishments for lack of speed. Enterprising men have 
shown that by direct appeal to well-established 
coach and Hackney types the material from which 
these "finished" harness horses may be made is 
within easy grasp. The Gazette cautions its readers, 
however, against departing too far from the parent 
blood in endeavoring to produce this type of horse. 
Large and well formed trotting-bred mares can 
doubtless be profitably utilized in this work, but or- 
dinarily it will be wise to keep well within the coach 
and Hackney lines in order to secure uniformity. 
Common "plugs" and small, flat-ribbed, trotting- 
bred stock devoid of speed are indeed a drug on the 
market, but the high-headed, round-barreled, closely 
coupled hoj'ses of the coachy stamp, with clean, 
stout legs, supple joints and an "education" quali- 
fying them to jingle the chains merrily over city and 
suburban roadways, pass current almost as readily 
as gold dollars. 

Disposing of the Surplus in the Northwest. 

"What to do with surplus horses is proving a 
rather perplexing problem in the Northwest," says 
a paragraph in a recent paper. "It is estimated 
that in eastern Washington, Oregon, Montana, 
Nevada and Idaho there are 2,000,000 head of half- 
breed horses for which no market can be found. 
The prices brought at auction sales are so low that 
there is no profit in raising the animals. A few 
dollars will now buy a good mustang in that part of 

the country. Meanwhile the stock running wild on 
the big ranches goes on increasing out of all propor- 
tion to the demand. The cause of the depression in 
the horse trade is largely the employment of elec- 
tricity as a motive power in every part of the coun- 
try, and no market can be assured in the future ex- 
cept for hoi-ses with a thoroughbred strain in them. 
It is now proposed literally to kill off by thousands 
the mongrel herds of the Northwest and convert 
them into fertilizing and similar compounds. With 
this end in view, a company has been organized at 
Portland, Or., and a site for the abattoir has been 
secured. It is proposed by the incorporators to 
bring all the horses purchased to their abattoirs 
and there kill them by a painless method. The flesh 
will then be rendered of all its fat, and the residue, 
with the bones and hoofs, will be made into a fertil- 
izer. The hides, that have always a market value, 
will be carefully removed and salted, the hair being 
shaved off and with the mane and tail used for the 
stuffing of mattresses and upholstery work. A por- 
tion of the meat will also be compressed for chicken 
food, and no part of the hide, hair, flesh or bone that 
can be put into any practical use will be lost sight 


Inquiries from a Newcomer. 

To THE Eihtok: — I am a newcomer, and a beginner in the 
poultry business ; and, as such, should be much obliged for in- 
formation, cither from you or your readers, in answer to the 
following question.^ : 

(1) Is there any clearly decided advantage in keeping only 
pure breeds? It is commonly held where I come from that 
mixed fowl are hardier and better layers. 

(2) Have crosses between (a) Plymouth Rock and Houdan 
and (')) Indian Game and Dorking been tried on this coast ? If 
so, with what results? And where could good fowl of these 
breeds be obtained at prices that would not be prohibitory, 
bearing in mind that they are for profit, not a mere "fancy" ; 

(3) I have lost a great many chickens when a month or two 
old, by a di-sease I am not able to determine. They just sick- 
ened, drooped their wings, ruffled their feathers' and died. 
What was it? and is there any remedy? I have also had a 
few (mses of " gajies," which I have failed to cure though I 
tried turpentine and tobacco smoke. Is there any reliable 
remedy for this ? 

(4) I have three hen turkeys and a gobbler. The eggs have 
hatched well and the chicks been healthy, but the gobbler is 
of a very light gray color. Is this a disadvantage? Would 
dark or bronze birds fetch better prices? 

(5) IVIy ducks have laid very badly, and the few eggs had 
from them hatched but jxxjrly. What is the cause of this? 
There are but three ducks to" one drake. I bought them as 
last year's birds. They have access to water. 

San Martin, Gilroy, Cal. E. Alexaxdek Wrioht. 

The question of pure stock or crosses is argued 
here much upon the same lines suggested by our cor- 
respondent. We cannot attempt to settle such a 
matter in a paragraph. Of course it depends much 
upon what the poultry is kept for. If eggs are the 
ruling aim, we doubt whether pure Brown Leghorns 
can be beaten by any breed or improved by any 
cross. If it is eggs and flesh, half a dozen breeds 
will be named at once by half a dozen growers who 
have favorites, and no amount of discussion will 
change their views. Among those who believe in 
crosses there will be as many favors for special 
crosses as for the breeds which enter into them. Our 
correspondent mentions crosses which we know are 
popular in England. The Plymouth Rock and Hou- 
dan is a cross which has advocates here, but where 
there is one such advocate there are ten who favor 
the Plymouth Rock and Brown Leghorns, and there 
are several other crosses about as popular as this. 
The Game and Dorking cross is little used here; in 
fact, both breeds fail of large advocacy either pure 
or crossed. Our correspondent can, however, find 
the stock among our breeders, and we invite those 
who desire to supply our correspondent to send him 
descriptions and prices. 

With reference to the diseases of his poultry our 
correspondent's descriptions are not definite enough 
to admit of explicit answer. His young chicks may 
have perished from diseases resulting from excessive 
or improper feeding, or they may have been cut off 
in their careei- by vermin, which are very abundant 
in this climate. Bowel diseases, like cholera, ought 
to be easily recognized by the droppings. Vermin 
can be seen by close examination. Inflammatory dis- 
eases of the vicera can be detected by post mortem 
examination. Our correspondent should have a 
handbook on poultry diseases, and by close observa- 
tion of symptoms he can usually determine the char- 
acter of the trouble and apply the remedy. Such 
matters are also mentioned by our correspondents 
with definiteness of description enough to enable 
other readers to recognize and treat their manifesta- 
tions of the same disease. The use of copperas in 
the drinking water is a corrective for bowel troubles, 
and hints on proper feeding are frequent in our col- 
umns. The isolation and quarantine of ailing chicks 
should always be observed and promptly enforced. 

As for the turkeys, it is usually conceded that the 
bi'onze turkeys are most profitable for size, early 
maturity, vigor, etc. In our own case we should 
introduce the bronze blood, though there are many 
who do well with the gray stock, and the market 
supply always shows a proportion of this kind. 

We cannot answer for the ducks. Some experi- 
enced duck-raiser in the neighborhood could perhaps 

see something in the stock or the surroundings which 
would explain the lack of thrift. Ducks are usually 
easily grown. 

We commend all our correspondent's points to our 
poultry readers. If any one can give a hint on any 
of the matters introduced we shall be glad to hear it, 
and to make this department of the Rural more fully 
a conference corner for the hundreds who are given 
to fuss and feathers. Considering the numbers of 
our readers who work in this line we .should hear 
much more from them. 

riongolian Pheasants. 

We had much information a few years ago of the 
unfortunate frugivorous proclivities of the Mongolian 
pheasants which were some time ago acclimated in 
Oregon. It seemed likely that they would prove 
much more destructive than quail in our orchards 
and vineyards. The birds are, however, of such fine 
game quality that it is a foregone conclusion that 
our sportsmen would bring them here sooner or 
later, and it seems they are now introduced and 
likely to multiply rapidly. The San Bernardino 
Courier gives the following facts and gossip on the 
subject : 

About 18 months ago our townsmen, T. C. Carter and B. B. 
Harris, ordered, at an expense of $10 each, exclusive of ex- 
pressage, a dozen Mongolian pheasants from Oregon. Some 
of the imported birds died on the way and some were lost 
after their arrival, until the original number dwindled to two 
of each sex. This spring the pair of hens laid 47 eggs. 

The lirst setting was of 21 eggs under a small hen. On the 
21st inst. 11 of these hatched as many chicks— every one of 
which is getting on finely. The birds resemble brown Leg- 
horns on their first appearance. They are lively, beautiful 
and sprightly. Another hen sits on 22 eggs, "from which 
Messrs. Carter and Harris expect to secure a hatching on the 
7th or 8th of July. 

The cock pheasants are magnificent birds of gray, golden 
and mixed plumage. They are said to be gamey and daring 
in protecting their families. Nearly the whole of Oregon and 
Washington is spread over with the progeny of 17 of the birds 
originally sent over about seven years ago by Mr. Denby, 
consul to one of the China seaports. The flesh of the biids is 
most highly esteemed by those who have tried it. 

The birds succeed and" flourish best in mild climates. They 
increase more abundantly in pens, because of the protection 
afforded against foes. If 17 original birds in so short a time 
have stocked Oregon and Washington, why cannot these 15 
of Messrs. Carter and Harris fill this entire country with this 
desirable game ; 

The cocks, even in the wild state, have been known to enter 
the poultry yards of northern farmers and whip out the 
pluckiest roosters. The hens lay three settings per year and 
commence at one year old. It is rumored that Messrs. Carter 
and Harris (the former of whom is an ardent sportsman and 
the latter is president of our hunting club) intend from this 
commencement to supply our hills and valleys with stock 
birds, provided the supervisors will enact ordinances to pro- 
tect them until such time as the county will be reasonably 
supplied with their increase. 

This matter of protection to these birds is of the 
greatest im])ortance to the fruit-growers, and most 
of our poultry people grow fruit also. It should be 
looked after that supervisors are not givan the 
sportsman-like idea of these birds. They should also 
understand their intrinsic character upon fruit lands. 
If this is made known it may be possible to preserve 
the birds sufficiently and yet not make the fruit- 
grower carry the burden of the protection. We 
trust our readers in the regions where these birds are 
introduced will not fail to look after theii- own inter- 
ests in this matter. 

Chicken Cholera. 

With the warm weather, says the Southern Cuiti 
votor, we have the usual complaint of chicken cholera 
and are asked for a remedy. We are compelled to 
repeat what we have often said before — there is no 
sure cure known for the disease. Our own experi- 
ence and that of others convinces us that the best 
remedy, and it is not infallible, is carbolic acid. Give 
a teaspoonful in each quart of drinking water. To 
be at all effective, this must be given in the first 
stage of the disease. We are strongly of opinion 
that chicken cholera is not nearly so prevalent as 
commonly supposed. Much of the disease set down 
as chicken cholera is not cholera at all. It is merely 
acute indigestion, acting on a system depleted of vi- 
tality and vigor hy egg production or incubation or 
incubation and tlie hot weather, or brought about 
by excessive feeding. This induces bowel disease 
and death, not quickly like the cholera, but slowly. 
Remove all sick fowls from the healthy ones at once, 
and if any die, oi- what is better, are killed, to pre- 
vent danger from contagion burn the bodies. Disin- 
fect the houses and yards with blue vitriol, ten 
pounds to 20 gaflons of water. 

A SKRiES of chemical tests, instituted at the in- 
stance of Pomeranian dairy farmers, showed that 
fully 25 per cent of the butter sold in Berlin was 
adulterated with margarine. The amount of the 
admixture ranged from 30 to 100 per cent. The 
conclusion was that the loss to the German dairy 
farmers on this account could not be less than 
$10,000 per day. A movement has been started to 
procure legislation against the fraud. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 14, 1894. 


Visions of Lis^ht. 

The moon is risiiifr in beauty. 
The sky is solemn ami bright, 

And the "waters are singing like lovers 
That walk in the valleys at night. 

Like the towers of an ancient city 
That darken against the sky. 

Seems the blue mists of the river 
O'er the hilltops far and high. 

I see through the gathering darkness, 
The spire of the village chui-ch. 

And the jMile white m<x)n, half hidden 
By the tasseled willow and birch. 

Vain is the golden drifting 

Of morning light on the hill ; 
No white hand o{)ens the windows 

Of those chambers low and still. ' 

But their dwellers were all ray kindred, 
Whatever their lives might be, 

And their sufferings and achievements 
Have recorded lessons for me. 

Not one of the countless vo.vagers 

Of life's mysterious main 
Has laid down his buiden of sorrows, 

Who hath lived and loved in vain. 

From the bards of the elder ages 

Fragments of song float by 
Like flowers in the streams of summer, 

Or stars in the midnight sky. 

Some plumes in the dust are scattered 
Where the eagles of Persia flew, 

And wisdom is reaix'd from the furrows 
The plow of the Uoman drew. 

Fi'om the white tents of the crusaders 
The phantoms of glory are gone, 

But the zeal of the barefooted hermit 
In humanity's heart lives on. 

Oh ! .sweet as the bells of the Sabbath 
In the tower of the village church. 

Or the fall of the yellow m<xinbi!ams 
In the tasseled willow and birch— 

(,'omes a thought of the ble.ssed issues 
That shall follow our soc-ial strife, 

When the spirit of love makelh perfect 
The beautiful mission of life. 

—Alice Carv. 

A Glass-Day Tragedy. 

We were lounging about Clifton's 
room late one evening in the end of 
May discussing the merits of Class 
Day, moved to the subject, perhaps, 
by an association of ideas, for it was 
raining heavily outside. Three of us 
spoke, in favor of the institution — one 
because of a conventional turn of mind, 
that made him think he had a good 
time whenever the day appointed for 
having one arrived, and the two others 
because they really had happened, 
through some oversight of Fate, to have 
i'njoyed themselves on that occasion. 
I, being of a truthful disposition — they 
called it grouchy and pessimistic — con- 
tended that the whole thing was a 
snare, in which one kept getting caught 
and stuck with the most interesting of 

Clifton had not spoken. He leaned 
back in his chair and watched the 
smoke curl uj) from his pijie. 

The conventional one set upon me, 
while the two others sat with their eyes 
fixed on me over the edges of their 
mugs, waiting for a chance to admin- 
ister a telling word or two. '"But you 
know," he jjersisted. " you really ough t 
to enjoy it, and there's no reason on 
earth that j'ou shouldn't. Every one 
you know is there, and there's danc- 
ing, and the tree, and all the spreads, 
with lots of stunning girls. " Besides," 
and he gathered him.self together for 
his final stroke, "every one else enjoys 
it ! " 

" Not any one that's got the sense to 
know when he's having a good time or 
not," I retorted savagely; but my bit- 
terness left him unscathed, for he could 
see no application to himself in it. 
"Look here." I added, ajJijealing to 
Clifton, who, I knew, would be inclined 
to side with the weakest, and they 
were three to one against me, " isn't 
Class Day a hollow mockery and a 
beastly sham? " 

" 1 don't know." h<' replied, vaguely, 
" perhaps not to every one, but to me 
I admit that it is. The tragedy of my 
life happened on Class Day. " He 
stopped with a sigh, and I stared at 
him in amazement. In all my knowl- 
edge of him he had never vi'iitured so 
near sentiment as a sigh, and he wasn't 
of a confidential nature. 

"Yes," he went on, "it was last 
year, on my Junior Class Day. T don't 
know whether any of you knew Billy 
Brown, who graduated last year. He 

was a tall, quiet sort of fellow from the 
■West, and I had known him ever since 
I came here, for his father and mine 
were classmates and great friends." 

■V\"e all knew that a story was coming, 
and the conventional one settled down 
to listen with an air of politeness that 
even three years at college hasn't been 
able to knock out of him. The other 
two resigned themselves as best they 
might, and I, full of curiosity, stretched 
myself out more comfortably on the 
divan with what cushions I could lay 
hands on. 

"Ever since I had known Billy," 
Clifton continued, "I had been inter- 
ested in his room, and particularly in 
a photograph that lie kept on his desk. 
He said it was of a cou.sin of his — a 
second or third cousin." 

"Oho," scoffed West, " I know that 
kind of cousin; I've got several of them 

"Shut up," I said; and as 'West sub- 
sided, Clifton, without having appar- 
ently noticed him. took up his tale again. 

"The girl in the photograph was 
charming, not just ordinarily pretty, 
but with a delicate, exquisite kind of 
beauty, and a curve at the corner of 
her mouth that showed a keen sense of 
humor. I used to amuse myself by 
building up her character from her 
face, and after a little while I began to 
feel as if I rci.lly knew her. All of 
Billy's remarks about her — for some- 
times he waxed confidential on the sub- 
ject — only served to convince me of her 
charms, and I decided she was just the 
kind of girl that it would pay to know 
well. You can imagine my feelings 
when Billy announced to me, a couple 
of weeks before Class Day, that she 
was coming on to it with his familj'. I 
blessed my stars that I was a junior, 
and that I hadn't got to lug about any 
relations of my own. I pitied Billy, but 
I felt that at last my hour had come. 

" "Well, Class Day came, and, arrayed 
in my swellest clothes. I turned up at 
Sanders. Billy was there with the rest 
of his class, but the cousin was nowhere 
to be seen. Of course, that wasn't ex- 
traordinary, for tlu>re was such a crush 
that you couldn't see any one, and with 
high hopes I hustled off to the spread 
at the gym — it was still in the days of 
gym s])reads. I got there early, as I 
had hoped to, and there I found Billy 
and his party. 'Come on,' said he, 'I 
want to introduce you to them all,' and 
with a thumping heart I followed him. 
1 could see his mother with three girls 
sitting near her, two of whom I knew 
were Billy's sisters, and the third, who 
sat with her face hidden by her hat as 
we came up, 1 felt sure must be the 

' ' A fter the first embarrassing mo- 
ment of the introduction was over I 
looked at her, and to ray vast disap- 
pointment she bore no resemblance to 
Billy's j)hotograph. It was a blow, but 
I braced up and was as polite as I 
could be to Billy's sisters and the un- 
known — who afterward turned out to 
be a friend of one of the girls. 

" I never could understand why girls 
always bring more girls with them to 
Class Day, when they only have one 
man to run them. 

"I asked the prettiest of the sisters 
to dance, and after the dance we wan- 
dered about and I showed her the 

' ' 'While we were 
ment under some 

sitting for 

a nio- 

needl(>s kept scratching the back of my 
ne<-k, she said, 'I'm so sorry that my 
cousin hasn't arrived yet; she went off 
to see the buildings and the yard with 
my father, and I'm sure she doesn't 
know what she is missing. You must 
meet her when she comes, for we've all 
heard so much about you from Billj' 
that I know she wants to see you.' 

' ' This was charming, and I began to 
take heart again. Presently we went 
back to the rest of the party, and as 
there were as yet no signs of the 
cousin. I thought I might as well use 
tlu^ interval in being iK)lite, and I asked 
the unknown friend to dance. 

"When we hud gone once around the 
nxim I caught sight of the Browns, and 
there, talking and laughing with them, 
just as I felt sure she would talk and 
laugh, was Billy's cousin. I could only 
catch the most fleeting glimpses of heV 

as I spun around like a distracted top, 
but they showed me that she was as 
delightful as 1 had imagined her. I 
tried to be amiable to my partner, and 
not to knock down more people with 
her than was necessary, but my mind 
was bewildered. I endeavored to calm 
it by considering that in five minutes 
at the most I should be actually talking 
to Billy's cousin. Just at this moment 
I observed Billy emerging from the 
crowd with Jack Bent, that abominally 
conceited little prig, and in another 
minute he was introducing him to her. 
I tried to slow up, but my partner still 
revolved with a fixed determination to 
dance the waltz out. I was desperate, 
but there was nothing to be done, and 
I danced on, while I saw Bent carrying 
off the cousin before my very eyes. 

' ' By the time I had escaped from 
the friend people were leaving for the 
Tree and the Browns were gathering 
up their things. Billy had given them 
in charge for the Tree to a friend of 
his, a man that I didn't know, and he 
and the cousin led the way, while I fol- 
lowed with Mrs. Brown in the rear, but 
finding all hopes of an introduction on 
the way were useless, and having no 
ticket to the Tree, I deserted her after 
learning that they were going to Beck 
directly after it. 

" I went early to Beck, and while I 
was prowling about Fate delivered me 
hito the hands of that terrible Mrs. 
Fitz Jones. You all know her. I think, 
and I needn't describe to you the de- 
spair that settled upon my soul when I 
found myself in her power. She had a 
niece with her, a red. hairless kind of a 
girl, and for three mortal hours I had 
to escort those two harpies about. The 
Browns arrived, but that only height- 
ened my misery, for I could see their 
surprise at my not comijig to speak to 
them, and then the gradual freezing of 
their glances when they turned in my 

"Mrs. Fitz Jones worked me like a 
galley slave, but while I was foraging 
for her supper and trying to eat some- 
thing on my own account I came across 
Billy himself, k)ading down a plate with 
flavorless ice cream and those large 
and extremely vegetable strawberries 
that one always finds at Class Days. 
' Hullo,' he said, ' where on earth have 
you been hiding yourself all day'? I've 
been hunting everywhere for you, at 
my cousin's request, for she's heard so 
much about you from the girls and my- 
self that she's set her heart on a meet- 
ing.' Then I relieved my mind to Billy 
on the subject of my luck and Mrs. Fitz 
Jones. I did it in the most artistic 
language, but from fear that I could 
not do it justice in repeating it after 
this lapse of time I will leave it to your 
imaginations, and particularly to West, 
for he's rather an expert in that line. 

""Well, then. Billy offered his sym- 
pathy and told me to cheer up. ' Be- 
cause,' he said, "we are going around 
to Huntington's room in a little while 
to hear the Glee Club, and if you'll meet 
us there you'll really have a chance to 
meet her.' I caught at the suggestion 
with joy and after I had given Mrs. 
Fitz Jones her food I made a super- 
human effort and succeeded in shaking 
her. Then I tore over to Weld, where 
Huntington roomed. 

" It was a little awkward for me to 
appear there, for I didn't know the 
man well and I had been rather rude to 
him. but I put on a bold face and bra- 
zened things out. The Glee Club had 
just begun when I arrived, and the 
lights in the room were turned down, 
which made it impossible for me to 
recognize any of the girls who filled the 
window seats. It had begun to rain 
lightly, but the crowd in the yard, mi- 
der its shining roof of umbrellas, 
seemed indifferent to the fact. T tried 
to use the light of the colored fires 
they were burning in the yard to make 
out which of the girls at the window 
was Billy's cousin, but as one aft(>r an- 
other of them was thrown into sudden 
prominence by the intense light I was 
more and more disai)pointed, for dis- 
tinctly she wasn't there. So I turned 
my mind to the music with what atten- 
tion I could, and listened to all the old 
songs once more. People kept coming 
in, but no Browns came. If I had pos- 
sessed the remotest idea of where thev 

were I would have hunted them up, but 
as it was I had to sit still and exercise 
my patience. The rain still continued, 
and every now and then one of the Chi- 
nese lanterns that festooned the yard 
would become completely water-logged 
and fall to the ground with a dull, pa- 
thetic sound like a sob. 

''At last the people began to go, 
and as the room thinned out the lights 
were turned up again. I felt rather 
embarrassed, but my only hope of 
meeting the cousin lay in remaining, 
and I clung to it in grim despair. In a 
little while I was alone with Hunting- 
ton and his relations. They were tired 
and rather disappointed, I fancy, for I 
don't think they had enjoyed them- 
selves, and they could not imagine why 
I stayed on. They talked to me po- 
litely for a time, and tiien the conver- 
sation flagged. I made desperate at- 
tempts to be gay and enlivening. I 
asked them how they liked Class Dav 
and the college, and I went so far as to 
say flattering things of Huntington and 
his college standing to them, but they 
didn't seem interested, and their sur- 
prise at my presence became momenta- 
rily more apparent in their faces. 
Finally the Glee Club stopped and the 
crowd below melted away. I felt fur- 
ther waiting was hopeless, and after 
saying good-night I fled. With despair 
settling at my heart I went over to 
Beck, but that was deserted, and when 
I reached the Gym everybody was leav- 
ing. Then, cursing my stars and fate, 
I went to bed. 

"I met Billy the next day. and he 
explained to me that his people had 
gone home early the night before on ac- 
count of the rain, and that now they 
were on their way to New York, where 
he was going to join them in a few days 
and sail with them from there for Eu- 
rope. " 

Clifton stopped and shook his head 
regretfully as he filled his pipe. 

' But," inquired the conventional 
one, whose mind had not yet fully 
gra.sped the situatitm. '' didn't you ever 
meet her? " 

"No," said Clifton, "that was the 
tragedy. She was exactly the kind of 
girl that I always wanted to know; she 
fitted my ideal withcmt a single disap- 
pointment, and I never met her." 

"Oh. " insisted the other, displaying 
the disgasting optimism of his nature, 
'■ but you can. easily enough, when she 
gets back. " 

Clifton gave a meditative pull or two 
at his pipe and answered, "Yes, I 
shall see her then. Billy has asked me 
to be man."— M. H., in the Har- 
vard Advocate. 

Beaconsfield's Idea of Greatness. 

It seems that in the earlier portion 
of his career Benjamin Disraeli was on 
a visit to Liverpool and was induced to 
have a look at the Royal exchange. 
Accompanied by a friend he went when 
the place was thronged with merchants 
at high noon. The scene was a strik- 
one. and it impressed Disraeli much. 
He said: 

■ ' My idea of greatness would be that 
a man should receive the applause of 
such an assemblage as this — that he 
should be cheered as he came into this 
room. " 

No one noticed Disraeli on this occa- 
sion. It was no doubt before ht^ made 
his attacks on Sir Robert Peel, and his 
per.sonality had not yet been presented 
to Englishmen through the cartoons of 

But a day came when he was again 
on a visit to Liverpool and had obtained 
a prominent position in the political 
world. He went to the exchange in 
company with the same friend (Mr. 
Stewart), and on this occasion his en- 
trance was noticed, and a cheer was 
raised which soon spread into a roar, 
and ended ui a perfect ovation. Dis- 
raeli was deeply moved. He recalled 
to Mr. Stewart the i-emark he had 
made years before, and admitted with 
pride and pleasure that his ideal test 
of greatness had been realized. 

Mr. Gladstone would probably think 
the applause of the Sheldonian theatre 
at Oxford the highest approbation, and 
Carlyle was known to value highly the 

July 14, 1894. 

The Pacific 

Rural Press 


reception given to him by the Edin- 
burgh students, but few would have 
guessed that Lord Beaconsfield's idea 
of approbation was that involved in a 
cheer from men immersed in calcula- 
tions of consols, or in the rise and de- 
pression of the more speculative stocks. 
— Leeds (England) Mercury. 

Helping on the Gamins. 

A King's Daughter was relating one 
of her experiences. "With my aunt," 
she said, "I was passing through a 
street in a tenement district in this 
city when a crowd of children, strug- 
gling for the jjossession of a poor, half- 
starved looking kitten, attracted our 
notice. There were six boys and three 
girls, and the former were raining 
blows upon the latter, who in turn 
pulled hair, kicked and scratched the 
faces of their adversaries. 

" To my astonishment and relief my 
sex was shortly victorious, and I could 
not refrain fi-om showing that I was in 
sympathy with the object of the fray, 
although I could not conscientiously 
approve of the mode of warfare. 
' And,' T said to my aunt, 'surely this 
shows that woman's tenderness for 
weaker creatures and her protecting 
care for the forlorn and sufiferLng are 
inherent and instinctive, to see it thus 
manifested in these poor degraded 
children. ' 

"My aunt was not .so enthusiastic, 
but I did not notice it much at the 
time, for I had called one of the girls 
to me and, giving her some change, 
said to her: ' I saw how courageously 
you rescued that poor cat; you are 
good girls not to let the boys abuse it. ' 
She took the money and rushed back to 
her companions, showing it to them 
with the comment, ' My, isn't she 
green ! ' The trio then started up the 
alley, one of them urging haste. 
' Hurry up, Mag,' said she; 'you get 
the kerosene; it's got lots of fur, and 
it'll blaze awful nice.' 

" With an exclamation of horror my 
aunt and I ran after them, but our pas- 
sage was blocked by a rough looking 
fellow, who asked our business in an in- 
solent tone. We protested indignantly 
in behalf of the cat, but he only 
laughed jeeringly. ' They have to have 
their fun,' he said, ' like the rest of us,' 
and his manner was so impudently 
aggressive that we dared not attempt 
to get by him. We turned instead and 
found a policeman, who good naturedly 
came back with us, but man, girls and 
kitten were out of sight and sound. 
' They're away off by this time, ' re- 
marked the bluecoat; ' they know how 
to slip around. ' 

' ' I did not wait to know the result 
of the search, as I feared the worst. 
My dreams for some time were dis- 
turbed by visions of a martyred kitten. 
All that my aunt said was, ' Those 
girls' faces were the hardest I ever 
saw.' " — New York Times. 


"My mu.scle," said the prize fighter, 
" is as hard as armor plate. I am a 
regular man of war." 

She — Why don't you propose to some 
nice girl? He — I've done that twelve 
times already. She — Well, why not 
once more? He — I'm superstitious 
about thirteen. — Life. 

Mrs. Jenks — Do you know I always 
look best in calicoes? Mrs. Thorpe — 
Who told you so? Mrs. Jenks — My 
husband. — Life. 

New Yorkers are under the influence 
of the command; "Let him who is 
without sin among you remain in the 
city." — New York World. 

" That armor-plate notion is not a 
bad one," said the man at a safe dis- 
tance, "considering the blowhole that 
is in your face." — Indianapolis Journal. 

Bacon — They say Mrs. Shrew's mind 
is all gone. Egbert — I'm not surprised. 
She used to give her husband a piece 
of it every day. — Yonkers Statesman. 

Mr. Softleigh (waking in the middle 
of the night) — My dear, I am sure there 
is a man in the house. Mrs. Softleigh — 
Go to sleep again, Algy; you are flat- 
tering yourself. — Town Topics. 


Picnic Time. 

It's June agin, an' in my soul I feel the flUin' 

That's sure to come this time o' year to every 
little boy ; 

For, every June the Sunday schools at picnics 

may be seen. 
Where "fields beyont the swellin' floods 

stand dressed in livin' green;" 
Where little girls are skeered to death with 

spiders, bugs an' ants, 
An' little boys get grass stains on their go-to- 

meetin' pants. 
It's June agin, an' with it all what happiness 

is mine — 

There's goin' to be a picnic an' I'm .goin' to 
jine ! 

One year I jined the Baptists, an' goodness ! 
how it rained ! 

(But grampa says that that's the way "Bap- 
tize " is explained). 

An' once I jined the 'Piscopils an' had a heap 
o' fun — 

But the boss of all the picnics was the Presby- 
teriun ! 

They had so many puddin's, sallids, sand- 

widges an' pies, 
That a feller wisht his stummick was as 

hungry as his eyes ! 
Oh, yes, the eatin' Presbyteriuns give yer is 

so fine 

That when they have a picnic, you bet I'm 
goin' to jine ! 

But at this time the Methodists have special 

claims on me. 
For they're goin' to give a picnic on the 21st 

D. V. ; 

Why should a liberal Universalist like me ob- 

To share the joys of fellowship with every 
friendly sect ? 

However het' redox their articles of faith else- 
wise may be. 

Their doctrine of fried chlck'n is a savin' grace 
to me ! 

So on the 21st of June, the weather bein' fine. 
They're goin' to give a picnic, an' I'm goin' to 
jine ! — Eugene Field. 

Billy, the Horse. 

Grandmother was knitting the last 
mitten. Johnny sat by the window in 
a high chair, watching the horses that 
went by, and seeing how many he 
could count. Some of the horses were 
young, handsome and sprightly; some 
were old and sedate. 

"Grandmother," he asked suddenly, 
' ' did you ever have any real pretty 
horses on your farm?" 

"Sometimes," replied grandmother. 
"Our horses were usually work-horses, 
more for use than show or speed. But 
we had one real handsome horse — that 
was Billy." 

' ' Is that the horse whose picture 
Uncle Frank has painted and hung up 
in his room?" 

" Yes, he was Prank's horse. Prank 
brought him up from a little colt. He 
is not an did horse now, and when we 
.sold the farm Prank went all about the 
country till he could find just the right 
man to buy Billy. He found a man 
who would use him for a carriage horse, 
and treat him kindly, and not work 
him too hard. Prank was very fond of 

"One day, when Frank was about 
twelve years old, some men stopped at 
our house who were bringing some 
horses down from Canada to sell. 
There was one weak little colt among 
them. The mother had died and the 
colt seemed likely to die. It certainly 
would have died if they had tried to 
take it along. In the morning the men 
offered to give the colt to Frank if he 
wanted to take the chance of rais- 
ing it." 

"And he did, didn't he?" said Johnny. 

''Yes, and he made it live by good 
care. He sat up nights to warm milk 
for it, and he tended it like a baby. It 
grew well and strong, and became a 
beautiful colt. When it grew old 
enough to be taught, Frank began to 
teach it to do tricks. It was wonder- 
ful how much that colt knew. He 
would bring Frank's hat, pick up his 
handkerchief, hold the gate open for 
him to go through, and would follow 
Frank into the house if allowed to do 
so. When Billy was hungry he would 
go and get the oat measure, bring it to 
Frank in his teeth, and beg for oats. 
That was after he was a full-grown 
horse. I don't believe he has ever for- 
gotton those things, and if he should 
see Frank he would do them now." 

" He was as smart as the performing 

horses in the trained-horse show, 
wasn't he, grandmother?" 

" Yes, indeed, he was quite as intelli- 
gent. I have never seen them do any- 
thing that Billy couldn't easily have 
been taught to do. He had bright, 
knowing eyes, and was not afraid of 
any one, for he expected nothing but 
kind treatment. Prank never used the 
whip on him, and he tramed him to the 
saddle and to the carriage without any 
trouble. It was all done b}' kindness. " 

" How did Billy look?" asked Johnny. 

" He was a handsome dark bay, with 
a star in his forehead, and a beautiful 
mane and tail. Frank kept him 
groomed so carefully that his sides 
shone like satin. 

"Billy was stolen once," continued 
grandmother, as she neared the end of 
the last mitten thumb. "One morning 
we found the stable door had been 
forced open in the night and Billy was 
gone. He was a valuable horse, and 
the thieves had taken great pains to 
get away with him. Frank and his 
father hunted for . four days in every 
direction, and could get no trace of the 
horse or the theives. Frank was a 
young man grown, then, but he felt so 
badly over the loss of BUly that he 
could hardly keep from crying. It was 
the fourth night since he had been 
taken. Prank had gone to bed, having 
given up in despair of ever seeing BUly 
again. Sometime in the night he woke 
and heard something going knock- 
knock-knock on the front doorstep. It 
sounded just like the way Billy used to 
knock at the door. Prank jumped up 
and hurried down stairs. He opened 
the door, and there stood BiUy in the 
moonlight. Billy just laid his head over 
Frank's shoulder and gave one loud 
whinny, as much as to say, 'Oh, I'm so 
glad to get home. ' 

" We found out afterwards that the 
thieves had hurried him away almost 
two hundred miles, and shut him up in 
a shanty in the woods. Billy had man- 
aged to sliji his halter, pushed the door 
open, and galloped all the way home." 

" Didn't you hate to sell Billy when 
you left the farm?" asked Johnny. 

"We did," replied grandmother. 
"There was nothing on the place that 
we were so sorry to leave. But Frank 
means to buy him back some day. He 
says he shall own Billy again, if it isn't 
for a dozen years, if he lives. He has 
a good home now, and his owner says 
he will keep the horse till Frank is 
ready to buy him." 

As Grandmother said this, she drew 
the needle through the last stitch. 
The knitting of the mittens was done. 
Then she brought some embroidery 
silk and worked a pretty stitch on the 
back of them. Last of all, Bessie 
crocheted a neat edge for the waist, 
and the mittens were finished. They 
were lovely mittens, and kept Johnny's 
hands warm all through the long win- 
ter. Johnny always spoke of them as 
his Mopsey mittens. 

Mrs. Von Blumer — Were you playing 
poker with Mr. Witherby the other 
night? Von Blumer — How did you 
know anything about it? Mrs. Von 
Blumer — His wife told me to-day she 
was going to get that gown after all. — 
New York Herald. 

When you have got to the end of 
your resources in planning and schem- 
ing how to get rich, pull oft' your coat 
and go to work. — White. 

Life is a short day; but it is a work- 
ing day. Activity may lead to evil; 
but inactivity cannot be led to good. — 
Hannah More. 


Cold Heats for Hot Weather. 

Boiled Ham.— The best ham to select 
IS one weighing from eight to ten 
pounds. Take one that is not too fat, 
to save waste. Wash it carefully before 
you put it on to boil, removing rust or 
mold with a small, stiff scrubbing 
brush. Lay it in a large boiler, and 
pour over it enough cold water to 
cover it. To this add a bay-leaf, half a 
dozen cloves, a couple of blades of 
mace, a teaspoonful of sugar, and, if 
you can get it, a good handful of fresh, 
sweet hay. Let the water heat very 
gradually, not reaching the boil under 
two hours. It should never boil hard, 
but simmer gently until the ham has 
cooked fifteen minutes to every pound. 
It must cool in the liquor, and the skin 
should not be removed mtil the meat is 
entirely cold, taking care not to break 
or tear the fat. Brush over the ham 
with beaten egg, strew it thickly with 
very fine bread-crumbs, and brown in 
a qioick oven. Arrange a frill of paper 
around the bone of the shank, and sur- 
round the ham with watercrests, or 
garnish the dish with parsley. 

Pressed Corned Beef.— Select a 
firm piece for this purpose. The 
brisket is good, or, for those who like 
a streak of fat and streak of lean, the 
plate-piece is excellent, but this must 
be chosen carefully. Tie the meat 
carefully in a piece of cotton cloth that 
has been shrunk, making the beef take 
the shape you wish it to have when 
cold. Lay it in a pot and cover it with 
cold water, and put into this a stalk of 
celery, half a carrot sliced, a sliced 
turnip, an onion and a few cabbage 
leaves. Let the meat simmer gently. 
The time of cooking will depend upon 
the size of the piece of beef. Six 
pounds will require between four and 
five hours' cooking, but it must be very 
slow boiling — only the quietest of bub- 
bling at the side of the pot. A hard, 
galloping boil will cook the taste out of 
the meat and reduce it to a mass of 
insipid shreds. When the beef is done, 
leave it in the water until this is nearly 
cold, then take it out and lay It 
between two flat surfaces and put 
heavy weights upon it. It should re- 
main thus all night. In the morning 
remove the cloth, trim the beef into 
comeliness, if there are any ragged 
edges, and garnish it with watercress, 
or parsley and small pickles. 

Chicken Pie. — Take a pair of young, 
tender chickens and cut them into neat 
joints. Lay them in a deep pudding 
dish, arranging them so that the pile 
shall be higher in the middle than at 
the sides. Reserve the pinions of the 
wings, the necks and the feet, scalding 
the latter and scraping off' the skin. 
Make small forcemeat balls of fine 
bread-crumbs seasoned with pepper, 
salt, parsley, a suspicion of grated 
lemon-peel, and a raw egg. Make this 
into little balls with the hands, and lay 
them here and there in the pie. Pour 
in a cupful of cold water, cover the 
pie with a good crust, making a couple 
of cuts in the middle of this, and bake 
in a steady oven for an hour and a 
quarter. Lay a paper over the pie if 
it should brown too quickly. Soak a 
tablespoonful of gelatine for an hour in 
enough cold water to cover it. Make 
a gravy of the wings, feet and necks of 
the fowls, seasoning it highly; dissolve 
the gelatine in this, and when the pie 
is done pour this gravy into it through 
a small funnel mserted in the opening 
in the top. The pie should not be cut 
until it is cold. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 14, 1894. 





A \ ■ I . 



In and Around Denver, 

Second only to California 
in thf beauty and extent of 
its scenery is the mountain 
State of tolorado, and sec- 
ond only to oui- own Pacific 
roast cities in much that 
makes manifest the march of 
progress is the pleasant city 
of Denver, where meet so 
many diverse elements, and 
where on evei-y hand is such 
tanf^ible (nidencc of wealth. 

Twas said of a famous wit 
and raconteur, thai so fi^reat 
was his flow of animal spir- 
its, so infectious was his im- 
mediat(> personality in pro- 
motinf^ fun that one had to 
drink to keep sober in his 
company. Kindred exhila- 
ration is experienced by the 
sojounier in Colorado's cap- 
ital. The -'Queen City of 
the Plains." with its 17r),(K)0 
])eople, whether seen in the 
uold and f^ray of the mt)rn- 
in<,', the full splendor of a 
i loudless noon, or the blue 
and silver of the ni<fht, is a 
<plendid spectacle, an inspir- 
ini^ sit^lit. 

It has been our pleasure 
and our privilege to visit 
that pleasant city and other 
Colorado industrial centei-s 
more than once, and have 
found tlie people fully awake 
to theii- advantages, and de- 
ti'rmined to make all their 
past achievements but an 
index of what 1hi\v i)roi)Ose 
to accomplish in the future. 

Though sharing with the 
rest of the country in the 
present depression, the re- 
sources of Colorado are of so 
valuable and permanent a 
nature as to insure a quick 
return of the pi'osperity so 
manifestly due. Like our 
own great State, Colorado 
takes the precious metal 
from the ground, thus add- 
ing to the permanent, inde- 
structible wealth of the 
world. The Centennial 
Commonwealth has thus 
augmented the general 
wealth of hundreds of mil- 
Hems of dollars. Mining is 
the backbone of Colorado's 
prosperity, though it must 
he borne in mind that her 
manufactures represent over 
$1(I(),()(M).0(HI annually, and 
her fields and stock ranges 
$]()<», (MMt.O(K) more. We of 
California have so much 
scenery of superlative gran- 
deur that even the superb 
landscapes and mountain 
views of Colorado fail to 
make much of an impression 
on a Californian. Init we 
herewith present a few illus- 
trations of Denvi'r and vicin- 
ity, thus portraying the 
works of man rather than 
those of nature. Colorado's 
excelli'iit system of i-ail roads 
enables the visitor to ([uickly 
and easily see the principal 
points of interest in the 
Slate, and much that is wor- 
thy the chronicle of pen and 
])encil may be found in even 
lli(> hastiest passag(> thi'ough 
its limits. 

The League of American 
Wheelmen will hold their 
midsummer meet in Denver 
this year in the interest of 
good roads and kindred top- 
ics, and that city is now 
making preparations to re- 
ceive and welcome its vis- 
itors. Acknowledgment is 
due Mr. Edward B. Light, 
secretary of the Denver 
Chamber of Commeire. and 
Mr. Sterling Elliott, editor 
of (,'itiiil RiiidIs, for courte- 
sies extended, including the 
views that accompany this 
brief refei'ence to one of the 
most attractive sections of 
the countrv. 








Breeders* Directory. 

six lines or less in this directory at 50c per line per 

Horses and Cattle. 

F. H. HUKKK, m-j Market St.. S. F. Al Prize Hol- 
stelns; Grade Milch Cows. Fine Pigs. 

II. P. MOHK, Mt. Eden. Cal. Importer and Breeder 
of Cl.vdesdale Horses. Holstein-Priesian Cattle and 
Berkshire Pigs. Young stock on hand and lor sale. 

JKKSEYS— The best A. J. C. C. registered prize herd 
is owned by Henry Pierce, S. P. Animals for sale. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma. Registered Shorthorn 
Cattle. Both sexes for sale. 

PETER SAXK & SON, Lick House, S. F., Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 .years, of every 
variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

JERSEYS AND HOT>STEINS, from the best But- 
ter and Milk Stock; also Thoroughbred Hogs and 
Poultry. VVilliam Niles & <'o., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeders and Exporters. Established in isrs. 


J. W. FORGEirs, Santa Cruz, Cal. Three well-bred 
Brown Leghorn cockerels or 2 pullets and 1 cock- 
erel for $0. A handsome lot of Barred Plymouth 
Rocks. I shall breed from 20 pens of P. Rocks this 
coming season. All interested visit m.y .yards or 
correspond. Mammoth Pekln Ducks. Satisfaction 
guaranteed. Reference: People's Bank. 

A. BUSCHKE, Tracy, Cal. Breeder of S. C. White 
Leghorns and B. P. Rocks. Eggs $1, $1..50 per setting. 

WILLIAM NILES& CO., Los Angeles. Cal. Nearly 
all varieties of Poultry. Dairy Cattle and Hogs. 

Send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

Sheep and Goats. 

.1. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal. Importer and 
Bi-eeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Cross- 
bred Merino and Sliropshire Sheep. Rams for sale. 
Prices to suit the times. Correspondence solicited. 

R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal. Breeder & Importer. 
Southdown Sheep, also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 


F. II. BIFRKE, 02(1 Market St., S. P.- BKKKSHIRES. 

TIIOS. .1. KERNS, Downey, Cal. Breeder of Regis- 
tered Berkshire Hogs. 

J, P. ASHLEY, Linden. S;ui Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Breeds Poland-China. Essex ;iud Yoi'kshli-e Swine. 

MONROE MILLER, Ellsio, Ventura Co.. Cal. 
Breeder of Registered Berkshire Hogs. 

H. .1. PIIILPOTT, Nlies, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Tecuniseh and other choice strains of 
Registered Poland-China Hogs. 


Best Stock; also Dairy Strains of Jerseys and Hol- 
steius. Will. Nilos St Co., Los Angeles. Est. 18711. 

TYLKR BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

<'II.\S. A. STOWE, Stockton. Regist d Berkshires. 

In These Dull Times 

You Can Largely Increase 

Your income by buying an Incu- 
bator and engaging in the chicken 
business. Send stamp for our 
catalogue of Incubators, "Wire 
Netting, Blooded Fowls and Poul- 
try Appliances generallv. Jiemeni- 
hff the Heat is thi- Cheapest. PACIFIC 
INCUBATOR CO., 1317 Castro St., 
Oakland, C:il. 

f^rmnk: a. brush, 

SANTA ROSA. CAL. (Care Santa Rosa National 
Bank.) Importer. Breeder. Exporter. 

S.C\A/hIte Leghorns, 
S. C BroiA/n Leghorns, 
Barred Plymouth Rocks, 
Black /V\Inorcas.~~""^ 

Eggs, $3 per m.-hM iEB'Send for Circular. 



CO;VlF»rt [NY. 

l.'iia Myrtle Street, Oakland, Cal. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 


The numerous diseases that are usually preva- 
lent among very Youiik Turkeys may 
be prevented by the use of 


Send for Circular. 
E. FOUGERM dfc CO. _ 
ao NnrltW WtHimu Street, - - - New iTork. 

Alexander & Hammon, 

RIO BONITO NURSERIES, Biggs, Butte Co., Cal. 



The most Complete Assortment of General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacific Coast. 

1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894=95 in Stock. 

«S- Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Guaranteed to be healthy and free from 
cale or other pests. 

Send for Calalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander & Hammon, 

Biggs, Bt4tte County, Cal. 


Gilman's Patent Tule Tree Protector. 


Cheapest, best and only one to protect trees and vines from frost, sun- 
burn, rabbits, squirrels, borers and other tree pests. 

For testimonials from parties who are using them send for descriptive 


Sole /Vlanufacturer of Ratent TTule Cowers, 
420 Ninth Street, San Franciseo, Cal. 

R/\ISHN \A/R/\F»S, S\A/E/\X R/\RER, 


WAX OR PARAFFINE PAPER, as well as a large variety of other P apers for the wrapping and 
packing of Green and Dried Fruits and Raisins. 


4-l<5 Clay Street. 

S. p. Taylor Paper Co. 

San F^ranclsco, Cal. 


Pigs of all ages for sale. 


P. O Box B86. 

I.OS Angeles, Cal. 

Genuine only with RED 
BALL brand. 
Recommended by Gold- 
smith, Marvin, Gamble, 
Wells, Fargo & Co., etc., 
etc. It keeps Horses and 
Cattle healthy. Formilch 
cows; it increases and 
enriches their milk. 
619 Howard St., 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Feed our Poultry Food and you will have healthy chickens and lots of eggs. Ask your dealer for it. 


W. B. EWSB. 

6. H. STBONO. 

DEWE'y <5b OO.'S 

Fate&i Lm. 


Inventors on the Paoifio Coast will find it greatly to their advantage to consult this old 
txperienoed, first-class Agency. We have able and trustworthy Associates and Agents in Wash- 
ington and the capital cities of the principal nations of the world. In connection with oar edi- 
torial, scientific and Patent Law library, and record of ori^al cases in our oflBce, we have 
ither advantages far beyond those which can be oflfered home inventors by other agencies. The 
nformation accumulated through long and careful practice before the Office, and the frequenl 
jxamination of Patents alrTady granted, for the purpose of determining the patentability oi 
;nventions ^ ought before us, enables ns ofte» to give advice which wiU save inventors the 
expense of -pplying for Patents upon Inventions which are not new. Circulars of advice aenl 
free on receipt of postase. Address DEWEY St CO.. Patent Agents. 220 Market StL S. F. 

FS'f.A reHTuimuniRTou have tried it 

■ ^Mi^ BOOK l NCUBg 10N5£I?rfrtiiSES SLc 

ifonC^uw Inc.Co pELAWARECnY.Par^ 


Hot 'Water: Ventilation; Moisture; Self- Regulating; 
No Watching; Chickens removed without opening 
machine— l'.itl. WO. if.M. Now iB the time to use 

Wellington's Imi'koved Ego Food. Every grocer 
keeps It. B. F. WELLINGTON. Prop., 436 Washing- 
ton Street, San Francltwo/ 

C. H. EVANS & CO., * 

(Successors to THOMSON & EVANS.) 

110 & 118 IIKALE STKKKT, .S. F. 


steam Pumps, -f Steam Engines. 

. . AW KUuUo} MSVUlNEnr. ■ ■ 

— 'm 

Seeds, Plants, Etc. 

p. SEBIRE & SONS, Nurserymen, Ussy, 
Calvados, France. 

Largest stock of FKCIT TRKE STOCKS, such 
as Apple, Pear, Myrobolan Plum, Mahaleb and 
Mazzard Cherry, Angers Quince, Small Ever- 
greens, Forest Trees, Ornamental Shrubs, Roses 

C. G. van TUBERGEN, JR., Haarlem, 

CHOICE DUTCH BULBS and Bulbous Plants. 



Garden and Agricultural. 

Catalogues free. Apply to C. C. ABEL & CO., 
Box 920, New York, or A. H. HARTE'VELT, Box 
983, San Jose, Cal. 

Olive Trees. 


Send for our Book on Olive Culture. 

HoxA/land Bros., 


Xr— > p^- ' — ■_ A PINE ASSORTMENT, 
■ ^ t— »■ best varieties, ^ee from 

AND pests of an.v kind. Frunus 

£1 IVTT^S Simoni, Bing, Rostraver 
1 1^ I ^3 and Murdoch Cherries; 

Black California Figs; Kice Soft Shell and 
other Almonds; American Sweet Chestnuts; 
Prre-parturiens Walnuts. Hardy mountain grown 
Orange Trees. Our oranges have stood 2'2 degrees 
this winter without injury. Dollar Strawberry, 
the best berry for home use or market. Address 
C. M. SILVA Si SON, Lincoln, Placer County, 

Commission Merchants. 


404&406 DAVIS STS.F. 




lit General Commission Merchants, ii« 


Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

i9®" Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 

Look at This! 

40O yards of white- 
washinjir may be 
(lone in one 
hour by 


Whitewashing Machine 


Tree Sprayer. 

Machines at prices 
from *3 to »50. 

Send for circulars of 
Spraying Apparatus, 
Garden and Lawn 
Sprinklers. Hose, etc. 

VVm. Wainwright, 

14 Hayes Street, S. F. 

Contracts taken for 
large jobs of 'White- 
washing and Tree 

Short -Horn Bulls! 

For Sale. 


Baden Station, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

The cars of the S. F. and San Mateo Electric Road 
pass the place. 


.Tilly 14, 1894. 

The World's Gold and Silver 
Production for 20 Years. 

The change* in the world's produc- 
tion of gold and silver during the last 
two decades are shown in the following 
table, which is taken from the last re- 
port of the Director of the Mint, with 
the exception of the figures for 18!)2, 
which are revised in accordance with 
Mr. Preston's estimates, and the fig- 
ures for 1893, which are taken from 
his report just submitted to Congress: 



Calendar years. (lolil. i oiniiu/ ralae. 

1873 |e6,3IK).IKX) $8i.«IO,fia) 

1874 9(l,75(l,(lrt) 71,50I),(I00 

1875 97,S(J(I.(I0() N(),5(l(l,(««l 

1876 l(«,7(«l,()fK) 87,600,000 

1877 n4,(»l(),00() 81,aiO,0(JO 

1878 1I9,()0().(X«) 95,O(X),0U) 

1879 109,000,(X)0 96,000,000 

1880 106,500,001) 96,700,0(« 

1881 ia?,oa),ooo 102,000,000 

1882 102,000,000 111,800,000 

1883 95,4fX),0nO 115,300,000 

1884 101,700,0(« 105.500,000 

1885 108,400,000 118,500,(XX) 

1886 106,0(X),(X10 120,6(«I,0(X) 

1887 105,775,000 124,2813^)0 

1888 110,197,(X)0 14O,7O6,(X)0 

1889 123,489,000 162,1.S9,I«I0 

1890 118,848,700 172,234,.')l«l 

1891 126,183,500 I86,446,8IKI 

1892 146,297,600 197,230,5(J0 

1893 155,521.7(W 2(J7,895.4(I0 

It will be seen from this table that 
the value of the gold produced in the 
world in 1893 exceeded the value of 
that produced in 1873 by nearly $60,- 
000,000, while the coining value of the 
silver produced in 1893 exceeded that of 
the silver produced in 1873 by over 
$126,000,000. Of course it is to be 
recollected that the commercial value 
of silver has not kept pace with its 
coining value in the two decades that 
that have elapsed since 1873. It will 
be noticed also that the increase in the 
value of the silver product has been on 
the whole more steady than that in the 
value of the gold product. The increase 
in the production of gold since 1873, it 
may be remarked, has been altogether 
owing to other countries than the 
United States, for the product of the 
latter country in 1893 was actually a 
trifle less than that for the year 1873. 

Emigration from the United 

In an interview with a reporter of 
the New York Sun the representative 
of the Hamburg-American line de- 
clared the number of steerage passen- 
gers going to Europe from this country 
witbin five months was surprisingly 
large as compared with the same period 
of 1893. In the case of the Hamburg- 
American line the increase has been 
almost 80 per cent. The representa- 
tive of the Anchor lino reported that 
the exodus by his line had never been 
equaled, and was 125 per cent greater 
during the first five months of the 
present year than during the same 
time in 1893. One of the vessels of the 
Red Star line on her last voyage 
brought in 80 immigrants and returned 
with 450. The French line reports 
almost the same condition of affairs. 
The North-German Lloyd, while not 
carrying so many eastward as some of 
the other lines, reports a decline of 
about 100 per cent in the westward- 
bound emigrant traffic. The Cunard 
line's eastward emigrant business in- 
creased about one-thu-d over the fig- 
ures of last year for the period named. 
This is the first year in the history of 
the traffic when the outgoing steerage 
passengers outnumbered the incoming. 

In the U. S. sub-treasury, in this 
city, there was cash on hand on the 1st 
inst. an follows : United States notes, 
♦22,269; treasury notes, 1890, $23,080; 
national bank notes, $29,460; gold cer- 
tificates, $5450; silver certificates, $88,- 
215; gold coin, $10,949,476; standard 
silver dollars, $24,781,882; subsidiary 
silver coin, $930,277.15; minor coin, 
$26,132.95; fractional' curnencv. $11; 
total, $36,856,253.10. 

In activity we must find our joy, as 
well as glory; and labor, like every- 
thing else that is good, is its own re- 
ward.— E. P. Whipple. 

RUDY'S PILE SUPPOSITORY is guaranteed to 
cure Piles and Constipation, or money refunded. 
Fifty Cents Per Box. Send stamp for Circular and 
Free Sample, to MARTIN RUDY, Lancaster, Pu. 
For B&ie by all flrst-elass dniggistg. 


IT has been conHidered by the medical 
profeggioii that hernia— commonly called 
rupture — was Incurable, except by surgi- 
cal operation, which Is both dangerous 
to life and very rarely ever successful. But 
DR. J. C. ANTHONY, of 86 and 87 CHRONI- 
CLE BUILDING, has opened a new field for 
research, and for the past year has been mak- 
ing gome remarkable cures. He causes the 
patient no pain, and those living near enough 
do not lose any time only while in his office 
once or tvlce weeicly. He guarantees every 
case he treats, and does not ask a man for a 
<lollar unless he cures him, so there can be no 
chance of any one being cheated. The doctor 
is a graduate of Bellevue Hospital Medical 
College, of New York City. 






p*r koz< 
• tmr 99.30 


Schenectady, N.T. 
Mid BrockTille, Ont. 

U Membership 

* ASSOCIATION enables you to order any 
and all Kinds of .Supplies with a saving of 
from ten to fifty per cent on what you are now 
paying. Correspondence with us will convince 
you of this fact. First-class references and 
full information sent on application to . . . 

J. H. WOOD & CO., Manag:ers, 

14 Sansome Street, 

San Francisco. 


"It beats all creation, "siild the Deacon, "bow 
tbem peskjr p\n» get through that fence. Its all b\g 
wire an' the man said 'twould hold 40,000 lbs., but a 
40 lb. piK Koen thro' It a flyin'." 

"I am not 'sprlsed," Bald the Squire, "I had one 
built on the same plan, but I didn't talk as 'cam' as 
you do 'bout it; kep' the ratchets screwed up tight 
as a Hddle string, too, but if a bole 'tween two wire Is 
four or five ft. long, a pig don't care skucks bow 
wide 'tis." 

"But you don't have any trouble now? What 
d ye do?" 
"BouKht the 'PAGE. • " 



Also Steel Web Picket Fence and Steel Wire 
Kence Board. Write for circulars. 
DeKALB FENCE CO., 88 High St., OeKalb, III. 

Jno. Woodlock, 26 Beale St., 

SA.V FK.ANCiSCl). Cai.., 
<iENKKAI, .\<;kXTS for PACIFIC Sl.OI'K. 


THK KANCHO AKOMITAS.— Prices $35 to 
$125 per acre. This is the best rich sediment soil 
property ottered in this State for the money. S. P. 
has station on the ranch, and only few miles from 
Watsonville Sugar Beet Retlnery. This is a great 
country for sugar beets. For full particulars apply 
I E. C GODVSKT. Crocker Bide. San Francisco. Cal. 

Belmont School, 

BEL/VIOINTT. Crt l_ I FOR IN I ft , 
"^^^^'m Miles South of San Franeisco.'^M^^ 

Kf II, iiiNOS heated from a central sle;ini plant. and 
buildings and grounds llfrhted b.v electricity. 

Boys perform tlieir own experiments in well- 
eQiilpi)ed chemical and ph.velcal laboratories. 

GVMNASIUM f9x"!l feet, furnished wltli very best 
apparatus. Including aliower baths, under 
special teacher of physical culture 

SCHOI.AKsniPs for .voune men of tinr rliaracter 
and ability. Accredited at Stanford and at 
the University of California In all the »>ib- 
jects of all the courses and In advanced phy- 
sics, chemlstr.v and matliematlcs 

REFEHK.sces retinlred. Views of Belmont School 
and Catalot?ue sent b.v applvinK' to W. T. 
KKIU, A. .M. (Harvard). Head Master. . . 




Selling : Facilities, 


Oldest House in the Califor- 
nia Products Business 



138, 140 & 142 Market St., San Francisco. 

Kates of Tuition Very Moderate. 

Booklieeplng-. Penmanship. Shorthand. Typewrit- 
ing, English Branches, etc. Graduates aided in get- 
ting positions. Send for circulars. T. A. ROBINSON. 

Business College, 

24 Post Street, - - - .san FrHiiciseo. 


This College instructs In Shorthand. Type-Writing. 
Boolilteeplng. Telegraphy. Penmanship. Dr.iwing. 
all the English branches, and ever.vthing pertaining 
to huBiness. for full six montlis. We iiave sixteen 
teachers and give individual instruction to all our 
pupUa. Our school has its graduates In every part 
of the State. Send for Circular. C. S. HALEY. Sw. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining; Engrineering, 

Surveyinf;, .Vrchitecture, Drawing.^and Assaying, 


San Francisco, Cal. 

Open All Year. : A. VAIf DER ITAILLElf, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, $25; Bullion and Chlorination 
Assay, $2.5; Blowpipe Assay, $10. Full course of 
assaying, $50. Established 1864. Send for Circular. 


s*a mitkcisca oFFict 2z ck hkma si 

„ ffllClTOiisnf 

(>v-.220 MARK E T.ST. S.F.^ 
V_f LEVATOR 12 FRONT. ST.S.F.—-*^ 

l.OF=' CrtLlF='ORNIrt. 


.Al'lUL. UU. 


Capital Paid Dp W1,0()0,000 

Reserve Fund and CntllTlded Profits, i:<0,00O 
Dividends Paid to Stockholders.... t(3'.i,000 


A. D. LOGAN President. 

I. C. .STEELE Vice-President. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER. . . .Cashier and Manager. 
FRANK McMIlLLEN Secretary. Banking. DeposUs Reoelvi'<l. Gold and 
Sliver. Bills of Exchange Hoiighl and .Sold. Loans 
on Wiicit and Countrv Protlucc :i .Siicclallv. 

January I. 18111. A. MONTI'ELLIER, Manager. 

XREE - \A//\SH. 

OII\/e Dip. 

"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pure Potash. 

T. W/. JACKSOIN dfc CO. 

Sole Agents. - - No. ti Alarket Street, 



Now is the time to Build Kvaporators If you 
desire to secure the lllf^hest I'rIce 
for this year's Fruit Crop. 
For description of machine guaranteed for quan- 
tity and quality of worls. send for circular to 

T. & W. A. BECK, 
Watsonviw.e, Cai.ikounia. 


Ul UiikIh cT t'lol-. Fori iiiif for I 111- (III tier by u»>inK our 
Adiirn ttitine proct-fji; cm take ftcort-. Pcrfeclwl Kc"nom» 
ic'tl Artesian i'miipinir KiirJ* tn w-Tk in ^(eam, Air, etc 
Aurora, 111 t ('hlcnifn. III.: flnllHi. Tex. 


For All Purposes. 


Use for operation only One-Half Pint Kerosene per hour per horse power. 


^ aanrr""^ complete outfit, 2400 gallons per hour, $300. 

Write for Illustrated Catalogue. 

PERKINS PUMP AND ENGINE CO., lir Main St.. San Francisco. 


— manufactureks or 



Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc., all sizes. 

IroB cut, punched and formed, for making pipe on ground where required. All kinds of Tools sup- 
pi ied (or making Pipe. Estimates given when required. Are prupurud for coaliiiB all siuK of Piper 
with a composition o( Coal Tar and Aspbaltum. 

July 14, 1894. 

The Pacific 

Rural Press 


Patrons of Husbandry. 

Note. — Owing to the paralysis of 
the postal system the Rurai- has not 
received the usual letters from the 
Master and Secretary of the State 
Grange. — Ed. 

San Jose Grange. 

To THE Editor : — At the regular 
meeting of San Jose Grange the follow- 
ing resolutions were adopterl: 

lieantved, That the members of San Jose 
Grange, having full coufidence in the honor, 
ability and strict integrity of Colonel Philo 
Hersey, believing him to be well qualified for 
the position of Congressman, do earnestly 
recommend that the Republican District Con- 
vention soon to assemble do nominate Colonel 
Hersey for Representative in Congress. 

ReKiilved, That the members of San .Jose 
Grange do not believe, nor is it a fact, that 
new members in Congress are without in- 
fluence during their first term. History shows 
that in every instance new members having 
integrity, ability and an earnest desire to 
.serve their constituents and their country, 
have exercised and do to-day wield ten times 
the influence than do those members who are 
kept in Congress with a view of learning their 

Rendlve.d, By the San Jose Grange that they 
do not want, nor will they vote for a mono- 
metallist, nor for one who believes in bi- 
metallism when certain European Govern- 
ments will consent. This class of persons are 
monometallists in disguise, and we want none 
of them. We want men in Congress with 
brains and patriotism enough to vote for a 
policy distinctively American— that of gold, 
silver and greenbacks for our currency. 

BmoUy'd, That San Jose Grange favors the 
free and unlimited coinage of silver at the 
present ratio of 10 to 1 without waiting for 
the consent of any other Government on earth, 
or even the gold bugs in Wall street. 

After the adoption of these resolu- 
tions your correspondent reported to 
the grange that a pamphlet had been 
sent to him by the Secretary of State, 
containing the election laws, and also 
the amendments to the State Constitu- 
tion that would be submitted to the 
voters of the State for their ratifica- 
tion or rejection at the coming Novem- 
ber election. 

The amendments were read for in- 
formation, and made the special order 
for the second Saturday in July. 

There was an unusually large atten- 
dance at the grange yesterday, owing 
probably to an intimation that two 
amateur Thespians would give the tent 
scene in the drama of Julius Capsar; 
but, owing to the unavoidable absence 
of one of the parties, it did not take 
place. As next Saturday is young 
ladies' day, it will probably be given on 
the second Saturday in July. 

A.MOS Adams. 

San Jose, July 1, 1894. 

The Iron in One's Body. 

A lecture, presumably scientific, was 
delivered in a hall in Philadelphia re- 
cently, the lecturer stating that the 
human body contained enough iron to 
make a plowshare. There are about 
100 grains of iron in the average human 
body, and yet so important is this ex- 
ceedingly small quantity that its dimi- 
nution is attended with very serious 
results. The man who thus talks about 
the quantity of iron in the system 
probably knows as little about the 
human body as he does about the 
weight of a plowshare. 

A Paper Fire Engine. 

The Fire Department of Berlin has a 
fire engine, the carriage of which is 
constructed entirely out of papier 
mache. All the different parts, the 
body, wheels, pole, etc., are finished in 
the best possible manner, While the 
durability and powers of resistance 
possessed by this material are fully as 
great as those of wood, the weight is, 
of course, much less. The lightness of 
a fire engine is, of course, a great ad- 
vantage, and it seems not unlikely that 
wooden carriages will in a short time 
pass out of use altogether. 

G. W. Dun, the naturalist, referring 
to a probable cause to the extinction of 
many "night gas lights, ' says: " The 
moth miller is causing many deaths, and 
people would do well to look out for 
them. They are harmless looking, but 
very dangerous, San Francisco is, 

though a large city, full of these moth 
millers. The average man does not see 
a moth miller, though it flies before him 
half a dozen times. He has not trained 
eyes for such things. The only way he 
knows the millers have been around is 
when he discovers his clothes cut to 
pieces. It is the millers rather than 
the little gusts of wind that put out the 
gas. As soon as a moth sees a light it 
makes for it. Most people on going to 
bed leave a jet or two burning very low. 
At the same time the window sash is 
up or down; therefore, when a miller 
sees the jet he finds easy access to it. 
A single flip of his wings is often enough 
to extinguish it. The result is that the 
gas quickly fills the room and asphyxi- 
ates the sleeper. No wonder that no 
note is left and no reason can be as- 
signed for the death. It is a mystery 
for which the moth miller is responsi- 

Light on Logarithms. 

An expert engineer in a New Eng- 
land city rendered a bill to a corpora- 
tion who had employed him to write a 
technical report. The amount of the 
fee was large, the corporation refused 
to pay it, and the claim was carried 
into court. 

Dui'ing the trial the counsel for the 
corporation sought to belittle the ex- 
pert's work, raising questions as to his 
experience, and, in fact, to prove that 
his labor would have been amply re- 
warded with a few dollars a day. 

"How did you reach this result?" 
asked the lawyer, referring to a certain 
calculation which had involved the use 
of logarithms. 

"I consulted Napier's table and" — 
but he got no further. 

" You consulted Napici-'s table, did 
you? " 


"Do you mean to tell this court that 
you, an expert, had to resort to a pub- 
lished table? Did you prove the figures 
of that table? " 

"No, but they have been proved. 
They are considered to be accurate by 
every scientific man." 

" Why do you not work out your own 
table of logarithms? Is it not because 
you are unable to do so? " 

" It is not. I am perfectly capable 
of preparing such a table: but it would 
have taken too long a time to do so, 
and so I consulted the standards." 

" In order to prove your calculations 
as well as your capabilities in this mat- 
ter," continued" the suspicious lawyer, 
I will now ask you to prepare a table 
of logarithms." 

"Here and now?" inquired the plain- 
tiff'. ' ' I fear it will consume too much 
of the court's time." 

This seemed to confirm the lawyer's 
doubts, and so he insisted the more up- 
on having a complete table of loga- 
rithms prepared. 

The plaintiff smiled maliciously, took 
paper and pencil and began his work. 
In about five minutes the lawyer asked 
him if he had finished. The plaintiff 
shook his head and continued at work. 
Ten minutes passed by and again the 
question was put: 

" How nearly finished are you?" 

" Very far from finished," remarked 
the plaintiff. 

"Well, may I ask how long it will 
take you 1 o prepare a table such as 
Napier's? You seem to be very slow 
about it." 

The expert hesitated a little and 
then replied: " I estimate that, work- 
ing alone, I might be able to complete 
it in about 1.5 years, working day and 
night. It took Napier and five assist- 
ants seven years to prepare his table, 
but I am less familiar with the calcula- 
tion than he was, and, as you say, work 
slow. Still, in 15 years I think I can 
complete it." 

It is unnecessary to say that the 
lawyer was not a little taken aback by 
the answer, which enlightened him a 
trifle on the subject. He withdrew the 
questions, and eventually the expert 
won his case. 

In roasting meat the principal care 
should be to have it as juicy as possible, 
as the juices contain both the nourish- 
ment and flavor. 

New Catalogue. 

Weather and Crops. 

Sacramento, July 9. — Sergeant Bar- 
wick, director of the State Weather 
Service, gives the following summary 
of his week's report: 

The average temperature for the 
week was: San Francisco, 56 degrees; 
Eureka, 54; Red Bluff, 86; Sacramento, 
74; Fresno, 84; Los Angeles, 66; San 
Diego, 64. 

As compared with the normal tem- 
perature, a heat deficiency occurs along 
the coast as follows: San Francisco, a 
deficiency of 4 degrees; Eureka, 4; Los 
Angeles, 5; San Diego, 3. In the two 
great valleys of the State, the Sacra- 
mento and the San Joaquin, there was 
an excess of heat of 7 degrees at Red 
Bluff, 2 at Sacramento and 3 at Fresno. 

This excessive heat in these valleys is 
rapidly ripening fruits. Bartlett pears 
will, in another week, be ready for 
shipment, and if then shipped a great 
many will be too ripe to stand the East- 
ern trip. Fruit has not ripened so 
rapidly on the coast and near-by coun- 
ties as it has in the interior, and for 
that reason the latter will suffer most 
if the present railroad tie-up lasts much 

The grain crop is fair and of excellent 
quality. The fruit crop is enormous. 
The outlook in Yuba, Sacramento, So- 
noma and Mendocino counties was never 
better than at present. 


Washington, July 10. — The July re- 
turns to the statistician of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture make the followinfi 
averages on conditions: Corn 95, win- 
ter wheat 83.9, spring wheat 60.4, al 
wheat 79.3, oats 77.7, winter rye, 93.9. 
spring rye, 81.7, barley 76.8, rye 91.1. 
potatoes. 92.3, tobacco 81. 

The pi-eliminary acreage of corn as 
reported by correspondents shows 
per cent as compared with the acreage 
of 1893. being an increase in round num- 
bers of 4.000.000 acres, or 76,000.000 
against 72,000,000 last year. The 
averages of the jirincipal States are: 
Iowa 1.7. Missouri 1,9, Kansas 110. 
Nebraska 118. 

The average condition is 95, against 
93.2 last July. The averages of the 
principal States are: Ohio 92, Indiana 
96, Illinois 99, Iowa 100, Mis.souri 101, 
Kansas 96, Nebraska 96, Texas 95, 
Kentucky 90, Tennessee 89, Michigan 

The condition of winter wheat is 85.9, 
against 88.2 in June, and 77.7 last year. 
The percentages of the i)rincipal States 
are as follows: Missouri 91, Kansas 56, 
California 51, Oregon 97, Washington 

The condition of spring wheat is 68.4, 
against 80 in ,Iune, and 74.1 in July, 
1893. The State averages are: Iowa 
70, Kansas 69, Nebraska 40, South Da- 
kota 44, North Dakota 68, Washington 
85, Oregon 98. The average condition 
of both winter and spring wheat, or all 
wheat for the country, is 79.3 per cent. 

$100 Reward, $100. 

The readers of this paper will be pleased to 
learn that there is at least one dreaded disease 
that science has been able to cure in all its stages, 
and that is Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the 
only positive cure now known to the medical 
fraternity. Catarrh being a constitutional dis- 
ease, requires a constitutional treatment. Hall's 
Catarrh Cure is taken internally, acting directly 
upon the blood and mucous surfaces of tlie system, 
thereby destroying the foundation of the disease, 
and giving the patient strength by building up the 
constitution and assisting nature in doing its 
work. The proprietors have so much faith in its 
curative powers, that they offer One Hundred Dol- 
lars for any case that it fails to cure. Send for 
list of testimonials. 

Address, F. J. CHENEY, Toledo, O. 

«S~ Sold by Druggists, 75c. 

Farmers and others who want information in 
regard to pumping plants will do well to send 
to the Perkins Pump and Engine Co., 117 
Main Street, San Francisco, for its new illus- 
trated catalogue. 

Remove rust from steel knives by 
covering them for two days with sweet 
oil: then rub with a lumj) of fresh lime 
until the rust disappears. 

First Politician — I can say this, that 
our party conducted the campaign in 
an honest, fair and straightforward 
way. What more can you say of your 
party? Second Politician — We won. — 
Boston Transcript. 

Emulation is not rivalry. Emulation 
is the child of ambition; rival is the un- 
lovable daughter of envy. — Balzac. 

The opinions of wise men ripen into 
judgments, while the opinions of the 
fool become hardened prejudices. 


Ayer's Hair Vigor 



Natural Growth 



—WHEN - 


•'I can cordially indorse Ayer's Hair 
Vigor, as one of the best preparations 
for the hair. When I began using Ayer's 
Hair Vigor, all the front pai t of my head 
—about half of it — was bald. The use 
of only two bottles restored a natural 
growth, which still continues as in my 
youth. I tried several other dressings, 
out they all failed. Ayer's Hair Vigor 
is the best." — Mrs. J. C. Pbbusseb, 
Converse, Texas. 

AYER'S Hair Vigor 



Of Interest to Consumers ! 


Di:itIN<i these times when grain is low, 
fruit fliflBcult to sell and produce of all 
kiiKls lesH reuiunerati\'e tliaii it lias been, 
farmers and fruit-growers find tlieir incomes 
are less than they expected, and as a result it 
is essential that what they use should be sup- 
plied to them at the lowest possible < 08t. The 
I'arlfic <'oaHt Home Supply Association has for 
a number of years supplied a large number of 
families throughout the coast with their 
necessities and have been so successful in pur- 
chasing advantageousl.y for their patrons that 
their business shows a constant increase, and 
they are still at the old stand ready to attend 
to the wants of the public. Other organiza- 
tions of similar nature have started, and gome 
of them hav«' goM<> out of existence, while in 
other cases t Iie3' have failed to give the best 
of satisfacf i<»ii. 'I'his has sometimes operated 
to destro.v conlideiice. but there is no question 
the plan of shipping direct to consumers and 
making the road from manufacturers to con- 
sumers as direct as possible is the most eco- 
nomical way of <-(»iidu<'ting business, and as a 
result you can obtain better goo<ls for less 
money by using the Association than through 
any other source. Those who are not mem- 
bers would do well to write to headquarters 
for informal ion, which will gladly be sup- 
plied, and if their representative should be in 
your neiglilxirliood at any time, he will be in- 
structed to call upon you and explain the sys- 
tem thoroughly. 

KKMKMUKK, the address of this Associa- 
tion is 132 Market street. San Francisco, with 
branch houses at Los .4ngelcs and Portland. 


'Etw most •oocMatnl college on tbie continent. For farther purtionlsre addrem ih€ SeontsrT, 

JW. UUUUSH, aU H. U. T. M.r 3a31-2a3» Staco Ht., UMcoco, lU. 


The Pacific Rural Press 

July 14, 1894. 


Market Review. 

San Francisco, July u. IHW. 

FLOUR— We quote as follows: Net cash prices j 
for Family Kxtras, $;i.-tlift ;!.5(1 libbl; Bakers Ex- 
tras, $3.a((dai(i; Supcrtine. $±HKa2.7f> V bbl. 

WHEAT— The market is quiet and uninterest- 
ing. Offering's are small, while the demand is 
light. Bu.vers and sellers alike show indifference, 
probably because distant centers show no en- 
couraffe'ment. Trade, however, is expected to pick 
up very soon, as some loading is already outlined 
and more will doubtU'ss follow. Quotable at iXto 
02'/i,c ~f ctl for good to choice shippinK. and $l(n 
l.(i7>4 for milling grades. 

BARLEY— Business is not of expansive char- 
acter, but there appears to be good undertone to 
the Barley market . The impression seems to pre- 
vail that this cereal will make a good record this 
season in the way of sales, while prices are ex- 
pecti'd to prove satisfactory to most sellers. The 
demand just now is somewhat light and confined 
almost exclusively to feed descriptions. No in- 
quiry prevails for Brewing quality, and it would 
likely be difficult to place much of even new Brew- 
ing, 'unless the seller were willing lo accept al- 
most feed prices. We quote feed : New, S.V*87'»c: 
Old, BT'jroSiDc: Brewing, new, nominal. 

OATS— Trade is slack again and prices are less 
Arm fn consequence. Business closed last week 
under fairly promising conditions, but matters [ 
have not developed as anticipated. Stocks are 
liberal, consignments still coming from northern 
points. We iiuote: Milling, *1.22';(S !.;«'= ; Sur- 
prise, .$1.37'. ^(a l.J'J'i ; fancy feed,^ff 1.32Vi; good 
to choice, ir.l.ifffi 1.2ft: poor to fair, Sl.Oijyjei l.isya : 
Black, nominal: Red, nominal: Gray. $1.15@1.25 
¥ ctl. 

CORN— Shipment yesterday of tilliw ctls to Cen- 
tral America by steamer. Quotable at $\.a)(u 1.25 
for large Yellow, $1.32'/s<S.1.35 for small Yellow and 
*I.*1<ffl.45 for White. 

CRACKED CORN— Quotable at $v>r.oO@a8,50 1> 

CORNMEAL— Millers quote feed at $27(528 1^ 
ton; line kinds for the table in large and small 
packages, -Z^iaiSHc e> lb. 

OILCAKE MEAL— Quotable at $35 f* ton from 
the mill: jobbing, *37.,=)0. 

COTTON SEED OILCAKE— Quotable at 1* 
ton; jobbing, $32.5CI. 

SEEDS— We quote as follows : Mustard, Brown, 
$2(<i*2 25: Yellow, i3(ntS 25: Trieste, $2 50(» $2 75: 
Canary. 3(a4c; Hemp,39i to 4He ? ft: Rape, 'miV^c: 
Timothy, fi'/.c f» ft; Alfalfa, KX" HHc: Flax, S3(a 
$3 25 ^i'ctl. 

MIDDLINGS — Moderately firm tone lo the 
market. Quotable at .$19 50®21 50 ^ Ion. 

MILLSTUFFS— We quote: Rye Flour, 314c: 
Rye Meal. .3c: Graham Flour, 3c: Oatmeal. 4>4c; 
Oat Groats, 5c; (!iacl<ed Wheat, 3'/4c: Buckwheat 
Flour, 5(6'5V4e: Pearl Barley, 4H to4^c f" ft; Nor- 
mal Nutriment, case of 1 dozen cans: Break- 
fast Delight, 25 ^ case of 2 dozen packages. 

FEED— Manhattan Horse Food (Red Ball Brand) 
in vnylh eabinets,*8; Manhattan Egg Food, IflO-ft 
hags, $11 
BRAN— Quotable at $17((i,fl8 i» ton. 
HAY'— The market has been somewhat irregular 
and unsettled, as the railroad strike shut off .some 
sources of supply. Arrivals are coming along 
freely by water and matters are becoming ad- 
justed to the situation. Wire-bound Hay stdls at 
ifl per ton less than rope-bound Hay. Following 
are the wholesale city prices for rope-bound Hay: 
Wheat and Oat, $12frj.fH 50; Alfalfa, 17 50f.i.$il .tU: 
Barley. $li(;n$12; do, river, $6fn'$9; compressed, 
— @— ; Stock, $6 to $« ton. 

STRAW— Quotable at 70(s!80c bale. 
HOPS— No business. Crop prospects continue 
favorable. Quotations remain nominal at a range 
of 9@12c ft. 
RY'E— Inactive. Quotable at QOc^i Sl "fi ctl. 
BUCKWHEAT— Quotable at $1 10(5$! 20 t' ctl. 
GROUND BARLEY— Quotable at $2f)@;21 ton. 
POTATOES— Receipts are moderate and stocks 
clean up well. We quote as follows: Early Rose, 
.'!0C«60c in sacks and 40c to 75c ^> ctl in boxes: 
Whites, :i5(H60c in sacks and .500 to $1 in boxes. 

ONIONS— Steady in price. Quotable at 25c to 
:i">c ? ctl for Red. and S(Ks'"av for White. 

DRIED PEAS— We quote: Green, $1 50 to$l 75; 
Blackeye, $1 60(a$l R'j; Niles, .^1 .50 to $1 75 ^ ctl. 

BEANS — Business has been of holiday character 
for the past week, but active movement is looked 
for in due season. Bavos, $2 2.5ra$2 35; Butter, $1 90 
to $2 for small and $2(ff.2 211 for large; Pink, $1 60@ 
$1 75; Red. $2 20f(i *2 I,ima, $3 fio to $3 75: Pea, 
$2 85fri!t2 75; Small White, *2 .50 to $2 B5: Large 
White, $2 5tKa$2 S5 'f. ctl. 

VEGETABLES — Supplies are large, while 
prices for some kinds are still very irregu- 
lar, owing to the condition in which stock 
reaches market. We quote as follows; Green 
Okra, SffilOc ¥ ft: Egg plant, 1 .5f) ^ fli; Cucum- 
bers, 2(i(a 35c for Vacaville. and 75cfn $l 'jf box for 
bay; Green Peas, I'^fo 2'. ic V 1t>; Summer Squash, 
HXa 15c f' box for Vacaville and 20(ti :i5c for bay; ' 
String Beans, 40fo ,tI)c V sack ; Green Corn, 25c(S$l 
^ sack for common and 20fn 25c 'f dozen for bay : 
Marrowfat Squash, 120 "f' ton; Hubbard Squash, — 
«i — It' tou; Green Peppers, 25(a.4Uc V box for Chile 
and 2,5(§.40e 'f box for Bell: Tomatoes, 2(lcrn;« -f, 
box; Turnips, 75c ¥ ctl: Beets. 75c sack; Pars- 
nips, $1 25 '# ctl ; Carrots, 35@.40c : Cabbage, «()(Si75c ; 
Garlic, lM(S2!4c '# ft; Cauliflower, 60(rt 7(lc ¥ dozen: 
Dry Peppers, 17!/j(3 20c ft: Dry Okra, — c f ft. 

FRESH FRUIT— Receipcs are in excess of the 
demand, and low prices still prevail. Fine hard 
black Cherries arc doing a little better, being about 
the only description that shows any improvement. 
We quote: White Nectarines, 25f«;i5c "t" box; 
Crabapples, .30(n.'>0c 'r* box; Grapes. BOf"7.5c f 
box; Peaches, 20((i Idc ~f box and 25(n'4(lc V bskl; 
Black Figs, 25(S ,^5c r< box for Mayers and .Vlfa7.5c 
for 2-layers ¥ box: White Figs, Mayer, 25(a30c: 2- 
layers, 35(a50c; Cherries, Royal Ann, 20(S'.35c 1> 
drawer and 1' J(f/ 2c ~f ft for loose: Cherries, black, 
■mr .50c %1 box ; do, loose, a(n :jc V ft ; Apricots, Royal, 
2t)fn 40c "S box, 15<(i 25c 'f bskt, and !i(«3,ic y lb in 
bulk; Moorpark Apricots, UKaHic box and 25@,35c 
^> bskt; Currants, $1 7,5ft 2 50 chest: Plums, 114^ 
2'/ic "i? ft: Cherry Plums, 1.5ft/;*lc \i drawer; Ap- 
ples, 2.5(S7.5c ¥ box, and l,5((i25c f. b.skt; Pears, 
common, 25ft 40c; Bartlett Pears, fiOft 7.5c box for 
green and .$lft 1 25 for ripe: Cantaloupes, il@2 50 ^. 
dozen: Watermelons, $2 50((i;3 50 f> dozen. 

BERRIES — Supplies are quite liberal and 
prices still shape in favor of consimiers. We 
quote; Raspberries, ifl 50ft ST? chest; Strawberries, 
$3(a'4 Igi chest for Sharpless and $7(d)10 for Long- 
worths ; Blackberries, f 1 .Tbft 2 .50 i( chest. 

CITRUS FRUIT— Mexic:in Limes,$3ft 3 5(J ^box; 
California Lemons, .Weft' if 125 for common and 
$150^^2 25 for good to choice; Bananas, $1 50(5 
2 50 ¥ bunch: Pineapples, $lft4 %■ dozen. 

DRIED FRUIT— Business in new crop is ex- 
pected to soon commence. At present there is 
comparatively nothing doing. We quote: Apples 
5(gj6c for quartered, S&Bc for sliced, and 9®llc for 
evaporated; Pears, 6@Sc ¥ lb toe bleached halves 

and2@4ctor quarters: bleached Peaches August 
delivery nominal: sun-dried Peaches, 7®8c ? ft 
August"- July delivery; Apricots, U)c ¥ ft^spo' and 
7ft 8c for Juiy-Augusl delivery ; Prunes, 5@5;/jC for 
the four sizes, -c for the five sizes and .3Vjft4c 
for small : Plums, 4C«;5c for pitted and P^c for un- 
pitted; Figs, black, 3(a;4c for pressed and I'-jg^c 
for uupressed; White Nectarines, — fa— c; Red 
Nectarines, —ft — c V ft. 

RAISINS— California Layers, 60c@$l: loose 
Muscatels, in boxes, 50®75c: clusters, $1 25®1 50; 
No 1 loose in sacks, 2ys(»Sc ¥ lb: No. 2, do, 2M(» 
2'4c; dried Grapes, \V,(a'l%c 1* lb. 

NUTS— We quote: Chestnuts, —4f—c ?.ft: Wal- 
nuts mVic for hard shell, 8ft9c for soft shell 
and 8ft S)c "for paper shell: California Almonds 
lilftllc for soft shell, 6ft7c for hard shell and 
ll'Jft 12'4cfor papershell; Peanuts, ,3(a 4c : Filberts, 
10ft' 1014c: Hickory Nuts, 5ft'6c: Pecans 8c for 
rough and 8ft' 10c tor polished; Brazil Nuts, 
8ft 9c: Cocoamits, .$5 to $5 50 lf> KKI. 

HONEY'— Firm tone to prices, though buyers are 
scarce We quote as follows; Comb, lOHc to 
nv.c for bright and 9®10c for dark to light am- 
ber- water white extracted, 6y,®7c; amber ex- 
tracted, 5'4®6c: dark, 4?ift'5!4c ^ lb. 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 24ft 2.5c f lb. 

BITTTER— Lil)eral receipts are coming to mar- 
ket by the various water routes, while most of the 
usual outlets are temporarily closed and stocks 
are beginning to accumulate. As a consequence, 
prices show easier tone. We quote; Fancy 
Creamery, 16(21 17e: fancy dairy, 14'/,(a> 15c: good to 
choice, 13(ajl4c: store lots, nft'12c; pickled roll, 
new, 17(ai9c ¥ lb. 

CHEESE— Prices stationary, receipts being 
ample We quote; Choice to fancy, 8c to Sl^c; 
fair to good, 614 to7'4c; Eastern, ordinary to tine. 
14ft: 1.5c 1* ft. 

KGGS— Arrivals direct from the hennery have 
been light for nearly a week, causing a steady 
hardening of values. Most dealers believe that 
top figures have been reached for the present. 
We quote as follows; California ranch, 23(a.25c, 
with sales of fancy stock at 26c: store lots, 
16@20c; Eastern eggs, cold storage, 16@18c ¥ 

POULTRY' — The shutting off of many of the 
usual sources pf supply, by the railroad tie-up 
caused a sharp advance in quotations. Considera- 
ble Peultry is now being received from points with 
which the" city has water communication, and, 
while prices are higher than they were a week ago, 
the market is not strong. We quote as follows; 
Live Turkeys— Gobblers. llft KIc: Hens, llfailSc: 
Roosters, $.5"ft5..TO for old, $7.50ft 9 for young: Broil- 
ers $2.5Wn3..50 for small and$4ft5for large; Fryers, 
$6.-ijft 7: Hens, $5@i6: Ducks, $3 for old and $3,50 to 
$5.50 for young: Geese, $l(a i.50 ^ pair: Pigeons, 
$1,2.5(1 1.50 f' dozen. 

CtA ME— Nominal. 

PROVISIONS— No arrivalsof Hog products from 
the East have been received for over a week. The 
market rules firmer for Hams and Bacon in conse- 
quence We quote as follows; Eastern Sugar- 
cured Hams, 17(8il8c ¥ ft: California Hams, 14 
ftjl,5c: Bacon, Eastern, extra light, sugar-cured, 15 
@16c: medium, 10c: do, light, lOHc; do, light, bone- 
less 1,3c; light, medium, boneless, llHft l2c; Pork, 
extra clear, bbls, $20; hf bbls, $10.50; clear, bbls 
$19- hf bbls $10; boneless Pig Pork, bbls, $21 .50; hf 
bbls -$11 ; Pigs" feet, hf bbls, $4 75; Beef, mess, bbls. 
$7 50 to $8; do, extra mess, bbls, $8 ,50ft $9; do, fam- 
ily $loft$10.50: extra, do, $llft$ll 50 ^ bbl: do, 
smoked, 9®. 10c; Pi(jkled Tongues, hf bbls,$8; East- 
ern Lard, tierces, 79iift8c; do, prime, steam, 9;4c; 
Eastern, pure, 10-ft pails, 9!4c: 5-ft pails, 9Su: S- 
ft pails, i>m-: California, 10-ft tins, 9c; do, 5-ft, 
9!4c; do. kegs, 10'4c : do, 2t>-ft buckets, 10c: com- 
pound, 7c for tierces. 

WOOL— Business is quiet, but some shipping 
demand is anticipated when there are clear trans- 
portation facilities. We quote spring: 

Year's fleece, te ft SC'* 7c 

Six to eight months, San Joaquin, poor 5(nt 6 

Do, fair 6® 8 

Humboldt and Mendocino, fair 8@10 

Do, choice 12@13 

Northern California 9(S»10 

Calaveras and Foothill 8® 9 

Oregon and Washington- 
Heavy and dirty 8@ 7 

Good "to choice 8@10 

Valley 10@12 

Nevada — 

Heavy 6@ 8 

Choice, light 9@\0 

HIDES AND SKINS— Quotable as follows: 

Sound. Culls. 
Heavy Steers, 54 lbs up, ¥ lb, . . .4Yi@i%c 33i@4c 

Medium Steers, 78 to 56 lbs 3'4®3% 3 (ce.— 

Light, 42 to 47 pounds 3 @3M 2 (&2!4 

Cows, over 50 lbs 3 @3M 2 m'/i 

Light Cows, .30 to 5(J lbs 3 @— 2'/i<&— 

Stags 3 ®— 2 @— 

Kips, 17 to ;10 lbs 4 @— 3 @— 

Veal Skins, 10 to 17 lbs 5 @— 4 (S— 

Calf skins, 5 to in lbs 7 r*— 6 @— 

Dry Hides, usual selection, 614c; Dry Kips, 6'/jc: 
Ca'lf Skins do, 6'4c; Cull Hides, Kip and Calf, 4c; 
Pelts, Shearlings, 10(ai20e each: do, short, 2.5®3.5c 
each; do, medium, 4O(H'.50c each; do, long wool, .50ft 
7.5c each: Deer Skins, summer, 25c; do, good 
medium, 15ft 20c: do, winter, 5c IB lb: Goat Skins, 
2.5ft 40c apiece for prime to perfect, 10(a20 for 
damaged, and 5c to lOc each for Kids. 

TALLOW— We quote: Refined, byt(a.h%v: ren- 
dered. 4i4(i4V4c; country Tallow, 4c; Grease, 3(6)3'/!C 
-f' lb. 


Prices are steady, but not buoyant. Prominent 
dealers have no fears of a famine. Cattle are com- 
ing in every day and suiiplies are expected to con- 
tinue without interruption. 

Following are the rates for whole carcasses from 
slaughterers to dt^alers: 

BEEF— First quality, 5!4ft'6c; second quality, 4W 
@5c; third quality, 4(&i454c ^ lb. 

CALVES— Nominal. 

MUTTON— Quotable at 5!4(g)6'4c 'f lb. 

LAMB— Spring, 7(ai7yjC lb. 

PORK— Live Hogs, on foot, grain fed, heavy and 
medium, 414ft 4>4c; small Hogs, iii@4%c: stock 
Hogs, 3!4c: dressed Hogs, 6Mc(ff 7c -f lb. 

Midwinter Fair Premiums. 

Household Hints. 

To make a pretty plant basket get a 
large wooden bowl and cover the out- 
side with split poach stones. Varnish 
or paint and hung vvith eliams. 

A cuj) of cold-boiled rice added to any 
griddle cakes or muffins makes them 
lighter and more wholesome. 

Keep a peek or more of lime in an 
open keg in the cellar to ab.sorb the 

Dark calicos are best washed in water 
in which bran has been toiled — a quart 
of bran in a loose bag to a gallon of 

Following are the official awards in the depart- 
ments of agriculture and horticulture of the Mid- 
winter Fair, announced on Tuesday of this week; 

State of Nevada, first award for wheat, barley, 
corn, oats, rye, alfalfa, hay, grass hay; etc, 

San Francisco Produce lixchange, special award 
for cereals from all parts of the world; also best 
collection of California cereals. 

State of Nevada, second award for potatoes. 

.Arizona, first award for agricultural and horti- 
cultural products. 

State of Nevada, first award for honey in combs 
and extracted. 

State of Nevada, second award for peas, beans, 
buckwheat, flax, hemp, etc. 

Kern county, special, horticultural and agricul- 
tural products. 

Merced county, first general exhibit. 

Monterey county, second agricultural and horti- 
cultural proiluets. 

San Joucjuin county, second horticultural and 
agricultural products, 

San Luis Obispo county, special agricultural 

Souoma county (A. M. Hardie), special for gen- 
eral display, 

San Benito county, first general display, first 
wheat and alfalfa hay, 


Major W. B. Hooper, Butte county, first award on 
Washington navels. 

J.B.Wood, Riverside, first on Washington na- 
vels, Malta bloods. . 

John W. Cook, Los Angeles, first on Washington 

William F, Strawbridge, Los Angeles, first on 
Washington navels. 

A. Frazier, Los Angeles, first on Washington 

Gordon Maddick, Los Angeles, first on Washing- 
ton navels and Mediterranean sweets. 

A. L. Bloi, Los Angeles, first on Washington 

W. R, Powell, Los Angeles, first on Washington 

WilliamClipperdale, Los Angeles, first on Wash- 
ington navels, Meditteraneau sweets, St. Michaels ; 
second on seedlings, Malta bloods, 

W, J. Murphy, Phuinix, Arizona, first on Wash- 
ington navels. 

Essiugton Gibson, Ventura, first on Washington 
navels; second on ruby bloods. 

W. I. Rice, Ventura, first on Washington navels; 
second on Parson Brown ; third on Meditteraneau 

W. E. Wilsie, Ventura, first on Washington na- 
vels, St. Michaels: second on Meditteraneau 
sweets, Malta bloods, Jaffa navels, 

C, H, Eheldon, Ventura, first on Washington na- 
vels, St. Michaels; second on seedlings. 

Mrs. J, E. Schram, Palermo, Butte, second on 
Washington navels. 

L. Glass, Butte, first on Washington navels; 
second on St. Michaels. 

A Bartley, Butte, first on St. Michaels; second 
on Washington navels. 

William Behr. Butte, first on Washington navels, 
St. Michaels; second on Mediterranean sweets. 

A. Andrews, Sacramento, second on Washington 

W. H. Backus, Riverside, second on Washington 
navels, Malta bloods, seedings. 

Mrs. H. Emery , Riverside, second on Washington 
navels, Malta bloods. 

E. W. Holmes, Riverside, first on W'ashington 
navels, second on ruby bloods, 

S. T. Hall, Riverside, second on Washington 
navels, Mediterranean sweets, Malta Bloods. 

L, L. Dyer, Riverside, second on Washington 
navels and Malta bloods. 

M. B. Van Fleet, Riverside, first on Malta 
bloods, second on Washington navels, Mediter- 
ranean sweets, P, R, St. Michaels. 

C. J. Gill, Riverside, first on Washington navels, 
second on Malta bloods. 

E. C. Dyer, Riverside, second on Washington 
navels, Malta bloo(ls. 

Orrin Backus, Riverside, first on Washington 
navels, Malta bloods, P. R. St. Michaels; second 
on seedlings, Mediterranean sweets, 

H. Nelson, Colusa, first on Washington navels. 

T. J. Shellhamer, Colusa, second on Washington 
navels, Homosassa. 

Charles Prankish, San Bernardino, first on Wash- 
ington navels. 1 

C. C. Fells, Colusa, second on Vvashington 

J. A. Fiicher, Placer, first on P. R. St. Michaels; 
second on Washington navels. Parson Brown, 

C. C. Harwood, San Bernardino, special award 
on Tardiff; second on Washington navels and 
Parson Brown. 

Fred Stamm, San Bernardino, first on Washing- 
ton navels. 

H. L. Storey, San Diego, first on St, Michaels: 
second on Washington navels; first on Mediter- 
ranean sweets. 

J. S Harvey, .San Diego, first on Washington 
navels, Konah; second on Malta bloods, seedlings. 

S. H. Holmes, Los Angeles, second on Washing- 
ton navels, 

S. L. Clark, Los Angeles, second on Washington 

Viola Church, Los Angel<!s, second on Washing- 
ton navels, Malta bloods, Mediterranean sweets, 

L. Rhorer, Los Angeles, first on Mediterranean 
sweets; second on Washington navels, St, 

T. G. Hunt, Los Angeles, second on Washington 
navels and Mediterranean sweets, 

Lillian Maddock, Los Angeles, first on Washing- 
ton navels and Mediterranean sweets. 

J. A .Maddock. Los Angeles, first on Washington 
navels and Mediterrant^an sweets. 

F. J. Smith, Los Angeles, Hrsi on Washington 

Mr. Storling, Los Angeles, first on Washington 

A. T. Griffith, Los .\ugeles, second on Washing- 
ton navels. 

A. J. Petit. Los Angeles, first on St. Michaels, 
second on Washington navels. 

T. F. Poncier, Los Angeles, first on Washington 

S. E. Newland, Los Angeles, s(^cond on Wash- 
ington navels. 

David Andrews, Los Angeles, first on Washing- 
ton navels. 

John Scott, Los Angeles, first on Washington- 
navels; seedlings; St. Michaels: second on Malta 
bloods, Mediterranean sweets, Valencia late, 

W. H. Hosmer, Los Angeles, first on Washing- 
ton navels. 

William Stevenson, Los Angeles, first on Wash- 
ington navels, Mediterranean sweets, 

Mrs, Haddock, Los Angeles, first on Washing- 
ton navels, Mediterrean sweets, 

James Craig, Los Angeles, second on Washing- 
ton navels. 

Mr. Sarerhalgen, Los Angeles, first on Washing- 
ton navels. 

J. H. F. Jorchorr, Los Angeles, first on Meiliter- 
ranean sweets, second on Washington navels. 
I W. H. Bisher, Los Angeles, first «» WasMnglon 
I navels. 

I A. S. Chnrch.I^os Angeles, first on Malla blViods; 
I second on Washington navels, seedlings, Misditer- 
raueaa swce.ts 

L. E. Steinberger, Los Angeles, first on Wash- 
ington navels. 

W, W, Baur, Los Angeles, first on Washington 

George Rorer, Los Angeles, second on Washing- 
ton navels. 

O. Domerel, L(is Angeles, second on Washington 

Kittle A. Thompson, Los Angeles, second on 
Washington navels, Malta bloods. 

Bruce A. Thompson, Los Angeles, second on 
Washington navels. 

Helen Maddock, Los Angeles, first on Washing- 
ton navels, Mediterranean sweets. 

Eureka D. Thompson. Los Angeles, second on 
Washington navels. 

George Frost Jr., Tulare, first on Mediterranean 
sweets, first and second on Malta bloods, first on 
Ruby bloods, Valencia late, Joppa; second on 
Washington navels, St, Michaels, Jaffa. 

G. T. Frost, Tulare, first on Washington navels, 
seedlings, Jaffa, Joppa: second on seedlings, Med- 
iterranean sweets. Washington navels. 

A. M. Quiuu, Tulare, first on Washington navels, 
seedlings, Mediterranean sweets, St. Michaels, 
ruby bloods, second on Washington navels, seed- 
lings. Malta bloods, Jaffa. 

E. Newman, Tulare, first on Washington navels, 
seedlings, St. Michaels, Malta bloods, Joppa, 
second on ruby bloods and Jaffa. 

Frank Houghton, Tehama, first on Washington 

J. L. Kennedy, Ventura, first on Washington 
navels, Malta bloods, Jaffa, second on Mediter- 
ranean sweets. 

E. S. Thatcher, Ventura, first on Washington 
navels, Malta bloods, Tardiff, second on Jaffa na- 
vels, ruby bloods, Tangerine. 

W, P, Stevenson, Ventura, first on Washington 

J. B. Wickoff, Ventura, first (m Washington na- 
vels, Mediterranean sweets, pineapple, second on 
Valencia late. Parson Brown. 

S. Lenter, Ventura, second on Washington na- 

Hall, Anderson & Burns. Ventura, first on Wash- 
ington navels, Mediterranean sweets, second on 
seedlings, ruby bloods, 

Louis Spader, Ventura, first on Washington na- 

Major Jones, Butte, second on Washington na- 
vels, seedlings, Mediterranean sweets, Malta 

R. C. Chambers, Butte, first on Duroi. commei-cial 
boxes of oranges, second on Washington navels, 
Mediterranean sweets, Homosassa. 

J. Morgan, Butte, first on St. Michaels, second 
Washington navels, 

P. 15. Persons. Butte, first on St. Michaels, second 
on Washington navels, Mediterranean sweets, 

D H, Murray, Butte, first on St, Michaels, second 
on Malta blood, Washington navels, 

E. W. Fogg, Butte, first on St. Michaels, second 
on Malta bloods, third on Washington navels. 

C. F. I>ott, Butte, first on St. Michaels, Malla. 
likxids, third on Washington navels. 

J. H. Hamilton. Sacramento, second on Washing- 
ton navels. 

James Howitson, Riverside, first on P. R. St. 
Michaels, second on Mediterranean sweets, Malta 
bloods, third on Washington navels. 

L. F, Darling, Riverside, first on Mediterranean 
sweets, P, R. St, Michaels, Malta bloods, second 
on Washington navels, Australian navels, seed- 

Sanford B. Dole, Riverside, second ou Malta 
bloods, third on Washington navels. 

O. F. Dyer, Riverside, first on Malta bloods, sec- 
ond on Washington navels, Mediterranean sweets. 

.1. Parker Whitney, Placer, second on Washing- 
ton navels and Mediterranean sweets. 

W. H. Somers, San Diego, second on Washington 

.S. H. Marshall, San Diego, second on Mediterra- 
nean sweets, St. Michaels, Malta bloods, ruby 
bloods. Villa Caro seedless, third on VVashington 

A. L. Reed, Los Angeles, first on Mediterranean 
sweets, second on Mediterranean sweets. 

Dr. S. Coffin. Los Angeles, first on seedlings, sec- 
ond on Washington navels. 

Margery Maddock, Los Angeles, first on Mediter- 
ranean sweets, third on Washington navels, 

Whittier Reform School, Los Angeles, second on 
Washington navels, Mediterranean sweets. 

W. S. Daggett, Las Angeles, second on Washing- 
ton navels, 

W. Odell, Los Angeles, third on Washington 

W. J. Cox, Los Angeles, third on Washington 

A, C. Thorrsen, Los Angeles, second on Wash- 
ington navels. 

Genofer Maddock. Los Angeles, first on Mediter- 
ranean sweets, second on Washington navels. 

Margaret H. Thompson, Los Angeles, second on 
Washington navels. 

Wallact! J. Thompson, Los Angeles, second on 
Washington navels. 

Mrs. J. C. Wilkins, Tehama, second on Washing- 
ton navels, 

G. K. Willard, Tehama, second on Washington 

J. R. D. Fay, Ventura, second on Washington 
navels, Mediterranean sweets. 

F. M. Buck, Solano, second on Australian navels, 
A. C. Thompson, Los .\ngeles, first on improved 

navels, Malta bloods, second on Mediterranean 

Stockton & Buffum, Marijxisa, second on ,seed- 

Owen R. Owens, Placer, first on seedlings. 
Thomas Glenny, Los Angeles, second on seed- 

G. Fitzgerald, Los Angeles, second on seedlings. 
W. VV. Bacon, Los Angeles, second on seedlings. 

0. E. (iroves, Tulare, first on seedlings. 

N. E. W. Muller Tulare, second on seedlings. 
P, D. Ijogan, Tulare, second on seedlings, 
William Robinson, Sacramento, third on seed- 

I{. Currier, Sacramento, third on seedlings. 
George T. Rich. Sactamento, second on seid- 

Miss Jenny Govan, Sacramento, second on seed- 

Mrs. M. Ward, Tehama, second on seedlings. 
George Reid, Tehama, second on seedlings. 

G, K. Willard, Tehama, second on seedlings. 
William Martin, Tehama, first on Mediterranean 


Mrs. W. G. Green, Butte, first on Mediterranean 

1. C. Stump, Butte, second on Mediterranean 
^sweets, Malta bloods. Parson Brown, 

C. Roinisch, Butte, second on Mediterranean 

Ed Harkncss, Butte, first on St. Michaels, sec- 
ond on Mediterranean sweets, Malta bloods, 

M, Reyman, Butte, first on St. Michaels, second 
on Mediterranean sw(^ets. 

H. S. Kirke, Placer, first on Mediterranean 
sweets, third ou ruby bU«)ds. 

J. A. Fiicher, Placer, first on Mediterranean 

J. B, Frisbee, San Diego, second on Meditera- 
nean sweets. 

J. H. Haker, Los Angeles, second on Mcdiier- 
ranvan sweet.s. 

e. E, Benais, Los Aagefes. secoiul ou Uediter- 
ranean swvets. 

Jennie Church, Los Angi-re*, first om MMC'ller- 
rancan sweets, St. MlcbaeU . scsaod. ani KaUit 

July 14, 1894., 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


W. H. Wood. Los Angeles, second on Mediter- 
ranean sweets and St. Michaels. 

John Simpson, Tehama, first on Mediterranean 

Charles R. Mayhew, Tehama, second on Mediter- 
ranean sweets. 

O. C. Klkins, Ventura, second on Mediterranean 
sweets, first on St. Michaels. 

0. D. Greene. Butte, second on Mediterranean 

W. J. Green, Butte, first on Duroi, second on 
Beech, $1 and $5. 

Mrs. P. A. Hearst, Butte, second on Mediter- 
ranean sweets, Malta bloods, Par.son Brown, Non- 
pareil, peerless, stark. 

W. Backus, Los Angeles, second on Mediter- 
ranean sweets. 

W. Duncan, Tehama, second on Mediterranean 

t3G t S ■ 

D. N. Frisleben, Butte, first on St. Michaels. 

A. C. Ferlow, San Bernardino, first on P. R. St. 

Dr. C. W. Craner, Riverside, second on Malta 

Miss E. Freeman first on P. R. St. Michaels. 
M. D. Johnson, Los Angeles, first on Malta 

Elezo R. Thompson, Los Angeles, second on 
Malta bloods. 

Jennie M.Thompson, Los Angeles, first On Malta 

Fred Davis, Butte, third on Malta bloods. 
Ralph Granger, San Diego, third on Malta 

Marcus Daly, Butte, first on Magnum Bonum, 
second on Homosassa.Nonpariel, peerless, beech, 
$1 and $.^, Duroi. 

P. A. Sargent, Butte, first on peerless, Duroi, 
second on Magnum Bonum, Homosassa, Noupariel, 
stark, beech, |l and $5. 

N. W. Wiuton, Butte, first on Hermosassa. 

R. Jones. Colusa, second on Hermosassa. 

Colonel Pitcher, San Bernardino, first on Tan- 

Mrs. W. P. Simms, Riverside, second on com- 
mercial boxes of oranges. 

Charles H. Wilson, Los Angeles, third on com- 
ipercial boxes of oranges. 


R. Liuder, Tulare county, first award on Eureka 
lemons, Lisliou and Villafranca. 

E. \V. Holmes, Riverside county, first on Eureka, 
second on List5on. 

General Charles Cadwalader, Tehama county, 
second on Eureka. 

A. M. Quinn, Tulare county, first on Eureka and 

Mrs. N. P. Baker, Tehama county, third on 

F. O. Wadsworth, San Diego county, secoiul on 

J. W. Freeman, San Beruardiuo county, first on 
Tjisbon, Genoa, Villafranca, second on Eureka. 

L. R. Richardson. Los Angeles, second on 

< '. E. Harwood, San Bernardino county, special 
ou Lisbon, first on Genoa, ^'illafranca, second on 

N. W. Blanchard, Ventura counly, first on 
Eureka, Libson, Genoa. 

Louis Spader, Ventura County, second on 

W. H. Backus, Riverside county, first on Libson 
and limes. 

W. S. Andrews, Los Angeles, first on Genoa. 
J. H. Hamilton, Sacramento county, second on 

Guieseppa, Chappa & Co., Messina, Italy, second 
on Sicily. 

A. C. Thompson, Los Angeles county, first on 
Sicily and Mexican limes. 

M. D. Atwater, Merced county, second on Sicily 
lemons, first on limes. 

E. S. Thacher, Ventura county, first on limes and 
Sicily lemons. 

1. S. Harvey, San Diego county, first on Bonnie 

H. M. Higgins, San Diego county, special Bonnie 

W. J. Grier, Butte county, first on Villafranca. 
E. Newman, Tulare county, first on Villafranca. 
George Frost Jr., Tulare, tirst on Villafranca. 
Mrs. P. A. Hearst. Butte county, second on 

John Scotf, Los Angeles county, first award on 
Eureka, Sicily and Mexican limes. 

John Finnell Tehama county, second on Eureka. 

J. W. C'ooters, Los Angeles county, second on 

Ralph Granger. San Diego county, first on Villa- 
franca; second ou Eureka. 
W. B. Crisp, Sau Diego county, third ou Eureka. 

B. S. Woodford, San Bernardino county, first on 
Eureka. Genoa. 

Paul Stoll, Tehama county, third on Eureka. 
Dr. Wood. Sacramento county, first on Lisbon. 
D. H. Burnham, Riverside county, first on Lisbon 

Major Jones, Butte county, second on Lisbon. 
T. B. Hall, Sacramento county, second on Lisbon. 
J. W. C. Pogue, Tulare county, first on Lisbon. 

B. E. Hande, Riverside county, first on Lisbon. 
J. B. Wood, Riverside county, 'first on Lisbon. 

J. B. WickoCf, Ventura county, first on Villa- 

T. J. Shellhammer, Colusa county, third on Villa- 

R. C. Chambers, Butte county, second on Villa- 

J. H. Grandarrama, Acapulco, Mexico, first on 

H. L. Story, San Diego county, first on Mexican 

D. H. Arnold, Colusa county, first on grape fruit. 
S. M. Marshall, San Diego county, second on 
grape fruit. 

L. Hoovey, Los Angeles county, third on grape 

C. H. McKevett, Ventura county, first on 

C. T. Wason, Ventura county, first on citron of 


George W. Fox, Boulder Creek, Santa Cruz 
county, second award on French prunes. 

S. H. Herring. Los Gatos, Santa Cruz county, 
third on English walnuts, soft shell almonds, 
French prunes. 

J. E. Henderson. Palermo, Butte county, .s'econd 
on dried peaches. 

Escondido Laud and Town Company, Escondido, 
San Diego county, second on raisins. 

W. J. Grier, Palermo, Butte count.y, second on 
dried peaches. 

N. L. Crafts, Palermo, Butte county, second on 
dried peaches. 

P. G. Best, Palermo, Butte county, second on 
dried peaches. 

J. A. Scholefield, San Benito valley, second on 
silver prunes and peeled Bartlert pears. 

J. A Steinbach. San Benito, second on French 

Thomas Flint, San Benito, second on dried ap- 

Bonnie Brae, San Joaquin valley, San Benito 
county, third on Bartlett pears and Moorpark apri- 

F. Houghton, Corning, Tehama county, second 
on Salway peaches. 

San Jose Fruit Packing Company, San Jose, 
Santa Clara county, special award on California 
canned fruit, extra quality in heavy syrup, first 

award on California jams, jellies and preserves in 

N. H. Wilson, Merced, Merced county, third on 

Fred M. Buck, Vacaville, Solano county, third 
on Muir peaches, peeled. 

W. H. Buck, Vacaville, first on white cling 

H. A. Loud, Vacaville, first on Susquehanna 

W. J. Pleasants, Northern Solano, first on Royal 

R. A. Campbell, Vacaville, Solano county, sec- 
ond on Bartlett pears. 

W. Alden, Vacaville, third on French peaches. 

Charles Studrons, Sacramento, flrsi; on Snow- 
flake wheat. 

Daniel Flint, Sacramento, first on hops in bale. 

William Curtis, Sacramento, first on I X L al- 
monds, third on dried figs. 

J. P. Odbert, Brighton, Sacramento county, first 
on French prunes and barley, second on white 
Chile wheat. 

Mrs. H. P. Greer, Fruit Ridge, Sacramento 
county, special award on dried apricots. 

Oliver Plumer. Sacramento, first on field corn. 

William Dixon, Sacramento, first on yellow corn. 

J. Arnold, Sacramento county, first on mill yel- 
low corn. 

T. McConnell, Sacramento county, first on wool. 

Mrs. J. Shields. Winters, Sacramento county, 
second on dried fruit. 

Mrs. George C. McMullen, Sacramento county, 
first on jellies in glass. 

Capitol Canning Co.. Sacramento, first on canned 
goods, jams and jellies. 

H. H. W. Williamson, Routiers, Sacramento 
county, first on paper-shell almonds. 

Frank Rustaler, Sacramento county, first on 
hops in bale. 

John Reith, Sacramento county, special award 
on proper wheat. 

D. Taylor, Sacramento county, first on wheat. 
Eugene J. Gregory, Sacramento county, second 

on white Australian wheat. 

W. W. Greer, Sacramento county, special award 
on white Tuscany wheat. 

A. Monkle, Sacramento county, second on field 
and sprout corn. 

J. M. Robinson, Sacramento county, first on white 
Chile wheat. 

E. Greer, Fruit Ridge, Sacramento county, first 
on display of dried fruits and nuts, second on beans 
and cereals. 

S. L. S.vdenstricker, Corning, Tehama county, 
second on dried Susquehanna peaches. 

G. H. Flouruoy. Corning, Tehama county, first on 
displa.v of dried fruits. 

Frank H. Ball, Fn-siio. first on display of raisins, 
second on whitr Adriatic tigs. 

Rio Bravo Viiicyii ril I '(iDiiiauy. Rio Bravo, Kern 
county, second cm Liiii'hii] layer raisins. 

A. R. tJuiT. All rcid, .Mrrced county, third on 
three and four crou ii raisins. 

Roscdiile Kaisiu Vine-yard Company, Bakersfleld, 
Kern county, second ou London layer raisins. 

P. P. and C. E. Most, Horse Shoe Bend, Mariposa 
county, second on seedless and Muscatel raisins. 

D. A. Jackson, Woodland, Yolo county, second on 
raisins and dried pears. 

Rodgers & Frank, Sau Jose, first on display of 
dried fruits. 

Wiblo Orchard Vineyard Company, Bakersfield, 
Kern county, third on Bartlett pears and George's 
late cling peaches. 

C. A. Maul, Bakersfield, second on dried Crawford 

W. S. Tevis, Bakersfield, second on Royal apri- 

Mrs. E. Willow. Bakersfield, first on jellies in 

Hobbs & Parsons, Fresno, first on dried nectar- 
ines, Bartlett pears, peaches, apricots. 

D. A' . Lewis, Fri'sno, first on dried Bartlett pears. 
C. M. Art/,. Central Colony, Fresno county, sec- 
ond ou seedless Sultana. 

C. K. Kirby, Fowler, Fresno county, first on Mus- 
catel syrup. 

L. F. Moultou, Colusa, second on Salway peaches. 
Royal apricots, London layer raisins, and Three 
Crown raisins. 

Charles F. Wyer. Northern Solano, seo"ond on 
Royal apricots and Bartlett pears. 

J. and I. Blum, Vacaville, Solano county, first on 
dried fruits. 

J. E. Cornell. Routiers, Sacraihento county, first 
on dried peaches, second on French prunes. 

Frank H. Buck, Vacaville, special award on 
dried fruits. 

A. T. Hatch, Suisun, Solano county, special 
award on almonds, second ou Hatch's golden pears 
and golden prunes. 

J. S. Baldwin, Suisun, second on French prunes, 

George W. Hume, Saratoga, Santa Clara county, 
second on French prunes. 

W.H.Aiken, Wrights, Santa Cruz county. Second 
on French prunes. 

W. P. Lyon, Fresno, second on loose Muscatel 

D. M Wilson, Fresno, first on Royal apricots, 
dried; second on unpeeled dried peaches; third on 
loose Muscatel raisins. 

W. A. Cowan, Fresno, second on unpeeled 

A. Gartenlaub, Fowler, Fresno county, second on 
dried peaches, peeled and unpeeled. 

M. Metrovich, Fresno, Fresno county, second on 
white Adriatic figs. 

Bishop & Co., Los Angeles, first on bottled fruits, 
coufi ctiiius and fruit pulps; second, on California 
fruit ta.blct,s. 

Southern California Packing Company, Los An- 
geles, third on orange marmalade. 

William Thomas, Porterville, first on Ferris 

Howland Bros., Pomona, Los Angeles county, 
third on olive oil. 

F. F. Stetson, Los Angeles county, third on 
glace fruits. 

Barnard & Densmore, Los Angeles, first on 
crystallized oranges, second on orange mar- 

George C. Roeding, Fresno, second on white 
Adriatic figs. 

Henry Davenhill, Easton, Fresno county, third 
on white Adriatic figs. 

S. Kobayashi, Japan, first on okiname, a vege- 
table paste used as a confection. 

J. F. Mclntyre, Fillmore, Ventura county, first 
on extracted honey. 

A. G. Edmondson, Ventura, second on extracted 

M H. Mendleson, Ventura, special award on ex- 
tracted and comb honey. 

Inyo Company, Bishop, Inyo county, first on 
comb honey. 

Schacht, Lencke & Steiner, San Francisco, 
San Diego county, first on comb and extracted 

J. Archer, New Jerusalem, Ventura county, first 
on fancy comb honey and bee hive (superior work- 


A. P. Evans, Napa county, first award on Alex- 
ander, white winter pqarmain, yellow bellflower. 
Smith's cider, sheeijnose. Westfield seek no fur- 
ther; special award on Esopus Spitzenberg. 

C. Foot, Sacramento, first award on white winter 
pearmain, fall pippin, Esopus Spitzenberg. 

E. A. Atwood, San Luis Obispo, first award on 
white winter pearmain. 

N. J. Bend, Ventura, second on Smith's cider. 

O. Bulline. Monterey, first award on white win- L 
ter pearmain. \ 

J. T. Comstock, Ventura, second award on white 
winter pearmain. 

J. W. Anderson, Ventura, second award on while 
winter pearmain, Ben Davis. 

George S. Barnes, Ventura, second award on 
white winter pearmain. 

W. Ober. San Diego, second award on white win- 
ter pearmain, and first award on nickajack. 

E. (ireer. Sacramento, first award on Baldwin, 
winesap; second award on white winter pearmain. 

J. R. Gladstone, San Luis Obispo, second award 
on white winter pearmain and nickajack. 

Shepherd. Monterey, first award on vandervere 
or grindstone; second award on white winter pear- i 

George H. Flournoy, Tehama, special award on : 
Esopus .Sqitzenberg; first award on Ben Davis, ; 
second award on white winter peai-main, fall water, j 
special on winesap. i 

W. E. Conrad, Tehama, second award on white ! 
winter pearmain. 

J. S. P. Bass, Shasta, first award on fall pippin; 
Rhode Island greenings, Ben Davis, second award 
on fall water. 

Collins, Monterey, special award on yellow 
Newton pippin : second award on fall pippin. 

R. N. Windsor, Monterey, first award on yellow 
bellflower. poor man's friend; second award on 
Smith's cider. 

Daniel Price, San Diego, first award on yellow 

McCoy, Monterey, first award on white bell- 
flower. ' 

D. A. Jackson, Yolo county, first award on white 

Walker & Gurrell, Ventura, first award on nick- 
ajack. second award on white bellflower. 

J. C. Baker, Sau Luis Obispo, special award on 
yellow Newtown pippin; first award on Smith's 
cider, second award on white bellflower. 

Carl Purdy, Mendocino, first award on Rhode 
Island greenings, Rome beauty, fiushing Spitzen- i 
berg; second award on sheepnose. 

B. L. Waite, Humboldt, first award on Rhode 
Island greenings. 

John Ryan. San Diego, first award on Rhode i 
Island greenings. Smith's cider. 

John Miller, Siskiyou, first award on Baldwin. 

Antone Gigland, Monterey, special award on 
Noover, first award on Northern Spy, Baldwin, 
second award on Smith's cider. 

G. E. Stewart & Sons, Humboldt, first award on 
Domino, third on Baldwin. 

T. R. Bard, Ventura, special on Jonathan, first 
on Langsford seedling. 

N. H. Woods, Santa Barbara, special on Jona- 
than, first on Limbertwig, second on Ben Davis. 

Mrs. F. Schmidt. Monterey, third on Smith's 
cider. 1 

Herbert Bass, Shasta, special on Esopus | 
Spitzenberg, first on Ben Davis, second on Law- 

Frank Houghton, Tehama, first on Ben Davis. 
Esopus Spitzenberg. 

Allen Towle, Placer, first on Ben Davis. 

J. E. Bones, Yavapai, Arizona, second on Ben 

A. Price Ventura, second on Ben Davis. 

Chester Gunn, San Diego, special on Rome 
Beauty, first on Vandevere pippin, second E.sopus 

John Lohr, San Diego, first on Wallbridge. 

T. Harwood, Ventura, first on nickaiack. 

Judge T. Williams, Ventura, first on nickajack 
and winesap. 

Mat Hardie, San Luis Obispo, second on nicka 

A. M. Hardie. San Luis Obispo second on Ken- 
tucky red streak. 

J. j. Gregory, San Luis Obispo, special on yellow 
Newtown pippin. 

E. P. Foster, Ventura, first on yellow Newtown 

' J. V. N. Young. Sau Luis Obispo, special on 
Noover, yellow Newtown nippin has first award. 

Joseph Fluter, Santa Cruz, first yellow Nevvtown 
pippin. ' 

W. S. Riley,^ Ventura, first yellow Newtown 

A. G. Rose, Santa Cruz, second on yellow New- 
town pippin. 

Baker & Sons, Santa Cruz, second on yellow 
Newtown pippin. 

Tatt & Son, Monterey, second on yellow New- 
town pippin. 

John Edwards, Tehama, first on Esopus Spitz- 

G. Loofier, Shasta, first on Esopus Spitzen- 

Mrs. Bertha Reid, Tehama, second on Esopus 

Charles Hovendon, Siskiyou, second on Esopus 

James Hodge, Humboldt, first on Domine. 

B. C. Harter, Ventura, first on Pennsylvania red 

M. D. Putnam, San Diego, special on Eureka. 
A. Goodale. Humboldt, first on Wharton. 
J. P. Swinding, Monterey, first on Mission 

Jackson Eby, Tehama, special on winesap. 
J. K. Runke'l, Placer, first on winesap. 
W. 1. Prout, San Diego, first on winesap. limtjer- 

Frank W. Oliver, Humboldt, third on winesap. 

J. Smith Briggs, Ventura, third on Lady Wash- 
ington. ' 

E. Greer, Sacramento, third on poor man's 

GROUP 22. 

Sunset Seed and Plant Co., Menlo Park, 1st, 
sweet peas and blossoms. 

Sunset Seed and Paint Co.. Menlo Park, 2d, 
gloxina and cannas. 

Sunset Seed and Plant Co., Menlo Park, 1st, or- 
namental and decorative plants. 

California Nursery (^o., Niles, 1st, cut roses. 

California Nursery Co., Niles. 1st, pelargoniums. 

California Nursery Co., Niles. 1st, clematis. 

California Nursery Co., Niles, 2d, flowering 

John H. Sievers, San Francisco, 1st, potted ferns, 
palms, decorative and flowering plants. 

John H. Sievers, San Francisco, 1st, cut carna- 

John H. Sievers, San Francisco, 1st, pelargo- 

Mrs. O. E. Babcock, Alameda, 2d, cut roses and 

Charles Ahlborn, Alameda, 1st, cut roses and 

Mrs. Swett & McCartney, Bay Farm Island, Ala- 
meda, 2d, cut roses and pelargoniums. 

Mrs. E. Hathaway, San Lorenzo, 3d, roses, "- 

Mrs. E. T. Crane, San Lorenzo, 3d, cut roses, 
peonies and clematis. 

Mrs. Lewelling, San Lorenzo. Ist. cut roses, 
peonies and clematis. 

Mrs. J. H. Boden, Haywards, 1st, peonies, cut 
roses and clematis. 

Fruit Vale Rose Co., Fruit Vale, 1st, cut roses, 
peonies and clematis. 

Mrs. T.F.Walker, Oakland, 3d, cut roses, peonies 
and clematis. 

Prof. E. J. Wickson, Berkeley, 3d, cut flowers, 
roses and peonies. 

Mrs, M. R. Brehm, Berkeley, 2d, cut roses. 

Mrs. Rudolph Volkman, 1-crin, 2d, out roses. 

Mrs. J. P. Crane, San Francisco, 2d, cut roses 
(5() varieties). 

Mrs. James Miller, East Oakland, 1st, 100 varie- 
ties of roses. 

Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, 1st, potted 
ferns, palms, azaleas, calceolaria. 

Oakland Art Pottery, East Oakland, 1st, flower 
pots and lawn vases. 

Joseph Sexton, Santa Barbara, 1st, pampas 

Mountain View (Vmetery, Oakland; Malcom 
Lomard, gardener, -id, 4i varieties of roses. 
Chinese Village. 3d, trained trees and plants 

E. Gill, Oakland, Ist, cut roses. 

F. Ludemann, Pacific Nursery, San Francisco, 
2d, cut roses. 

F. Ludemann. Pacific Nursery, San Francisco, 
Ist, rhododendrons, azaleas. 

Mrs. Stanley Stephenson, Alameda, 2d, IVO varie- 
ties cut roses. 

Misses Ander.son, Ander.sou Springs, Lake coun- 
ty, 1st. California wild fiowers and ferns. 

Stockton Terra Cotta Co., Stockton, Ist, granite 
bodies, colored glazed vases and flower pots. 

Miller & Lux, second award on creamery butter. 

F. Rheinhold, Point Reyes Creamery, Marin 
county, third on creamery butter. 

Dairymen's Union, San Francisco, three spec- 
ials on creamery butter, first, on creamery butter, 
one second ou creamery butter, special award on 
cheese "Hats." tirst award on chei^se "Hats." sam- 
ple 26.5 chi-ese "Cheddars, ' Ix-st brand of salt for 
butter and cheese, second award on chei-se "Hats." 
sample 272, cheese "twins": special on Ijest dis- 
play of dairy products. 

Sillimau Bros., Pajaro valley, Monterey county, 
special on cheese "Cheddars," first on cheese 
"pineapple," third on cheese "Young America," 
cheese "flats." 

A. Augustine, Worgelcs, Monterey county, sec- 
ond on cheese "flats.'' 

A. D. & Co., Elocsia, Monterey county, first on 
cheese "fiats." 

L. Cantol, Petaluma, Sonoma county, first on 
best display of French cheese, California manu- 

Fruit Exchange Bulletin. 

Following is Bulletin No. 12 of the State 
Fruit Exchange in its full official form : 

Sax Fkancisco, Wednesday, .luly 11, 1894. 

T<i thr Fi-iiit GraWfix III Ciil ij tn it in : The con- 
tinued interruption of the mails has jji-evented 
any l;itf rciiurts coming to hand rrLjardiiig the 
eonditidii of the fruit crop either in this or 
other States. The shipping of fresh fruit 
East has been entirely suspended. All sec- 
tions I'avored with water tfansportation have 
been send iiit; forward all seasonaljlo fruits to 
San Frjtiiciscii and ( )akliuid in li))i-ial quanti- 
ties, till* satin- iifti'ii being sold at h.-sK than 
the i-i).s1 111 parku.n'i-. Thi- interior ti)\viis and 
cities liavo been liberally supiilied from 
wagons; and, take it as a whule, tlie people of 
this State have been well supplied vvitii fresh 
fruit during the interruption of business. The 
sections relying upon sfiippiug East for a 
market have suffered an irreparable loss, af- 
fecting all employes as well as growers, and 
considerable quantities of valuable fruit have 
gone to waste both in the orchards and in 

The attention of fruit-growers is now being 
turned to the marketing of dried apricots in 
addition to fresh ii nil, pai-ticularly in the in- 
terior counties rcin-ivi-d fiiiin the iiifiuenee of 
coast climate. While the conditions are fa- 
vorable for paying prices to growers, unfor- 
tunately the commission men and many recog- 
nized deali-rs in (Hir dried fruits are from the 
force of cireuiustaiii-i-s, largely of their own 
making, vicing wit!i rai-h otlii-i- to quote prices 
to the dealers East lower than their iieiglilmr 
has quoted. Hem i- t hey all beciime " bears " 
in the market, luniiiiiei-ing down prices before 
there is really any dried fruit to sell or an op- 
portunity to send it forward. The tendency 
of sui-h action is to cheek liberal buying and 
to stagnate business. rCastern merchants are 
afraid to buy liberally for fear their neighbors 
will buy at lower prices and uud(-rsell ttiem. 

What is needed just now is the eoiRcutra- 
tion of a sufficient portion of the crop in strong 
liaiids to c-iiiit 1-1)1 till' ]n-iee, and after a careful 
study of all the c-unditioiis to fix such price on 
a fair basis and then to hold firmly to it. 
Dealers would then buy libertiUy and dis- 
tribute the sami- in all the markets of the 
world, kiinwing t lii-ii- neighbors could have no 
advantage nvi r tlu-m in such transactions. 

The exi-haiigo moveiuent was designed for 
this very purpose. With its numerous 
sources of information open to every grower, 
he can become thoroughly informed in regard 
to all the conditiiiiis affecting the market, con- 
centrate sufficient fruit of any kind in the va- 
rious exchanges to establish and control the 
price and to act as a .safety valve. 

The market for dried fruit is bare ; the quan- 
tity produced is limited. There is but little 
of superior quality coming from other couu- 
tries to be sold in competition with ours, and 
sales will be more prompt and easily made at 
uniform paying prices than at much lower, 
vacillating and unsettled prices. Hence it is 
not only the interest of each grower, but his 
duty, to help fix prices on a paying basis, and 
not leave it to chance or the mauipulation of 
dealers figiitiug among themselves for advan- 
tage in business. The market .should be sup- 
plied as demand requires. Do not get rattled 
and undertake to sell all the dried fruit pro- 
duced in tills State in one, two or three 
months. It keeps much better here than in 
the East. The expense of shipping is not in- 
curred, and it will bring much better prices if 
sent forward only as it is needed for trade 
and consumption. 

It will be of great advantage to all growers 
for this exchange to be fully informed of the 
amount and quality of di-ied fruit produced by 
every grower and the aggregate for each sec- 
tion.' All sales .should be promptly reported, 
with price and conditions, all of which will be 
carefully compiled and sent out to those inter- 
ested ill these bulletins. 

Growers generally who are well-informed 
and in touch with the exchange are putting 
the minimum price for all choice grades of 
dried apricots at 10 cents f. o. b., and by stand- 
ing firm are sure to get it. If there is need 
of money to pay off help and complete the dry- 
ing, help one another locally and do not tie up 
your fruit for advances. Keep in position to 
1 hold firmly to the above figure. 
' ' State Fruit Exchange, 

B. F. Walton, Pres't, 


Hamilton Fruit Grader. 

il';ilrtitcd May l.'i, IHiiii i 

For Separating: and Assorting in Different 
Grades both Green and Dried Fruits. 


*»' It has become the leading 
Fruit Grader of California. 

Col. Hersey has ordered three 
of these Fruit Graders this 

Send for Catalogue and Testi- 

A variety of FKUIT CARS. 
BASKETS always on hand. 

Manufactured and for sale by 

W. C. HAMILTON, 5an Jose, Cal. 

Made and Sold 
under the fol- 
lowing: Letters 
Patent : 

No. l'.iT.i:i;....Nov. 1:1. 1877 
No. 210.458.. ..Dec. H. 1878 
No. :lU«.B«7....0ct. 14, 1884 
No. 403.01'.!.. ..May 7. 1S89 


Agricultural Machinery. 

The purpose of this notice is to inform both fanners and merchants, who 
use or sell Horse Forks, that they must not purchase Horse Forks that in- 
fringe the above Ratenls; and to call their attention to the fact that certain 
horse forks, manufactured by F. K. Myers & Uro., Ashland. O., and imported 
and sold by the Deere Implcmi'ut Company, of San Francisco, are direct in- 
friugements of the above patents, the manufacturers of the infringing forks 
liaviuK admitted in court that their forks were an infringement of the above 
patents, and are now paying royalty for manufacturing and selling them; and 
they have agreed not to sell any west of the Rocky mountains. 

All parties selling or using these infringing Horse Forks will be promptly 



625 Sixth Street, San F'rancisco, Cal. 

Write for Catalogue No. 15, devoted to Pumping Machinery and Steam Engines.^** 



HOOKER & CO., 16=18 Drumm Street, San Francisco. 

Compound Engines and Centrifugal Pumps 

Ki»r Kvcry Duty ;iik1 Any t'ai);u'ily. 


625 Sixth Street, San Francisco. 

WRITE FOR I No. 14. devoted to Agricultural Machinery. 
(CATALOGUES) No. 15, devoted to Steam Engines and Pumping Machinery, 

Store Your Grain \A/here Your Best -^sssssa-^ 
^-nannzz^^ Interests \A/ill Alvi/ays be Consulted. 



Grangers' Business Association, 


Capacity or Warehouse, 5U,(Xli tons; wharf accommodations for the largest vessels uHoal. 
(irain received on storage for shipment, and for sale on consignment. 




The Roller Organs have No Equal. 

t'dr dance music save their cost in one night. .\iiv one can 
play them. Over IVK) tunes to select from. Play's sacred, 
popular songs and dance music. .-Msu. 


Terms moderate. We also keep .\ccordeons. Uanjos, Mando- 
lins, Violins, .Strings and Sheet Music. Circulars free. 

C. H. HAMMOND, Commission Merchant, 

Room 4, Fourth Floor, 26 O'Farrell Street, San Francisco. 


220 /V\ St., San Franclscro, Cnl. 

The Fastest and Best Hay Press 

In the World. 




1 1 MONARCH JRo.„i.A.vilti.Si(» 

: TMC .kOCH P--. ^ 


" ~UE CAR PRESS irraa 

MONARCH, Bale 17x20x40, $600 

JUNIOR MONARCH, Bale 22X24X47, $500 

THK MONARCH loads 10 tons in an ordinary box car. 
Uses Wire Tii.'s— rope will not hold. 

THE JUNIOR MONARCH loads from 7 to 9 tons in box 
car. Uses either Wire or Rope Ties. 

The sizes of the bale are giyen when in the press. Allow 
about B inches for expausicm for cutting ties. 


(Two Sizes) for sale. 

L. C. Morehouse, 

WM. GRAY, General Agent. San Leandro, Cal. 

^-"B^^" CUNNINGH A/VV'S <^^!s»^ 

Prune Dipping Machine. 

ui;{;kmber h, 


A inaclune for scalding iu hot lye water and rinsing in i-i, I M uIll^. I'runes and (;rapes of all 

kinds. Made for hand or power use. 

CUNNINGHAM'S PRUNE SPREADER is one of the best labor-saving machines ever brought bPfore 

the fruit-growers and driers. 

We also make and deal in a general line of fruit-driers' supplies, consisting of Dipper ('nl<lroiiH. Dlii- 
piiiK KHHketH. KiiriiHce froiiH. Friilf Cars. Floor Trucks, etc. Send for Circulars. 

L. CunningHam, 

446 West Santa Clara Street 


P. & B. MYm PAPER. 




PARAFFINE PAINT CO., 116 Battery St., 

E. G. JUDAH, Agent, 221 South Broadway, Los Angeles. 

CEND for 

^ Catalogue to 


Napa Valley Nurseries. 

The Fruit 'I'rce i'laiilitig Seasim being ovi-r for this season. 

I lent ion is called tn 


CHRYS.\NTHKMUMS, the l)esl of th.) best, now read.v. Fine young Plants for fall blooming. 
Ageratums, Achyranthus, Cj-perus alternifolius. I'ulms, Fuchsias, (leraniums. Carnations. Flue 
Plants at low figures. 

A great variety of well-grown plants of the most favorite sorts. Send for Catalogue. 
A magnificent stock of fruit trees being grown for next season. 



Vol. XLVIII. No. 3. 



Office, 220 Market Street. 

Recent California Architecture. 

One of the notable facts in connection with the 
recent progress of rural California is the marked ad- 
vance in architectural taste. There was a time when 
any sort of a "shack" that would 
keep out the weather — and in our 
climate almost any kind of a house 
will serve for protection — was 
deemed quite good enough. But in 
these later days the country is be- 
ing covered with substantial, spa- 
cious and even elegant dwellings, 
which display not only the i^rospei-- 
ity, but the taste of their builders. 
The pictures on this page and on 
inside jiages, engraved from photo- 
graphs taken at Palermo, in Butte 
county, are fairly illustrative of 
modern taste as expressed in coun- 
try houses in California, although 
these are much larger than the gen- 
eral run. These houses are the 
homes of people whose wealth has 
not weaned them from wholesome 
rural pleasures and whose care has 
been to combine with rural life all 
the comforts which may be had in 
the city. It has, in the instances 
specially illustrated, been accom- 
plished in very sumptuous fashion, 
but there are many of us who can 
testify that the same results of 
comfort and refinement of housing- 
may be secured at less cost. A 
little house may be made to yield 
every convenience and to express, 
equally, the most refined taste; and 
nowhere so well as in rural Cali- 
fornia, where the soil and the cli- 
mate combine to embower the 

Our climate — the same old 
"glorious " cfimate we talk so much 
about — makes it easier and cheaper 
to build houses at once commodious 
and pretty than in almost any other 
country. Stone, brick and other 
expensive materials essential for 
protection in colder climes are not 
needed here. Wood is quite suffi- 
cient and it is relatively plentiful 
and cheap, and lends itself easily to 
variations and tasteful conceits of 
form. Fifteen hundred dollars will 
build a good and tasteful house in 
any part of California, while foui- 
or five thousand will make what 
might be called a mansion, if we were not sensible 
enough to avoid high-sounding names. It is only in 
the counti-y, however, that pretty and spacious 
houses can be built at small cost, for in the cities the 
land doubles and trebles the expense. This fact, in 
connection with the electric car and suburban train 
— both comparatively new conveniences — is extend- 
ing the limits of all our towns and cities very 

But it is not alone in connection with the cities 
that beautiful homes are growing up everywhere in 
California. In the Vaca valley, in Santa Clara valley, 
in Placer, Fresno, Kern, and all through the country 
south of the Tehachapi the more recent building is, 
generally speaking, after the modern and tasteful 

A very notable and pleasing fact in connection 

with our later construction is the frequent adapta- 
tion of the early Spanish architecture, typified in the 
several old missions. Almost every public building 
now constructed reflects to a greater or less extent 
this new and very pretty fashion; and it is gradually 

tecture which will hold the affection of her own sons 
and daughters, and win admiration from the world. 

The school picture, included in this week's series, 
is given, not for any special architectural merit, but 
just to show that while the good people of Palermo— 
and elsewhere in California — are 
making pretty homes for them- 
selves, they are not forgetful of 
other requirements in connection 
with the rising generation. 


Fair County 



winning its way into our domestic building. At Tjos 
Angeles, Pasadena, Santa Barbara, and to some ex- 
tent in San Francisco and northward, the Spanish 
type, freely modified to suit special conditions, is be- 
coming familiar. In time, this fad — if so good a 
fashion may be so called — seems bound to give a dis- 
tinct tone to California ai'chitecture. It will, indeed, 
be well if it shall be so, for it is an influence that will 
vastly contribute to that State-love and home-love 
which is so large a part of patriotism. What New 
Englander does not glow at the sight of a fine old 
"Colonial " house? What Southerner does not fondly 
recall his youth when he comes upon a reproduction 
of the " Plantation " type? Let us hope that the 
time will come when California, working in lines of 
refined taste and with her climate, traditions and 
history in mind, shall evolve a style of domestic archi- 

It is gratifying to know that the 
numerous county displays of prod- 
ucts recently on exhibition at the 
.Midwinter Fair are to be massed in 
one grand collective exhibit illus- 
trative of the agricultural, horti- 
cultural and viticultural interests 
of California, and to be permanently 
maintained in this city, op(>n to 
public inspection. This good result 
has been brought about by the fore- 
thought, energy and address of Mr. 
B. M. Lelong, acting through the 
State Board of Trade, of which he 
is the managing director. Before 
the Fair opened, Mr. Lelong con- 
ceived the idea and he has devoted 
the past six months to 'carrying it 
into effect. Under his plan the 
several displays will be set up com- 
l)lete in the new Board of Trade 
i-ooms, at No. 575 Market St. , open 
to free inspection at nil times. 
Thus massed, it makes an exhibit 
(if field, orchard and vineyard prod- 
ucts which could not be duplicated 
for one hundred thousand dollars in 
money. The display of each county 
will retain its identity and the prop- 
erty title to it will continue to rest 
in the commissioners under whose 
care it was originally prepared. 
The goods will sim])ly be loaned to 
the BoaT-d of Ti-ade for exhibition 
purposes. They are now being 
moved from the Fair grounds to the 
Board rooms, where chaos reigns; 
hut enough has been done to show 
that the collective exhibit will be, 
in its way, tlu> most magnificent 
display ever gotten together either 
in California or elsewhere. Mr. 
Lelong is busy night and day devis- 
ing plans for and personally super- 
intending the new installation. He will, later on, 
announce a day of public opening — and thei-e will be 
a sight worth going to see. 

TuK San Francisco Fruit Exchange has appointed 
a committee of five, to be known as the dried-fruit 
standard committee, the duty of which shall be the 
grading and adoption of a standard for dried fruits. 
It consists of the following: A. G. Freeman, chaii-- 
man; A. T. Hatch, Henry Schacht, H. A. Williams 
and J. L. Wilson. 

The West Side district, says the San Jose Mercury, 
" was for many years covered with vineyards, and a 
few of them yet remain. They are not so profitable 
as trees, however, and many of them have been re- 
placed by orchards. ' 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

Julv 21, 1894. 


UJii-f. Xo.SM }htikfl St.; Klfi-dlor. Xn. rj Frnnl SI. .San Friiiirinco. Col. 

All siibsiTltxTH i);i.vliiK in ;ulv;inc'p will wi-ive 15 moullis' (one 
year anil l:i wetfksi i-iedlt. For *2 In advance, U) nionttiH. For *1 in 
inlvani'e. five months. 


; Week. 1 Miiiith. 3 Minillif. I Year. 

Per Line (agate) » .23 « -M » i-'M *4U« 

Ilalf-Ineh (1 »qnare) l.UU 3.5U i;.:>0 2i.W 

one Ineli 1.5t) o.Utl 1:1.110 42.0U 

Larsfe advenisements at favorable rates. Special or reading notlees. 
lesjal advertisements, notices appearing in extraordinary type, or in 
|)artk-ular parts of the paper, at special rates. Four Insertions are 
rated In a month. 

Bepistered at S. F. Postofflce as second-class mail matter. 

Oitr latext /«»-m« yo to prexit JTednesday evening. 

Any subscriber sendinir an Inyuiry on any subject to the Rt'KAI. 
Pkess. with a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
eoUinins of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
art pr<nnptly Hs praclic.'ible. 


K. .1. WICKSON Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, July 21, 1894. 


l';UITORI.\LS. — Kceent California .\i-eliili>cture: Midwinter Fair 
( Vnmty Kxliiliits; .Miscellaneous, :«. The \Veel<, »1. From an In- 
depcnili'Ut Slandpciiiit. X>. 

JLI.,rSTRATI().\'S.— Mrs. Hearst's Country Homo, Butte County; 
Ashliy MoiKuie s House, Palermo Colony, 3.3. Public Schoolhouse 
at Piilernio. Kutte County, 42. Mr. Irwin C. Stump's Residence, 
Hutte Counlv, -13. 

IKiR'l'ICn/n'RK.— Olive Varieties, ,36; The Pomelo Again; The 

Spliiux Moth and ,Timson Weed; Progress of the Hlack Scale 

Killed; Olive Oil Machinery, k". 
l''L()I£IST AND (iARfJENKR.— Native Ferns on Santa Cruz Island, 

37. The State Floral Society ; Jaiiauese Honeysuckle for Hedt,'es,:}S. 
Fltl'IT PRKSKRVA'i'ION.— Hints on Fruit Dryiiif;; Drying Olives, 


'I'HK I'OITI.TRV VARD.— A Disease Which I'uzzles Mr. Penne- 
l)aker, More Valley Methods. :ft). 

ACRICULTURAL K.VOINKKR.— What (iovernor Markham Thinks 
About Good Roads. 

CORRKSPONDENCF.— From Sutter County; The Nationalization 
of Railroads— Ot)jec(ions; Windfalls. 4(). 

THE HO.MI''. l'Il{< 'I.E. —They Are Dead; The Old Home Paper; 
,Iini's Halloou Ascension, 4',!. The Worst of -Ml; "Kiss Her and 
Tell Her So; " Misnaming a Child: Do Women Know y 43, 

THE VOliN(; FOLKS.— A Hoy Who Learned a Lesson, 4.'!. 

MISCIOLLANEOUS.— Photography- .\slronomy : Talile of Principal 
.Mloys. 11. Progress of the Tehuaulepec R;iilway: Columbian 
ll;ilf Dollars; Coast Indvistrial Notes, 44. (Meanings. 3«, p'ruit 
i;.\cliauge Hulletin; Weather and IJrops. 46. Effect of Musical 
Notes on l-'.xplosives; The (.'hemislry of Cleansing; Sanitation by 
Sea Water; The Fatigue of Metals. 47. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Random Thoughts; Nuggets From 
Lecturer Messer; The .Anti-Option Measure; San Jose Grange, 4.5. 



i.vKw THIS issuK.i Page. 

Wagons — Deere Implement Co 4S 

Cling stone Peach I'itter— American Cling-Stone Pitting Co 4« 

Fruit Graders— D. D. Wass 48 

Paper— Blake, Mollltt & Towne 47 

.Seed Wheat— Samuel Wilson, Mechanicsville, Pa 4.") 

The Week. 

Harvest. Crops and 

It is cncouracjing: to hear of somo- 
tliint^ that is iar<f<' this year, and 
so somt^ consolation can be had in 
the fact that tliresliers are fjettin^ir more out of the 
gmin fields than was caU'ulated. We must, however, 
repeat again and continually that wh(^at-owners must 
have a care not to be deceived by the present cries 
of much wheat. The few extra bushels on summer- 
fallow arc a o'ood thiii<j to have, iiut one has only to 
think of ■■ Ininner wheat counties" which will hardly 
turn out more than t>nou<>h foi- chicken feed to be 
warned tiiat the whole crop will not \w large. An- 
other good note of the week is that the fruit trains 
eastward are moving again. It looks as though the 
reopening has biH'n quick enough to move out tlie 
pear and the bulk of the peach ci'op — though the 
early varieties have mostly gone to the bad. If all 
goes on now as seems likely, we shall give P^astern 
consumers a great amount of fruit. The danger has. 
however, pressed more closely than it ever should 
again. Ruining peoi)le's erops is a serious business. 
San Francisco fruit -eater-s have had better and 
cheaper fruit than usual this year. Importers of 
tropical fi-uits have been caught in the same ])inch 
with California growers. We cannot remember ever 
seeing fresh, sound bananas retailing at a nickel a 
dozen and pineapples at a dime each until this week, 
California weather has been unexceptionable this 
week. The slight departures from the normal have 
wrought no injury. The season has apiiarently done 
its best to retrieve itself from its early ill doing. Let 
nature show her penitence by preparing a compen- 
sation record for l.S!l;j, 

l-'ri'sh l-'ruit 


Speaking a few days back of the 
possibilities of increasing the at- 
tractiveness and value of future 
hoi-ticultural exhibits, Mr. B, M. Lelong cited the 
cold storage exhibit of fresh meats at the late Mid- 
winter Fair in the way of suggestion. For seven 
months some scores of carcasses, fi-e,sh as on the day 
of slaughter, hung in the glass i-oom of the cold 
storage exhibit in the Horticultural building, where 
they were viewed by thousands. "The same prin- 
ciple, ' said Mr. Lelong, "might be applied in the 
preservation of fi-uits in their original freshness and 
color, and it would make an exhibit which has never 
been equalled in the fruit line.'' Just think," he 
continued, "of a display of luscious peaches, apri- 
cots, strawberries and other delicate and highly- 

colored fruits in January or February," Such a dis- 
jilay would, indeed, be highly attractive as well as 
suggestive of a way to carry midsummer luxuries 
into the winter season in commercial (luantities. It 
would not be a bad idea to make an a])plication of 
the cold storage jirinciple in connection with the per- 
manent exhibit of the State Board of Trade in its 
new quarters on Market street or with the e-xhibit 
which Mr. Lelong i)roposes to maintain hereafter at 
the headquarters of the Board of Horticulture on 
Sutter street; and the Cold Storage Company might 
well afford to do it for the sake of exploiting their 

crime of which he is the victim, Vacaville will now, 
no doubt, go about it in radical and thorough fashion 
to rid the valley of the gang of vagabonds which has 
infested it for some months past. 

anil Its Keitders. 

Tlie I*t'rkins 

It occurs to us in this connection 
that a display like that above sug- 
I rocesH. oested w(*uld be a fine way to dem- 
onstrate the practicability of the Perkins fresh fruit 
preserving process, concerning which so much has 
been said and so little done during the past year. 
This process is really very simple. It is based upon 
the well-known relation of pressure to temperature 
in connection with the atmosphere, (iiven an air- 
tight room, maintain m it a certain density of atmos- 
phere and the temperature will remain stationary. 
Reduce the pressure and the temperature will de- 
cline; increase the pressure and it will advance. By 
the application of this jjrinciple Mr. Rcrkins has pre- 
served fruits of manj' varieties in their original 
freshness for long periods; and he is emphatic in the 
claim that a larger application can be made to covei' 
fresh fruits in transit. Profs, Higlard, Wickson and 
Smith have pronounced the process sound in theory; 
transportation men have decided it entirely prac- 
ticable. But it has not been put to actual use. It 
is susi)ected that the obstruction lies in some con- 
nection between the railroad company and the Re- 
frigerator Car Co. in whose cars much of our fresh 
fruit now goes East, Besides paying the freight — 
which in itself is not unreasonaiilc — the fruit shijjper 
pays for the use of a refrigei-ator car, for two oi- three 
''icings" to keep it cool, for the extra weight of the 
ice: and it is not likely that in all these extras the rail- 
road fails to get a good slice in addition to its flat 
freight charge. At least, it has not taken sufticient 
interest to give Mr, Perkins" process a i)ractical trial. 
Now, if a continuous pubhc exhibition were made of 
the process — say at the rooms of the Board of 
Trade — it would make its fame widesjjread. and if it 
is really what it is declart^d and believed to be, it 
would arouse a public demand wht)se presence would 
force the railroad ])eople to give the thing fair trial 
in connection with commercial shipi)ing ojicrations. 
We should be glad to hear — and so, we fancy, would 
readers of the Rural generally -what Mr. Perkins 
thinks of this proposition. 

Notable Oreliarfl 

Among recent notable transfers of 
orchard property in this State is 
* the sale by tht> J, P. Pierce Co. of 

Santa Clara, of what is locally known as the old Bol- 
linger place to Judge H. (L Bond of Seattle (Wash- 
ington) and New York. The tract of 172 acres lies ; 
for a mile altnig the Saratoga road just north of | 
Santa Clara and is planted to prun(>, apricot, i)oach j 
and ch(>rry trees, now two years old and in fine eon- | 
dition. The price is reserved but it is understood to 
have been up to the standard for choice locations in 
the Santa Clara valley. The purchaser — Judge 
IJond — is a well-known man of large afl'airs resident 
at Seattle for some years jiast . llefore coming to 
the coast, he was for many years assticiated with ex- 
Senator Piatt of New York iiiul others in the devel- 
opment of iron and coal int 'rests in Alat)ama and 
Tennessee. He has bought the ])lace with an eye 
to a winter home for himself, but chiefly as an 
establishment for his son, Mr. L. W. Bond, who has 
already assumed the duties of its management. 
It is significant of the character and promise 
of the California fruit industry that men like 
Judge Bond seek in it a career for their sons. 
And it is significant in another sense, that 
even in these times of universal stagnation the mar- 
ket for orchard pro))erty holds up as it does. In 
spite of the times, of a season in many respects un- 
favorable and of the ruinous blockade in transporta- 
tion, no other interest in California carries itself so 
well as does that of hoi-ticulture 

Mr. F. M. ICuek's 

The trampisni and hoodlumism I 
which for several weeks jjast has | 
infested Vaca valley, culminated on 
last Thursday night in a gross and criminal outrage, j 
One of the barns of Mr. F. M. Buck, containing his 
entire agricultural and horticultural plant, a large | 
stock of feed, and several horses — worth in money { 
about !B20,()()((--was burned to the ground. It was 
clearly a of incendiarism, the ci-iminals being ' 
tramps angered by the H\nv\t and energy of Mr. 
Bu(_'k in i)rolecting himself and his neighbors against 
their thievery and brutality. There was no insurance 
upon the i)roperty and Mr, Buck will therefore have 
to stand the full loss. That he is able to stand it 
without business disaster is a fact comforting to his | 
friends, but it in no way mitigates the infamy of the i 

ro.v Drying Project, 

Knrai Press" The pride which the Rural feels 
in its new dress of type, newhead- 
jjiece and new arrangement of de- 
partments, is being vastly stimulated by messages of 
compliment and good will received during the 
week from many sources. From a pile of fifty letters 
we take the following as illustrating the general tone 
and feeling, written by Mr. George T. Rich of Sac- 
ramento, In a letter to the editor, he says: 

I congratulate you in .sending out the Ki kai. PitEss with new 
heading and new type. It is a stanch old friend with us, for 
it has been a weekly visitor to the old home since its first 
i.ssue nearly twenty-five years ago. It has gradually improved 
with the growth of the country, putting on new and becoming 
frills from time to time uutil liow it stands the peer of all the 
pre.sse.s in the United States devoted to fruit culture, farming 
and the home. Each of its departments is always filled with 
choice reading; and the best talent is found iii combination 
with good conscience in .ts treatment of subjects i-elating to 
I>ublic affairs and the i-ge in which we live. All hail ! and 
welcome to our old family counsellor and friend in its new form. 

Expressions like this warm the cockles of the 
editor's heart and impress him with a new sense of 
the friend.ship of his readers and of responsibilitj' in 
his relations to them. It has always been the ambi- 
tion of the Rural to maintain a personal and do- 
mestic relation to those who read it week by wet>k, 
and it values profoundly such greetings and sugges- 
tions from its subscribers as imply personal afifection 
and interest in it. The number of homes in California 
where, as in that of Mr. Rich, the Rural Press has 
been a weekly coun.sellor and friend since its 
first is,sue in 1871, is among the hundreds. It 
has been the familiar companion and adviser 
of far the greater number of California farmers 
and fruit-growers. Fully one-half of the native 
sons and daughters of California reckon the 
Rural among their earUcst memories. Not one 
of them ever read in the Rural anything that gave 
him an evil thought or a l)ad im])iilse. Not one ever 
foUowtnl its i)ages without finding there respect for 
truth and honesty and for the domestic virtues; not 
one was ever the— and many let us hope have 
been the better — for w'hat they have found in its 
pages. It has been straightforward, clean and de- 
cent, and it has tried to be instructive and enter- 
taining. And it has no other plan or ambition for 
the future. Good friends, all, we value your friend- 
shi]) and gwd will and shall strive to deserve it, 

Santa <'r„,. hu.i <iii- ^hc cool and moist airs which make 
Santa Cruz so charming to the 
summer sojourner are the bane of 
the fruit-drier. He finds drying out of doors in a 
region subject to fogs an uncertain and risky busi- 
ness from which drying by artificial heat in "'evapo- 
rators " is not a complete or satisfactory relief. In 
this dilemma it iias been jjroposed to send the Santa 
Cruz fruit product across the mountains eastward to 
be dried at some jioint in the valley beyond the range 
of ocean inHuences. The plan has taken the form of 
a prtiposition on the ])art of the Santa Cruz growers 
to join with the Gilroy growers under the co-opera- 
tive jjrinciple in the establishment of large drying 
yards after the model of the West Side plant at 
Campbells, and to be operated in the same way. 
As there is in it many suggestions of value to 
other communities where co-()])eratiye drying is 
under consideration we reproduce the detail of 
the project as given in the (lilroy (inzitii , as follows: 

The di'.ving establishment, warehouse, etc., will require 
about ".JO acre.s, and must be witliin a few hundred feet of the 
railroad. It must be in readiness by August 1st to handle 
this yeai-'s crop, and full.v completed as far as necessary for 
this year's operations by August 10. Kxdusive of the cost of 
acieage, about *.50()() will be needetl. It is pro|X)sed that or- 
chardists .shall subscribe for stix-k at the I'ate of #10 for each 
aci'e of fruit, and only these subsi'ribers will have any right 
U) the services of the ilrier and warehouse. One quarter 
li-2..">0) of the stock is to be jiaid up in cash that is. a man who 
takes ten shares, value *100, will pay $"i5 cash. Even this ^.J.'i 
is not absolutely iiecessar.v to pa.v at once out of poc-ket, for the 
i'orp<ji'ation pro|x)se to handle the fruit and sell it through 
their own or other fruit exchange, and fi'oni the proc-eeds of 
the oivhai-dist's fruit will probably be taken his sub.sei-ip- 
tion for st(K-k, The i)rice to be <-harged the oi'chardist for dry- 
ing, packing, handling, etc., is to be what experience shows to 
be a fair average one. A dividend of seven per cent upon paid 
up capital will be guaranteed. After pa.ving that and running 
ex|ieuses, the balance will be divided pro rata among the 
stockholdei's. The only st(K'kholders except those who take 
acreage st(X'k will t)e the few charter membei's who have 
faith, put up money and benefit by the seven per cent guai'aii- 
tee and the pro rata dividend. Santa Cruz stands I'eady to 
take at once $.'57.50 of the amount, and Gilroy is expected to 
subscribe the $12.50. The enhancecl .sale of fruit and the price 
obtained will cover this, and the benefit to Gilroy will be be- 
.vond calculation. 

The (SiizilU- does not exaggerate the merits of this 
project. It means the handling of fruit in better 
sha])e and at less cost, its turn-out in a shape that 
will bring better prices, and its sale ujjon tht> whole- 
sale principle. Under it, supjjorters of the drier 
will become allies in all that relates to theii- mutual 
interests, instead of competitors to their mutual 
loss. In one respect this jilan, judged by the stand- 
ards which apph' to ordinary business operations, 
would seem open to criticism; namely, in its projwsi- 
tion to guarantee a dividend of seven per cent upon 

July 21, 1804. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


the money to be invested. The ordinary business 
view of this proposition would be that it was absurd, 
since, if the company should not succeed in earning 
dividends, there would be no way of raising the 
money to pay them save by assessment; and there 
would certainly be no advantage in assessing a stock- 
holder to-day in order that he might be paid a divi- 
dend to-morrow. But the difference between the 
business of co-operative fruit handling as compared 
with other kinds of corporation business fully justi- 
fies the expedient of the guarantee as above noted. 
If all persons connected with drying associations 
were to contribute to the capital stock in exact pro- 
l>ortion to the services they require from the drying 
plant, there would be exact justice in the ordinary 
business methods of adjusting earnings; but such is 
not the case. It frequently happens that men whose 
iioldings of stock are small are large users of the co- 
operative plant, and that others whose holdings of 
stock are large are relatively small users of the 
|)lant; and it becomes necessary in equity to regu- 
late this manifest inequaUty. This is done by reckon- 
ing interest upon the capital employed as one of the 
legitimate charges of the business, to be borne like 
other charges of operation. To this end, the rate 
for handling fruit is made sufficiently high to cover 
the interest charge as well as the charges of wages, 
etc., so the capital invested is as certain of its earn- 
ings as the hands employed are of their wages. It 
is unusual, but entirely legitimate and absolutely 
just. All the drying associations have adopted this 
))lan, for it is the simplest way yet discovered to ad- 
just the diffei-ences above outlined. Of course, the 
advantages of wholesale fruit handling under co- 
o]i('ration are only in the most incidental way de- 
jjendent upon direct profits in operation. 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

As we write on Wednesday the great railroad 
strike is slowly petering out. The A. R. U. men 
have not i-eturned to work, but the locomotive en- 
gineers, conductors, and others not members of that 
association, are on duty, and trains are moving in 
almost their usual order. The feeling of those who 
still hold out is of that bitter sort which leads to des- 
perate deeds, and many attempts against life and 
pi-operty have been made during the week. The 
crime at Two Mile Trestle, hastily noted in last 
week's Rural, resulted in five deaths, the engineer 
(Clarke) and four soldiers. Two days later a col- 
lision between strikers and troojis at Sacramento 
brought out the fire of the latter, and two persons 
entirely innocent were shot down. These are the 
only incidents local to California in which there has 
l)een loss of life, but there have been many vio- 
lent attempts, chiefly in the way of misplacing 
switches and undermining trestles. That there 
have been no tragic results is due to the vigilance of 
the troops, both national and State, who still patrol 
all exposed points and guard every train. It is not 
doubted that if this protection should be withdrawn, 
the scenes of ten days ago would be re-enacted. In 
the meantime, the striking forces have been weak- 
ened by withdrawal of the engineers from affiliation 
with the movement, by desertions from their own 
ranks, by the exhaustion of their money resources, 
and by the loss of public sympathy. Both here and 
at Chicago the leadei's still talk with bravado, but 
they can scarcely be deceived as to the real situa- 
tion. They must know, even though they will not 
admit it, that the fight has been fought and lost; 
and that the only question now is as to terms of sur- 

Of the several causes contributing to this great 
defeat— and it is a very great defeat — the most po- 
tent by far is the changed attitude of public senti- 
ment. At the beginning of the contest the feeling of 
the public was almost unanimously with the 
strikers. All the i)ublic sense of injustice in the un- 
equal relationship between capital and labor, all the 
prejudice against corporations in general and hatred 
of the Southern Pacific in particular, all revenges 
against wealth, public and jjrivate, were .summed up 
in a general sympathy which inspired the strike with 
a respect and a strength unusual to such movements. 
All this, which might easily have led to a great vic- 
tory, was lost by passion and folly. When the 
strikers appealed to force against law, their cause 
was lost. Every spiked switch, every assault upon a 
" scab," every defiance of police authority, and every 
act in violation of public order detached thousands 
from the side of support and arraigned them in the 
opposition rank. The infamous crime at Two-Mile 
Trestle finished the matter — from that hour the 

strike, so far as it related to California, was doomed. 
Before that time the State troops had been with the 
movement almost to a man; they had refused to move 
against the strikers at Sacramento, and had incurred 
the charge of cowardice for friendship's sake. But 
after the disaster at the trestle their whole temper 
changed; they were eager for a fight and awaited 
with impatience the chance to shoot down the very 
men whom a week before their tenderness had spared 
at the cost of public respect for dicipline and cour- 
age. This change on the part of the militia from the 
spirit of fellowship to the spirit of vengeance, fairly 
illustrates the change in the attitude of the general 
public. In respect for law and order and in revolt 
against cruelty and murder the earlier sentiment was 
lost and almost forgotten. And it is always so. It 
was true two thousand years ago that who sowed the 
wind reaped the whirlwind — and time and human 
progress have not changed the principle. Whoever 
reckons upon the sympathy of the American peojile 
to support lawlessness and outrage, reckons and will 
ever reckon in vain. 

A secondary cause of the failure lies remote from 
California in an infirmity of human nature which 
must always limit the practical effectiveness of labor 
organization. "The leaders of industry, if indmtnj 
is i-vcr to he led," — said a very wise man forty years 
ago — "are virtually the captains of the world." 
Profoundly true, and truest part of it the doubt im- 
plied in the phrase we have put into italics. In- 
dustry is difficult to lead not more from the passions 
of the crowd than from the selfishness and ambitions 
of the would-be leaders. The situation at Chicago 
during the past few days illustrates the point. 
The American Railway Union, a new organization, 
had — in a recent contest with the Great Northern 
Railway — won a victory. Its leader, Mr. Debs, 
thought he saw the chance to so direct the momentum 
thus given to his order as to swallow up all other 
orders of American railway workmen. He was 
seeking, there is much reason to suspect, not more the 
welfare of labor than to exalt himself. The start, 
as we have witnessed it, was a famous one; the race 
was half won when the inevitable consequences of 
triumph became impressed upon those other and 
older leaders of industry, Mr. Arthur, chief of the 
Order of Locomotive Engineers, and Mr. Gomj^jers, 
chief of the American Federation of Labor. It 
became apparent that the success of the strike would 
magnify its leader and reduce all other "captains " 
of industry to subordination and insignificance. 
Now. since human nature is a thing of infirmity, 
what was the inevitable effect of this discovery? It 
was the case of Aaron and the Magicians in later and 
discreeter times, with the strength of the game in the 
hands of the Magi. Neither Mr. Arthur nor Mr. 
Gompers have yet reached the stage of ambition for 
slippers and a quiet life. They prefer for some time 
to come to remain strictly in it, so to speak; 
and so, at the critical hour when the fortunes 
of victory and defeat were in the balance, they 
did not stand in. They found grave and sonor- 
ous reasons why they and those who follow them 
.should remain neutral; and thus, while blandly 
fondling the monster, Strike, they gently and 
caressingly — broke its back. And thus it is that 
the rod of Aaron Debs is not likely to bud 
this season and that Magicians Arthur and 
Gompers are still doing business at the old stand. 
And still Mr. Carlyle is right — " Th(> leaders of in- 
dustry, //" industry is rccr to he A r/ " — mark the 
phrase — " are virtually the captains of the world." 

The strike we may fairly regard as settled; but, 
unfortunately, not so the differences upon which it 
i was waged. Its end leaves the workmen un- 
satisfied and sore and more than ever impressed with 
a sense of inequality and hard usage. It leaves the 
general public — however it may condemn the follies 
and crimes which have discredited the movement — 
more than ever under the conviction that the rela- 
tionship of our labor and property systems is unfair 
and that either reform or revolution must .soon make 
new adjustments. The refusal of the railroad com- 
panies to confer with the representatives of the 
strikei's, tlieir contempt of all propositions for arbi- 
tration, their neglect of responsibility in the matter 
of movuig trains when they might have done so in 

the earlier days of the strike, their exaltation of a 
petty bargain with the Pullman Co. above their duty 
to the public of California — all these things, in com- 
bination with old grievances and with hatreds long 
cherished, have in California increased the breach 
which separates the Southern Pacific Company fi-om 
public favor. It all goes, on the other hand, to 
stiffen the haughtiness of the railroad power, and 
this, in turn, makes new offense and fresh discontent. 
From much of the current talk we have been led to 
wonder how large a part of tht' ill will against " the 
railroad " in California is the consequence of mere 
ungraciousness, yielding nothing to the company in 
the way of advantage; and in this connection we re- 
call a remark of one who speaks with an eloquence 
and a wisdom alike very noble, that mankind would 
become suspicious and weary even of the omnipotence 
of (iod but for the jjrofound and universal faith in 
its perfect and loving justice. 

A very natural inquii-y at this time is as to effects, 
social, industrial and political, likely to follow this 
great strike, for it is rightly assumed that such a 
convulsion, attended by such passions and ended 
without mutual good-will, cannot fail to make a 
l)r()found impression upon our national life. By 
many it is thought to be a step toward the founda- 
tion of a new order of society; but this, it seems to 
us, is a mere note of alarm. Communities of Ger- 
manic blood and inheriting English traditions do not 
easily let go of ti'ied and sure ways of doing things. 
We shall have no revolution, but we shall have a re- 
forming era with, probably, an(!w political alignment 
based on policies positive and negative, liberal and 
conservative. This is the line of political cleavage 
in all other advanced countries; and now that we 
have disposed of the slavery issue and buried most of 
the passions growing out of it, it is Ukely to be the 
same with us. We shall, probably, during the coming 
two or three decades, have one political party or class 
of political parties forever proposing social changes, 
and another party or class of parties foj'ever oppos- 
ing these propositions. Mechanics and others who 
live by wages will go with the positive iw)litical order, 
while the established classes— those who own land 
and other forms of property — will stand by the old 
order. The strength of conservatism will be in the 
centers of vested wealth — in the East and North and 
in the greater cities; the strength of liberalism 
will be the "other half" in these same strong- 
holds in combination with those sections where there 
is least wealth. It will be a running fight with vary- 
ing successes but with the balance steadily favorable 
to the progressive or distinct from the conservative 

All this lies in the futui-e. A more immediate effect 
will be the paralysis of those industries and interests 
which depend upon the current investment of funds. 
With the prospect of nationalization of railroads no- 
body will put money into railway jjrojects — and the 
same respecting all other kinds of property menaced 
by threats of new and uncertain adjustments. And 
right here is a fact which those who from any 
cause disturb the regular order of industry seem 
never to remember. It is that any strike, 
whether won or lost, is an injui-y to wage-workers, 
for no man with sufficient business sense to tui-n the 
key to his safe will put money into an enterprise 
likely to be controlled by those whose purposes are 
toward their own rather than to his benefit. 

Of the immediate influences of tiie sti'ike the 
most notable is its effect upon public sentiment i-e- 
specting the nationalization of railroads. To name 
this proposition ten years ago was a quick way to 
establish oneself as a crank. More recently it has 
become a theme safe to mention, although, except- 
ing in very serious and liberal circles, it has not been 
held respectable to advocate it. We question if one 
year ago an outspoken advocate of the nationaliza- 
tion of railroads could have been elected to member- 
ship in such a club, for example, as the Pacific 
Union of this city, no matter what his general quali- 
fications. But the past month has made a wonder- 
ful change. The fat and prosperous citizen, along 
with the rest of us. has been taught by the events of 
the strike that transportation as related to modern 
society is a thing too hnportant to be trusted safely to 
private interest and subjected to the passions of Mr. 
Debs, Mr. Huntington or anybody else; and he is be- 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 21, 1894. 

ginning to inquire if, after all, it would not be well 
to put the railroads, like the postoffice, in a relation 
beyond the roach of such a blockade as we have just 
jjone throuifh. The Ri:ral has often dealt with this 
subject and has nothino^ new to say, but in view of 
the interest newly aroused, it will, we hope, be ex- 
cused if it says again something very like what it 
has said before. It seems to us obvious that the 
Government ought to own and control everything 
necessary to public order or national defense; and in 
view of the recent events and of possible contingen- 
cies the railroads and the telegraph lines would seem 
to be within this requirement. Germany, Russia, 
Italy and Australia own their own roads, and find 
that the system works well. And, indeed, there seems 
no reason why it should not work well here if 
we could make the administration pure. It has 
been argued that Government ownership would cor- 
rupt our politics, but we question if in a political 
sense the consequences of government ownership 
could be more demoralizing than the present system 
of private ownership with its lobbies, its attorneys 
in Congress and in the Cabinet, its " tools" in State 
official life and its hand on the political pulse every- 
where. Experience during the past year when 
twenty i)cr cent of the railroad mileage of the coun- 
try has been in the hands of receivers — appointed by 
the courts representing the Government — does not 
go to demonstrate the dangers of government con- 
trol. The problem is one of administration — one 
very simply to be solved by the application of familiar 
principles of public service demonstrated in connec- 
tion with oui- own army and navy and in the civil 
service of everj' civilized country in the world save 
our own. In all government establishments there is 
danger of laziness, torpor and sonmoletit routine, but 
it has been pointed out that the principle of adminis- 
trative emulation would be a powerful inducement to 
activity in the projected public railway service. The 
general economic advantages of the system are too 
vast even for estimate: and, as defined by the neces- 
sities of the Government, there is nothing .socialistic 
in the project. 

Among many propositions for prevention of future 
crises like the one which we have just passed 
through, that which has the fairest sound, and there- 
fore most favor, is "compulsory arbitration." To 
our notion, the very phrase — compulsory arbitra- 
tion — carries its own condemnation, for ai-bitration 
by compulsion is not arbitration at all. Hut ajjart 
from this quibble, the scheme is wholly impracticable. 
Submission to arbitration implies submission to the 
findings of arbitration — and how is this to be accom- 
plished save by consent ? No authority consistent 
with principles of liberty can compel a manufacturer 
to keep his works open if, because their operations 
are not profitable or for any other reason, it be his 
will to close them. And it is the same with the 
workman; no authority can justly compel him to 
work if it does not suit him to do it. In these con- 
siderations lie the weakness of arbitration as a com- 
pulsory system. As a means of adjusting disputes 
between owner and workmen, where both are agreed 
to abide the result, arbitration is a fair expedient; 
but tt) make it a matter of law, subject to police 
enforcement, would involve the suspension of i-ights 
which no American can think of with patience. The 
remedy lies not in any limitation of rights, not in 
revolution as some declare, but in new adjustments 
suitable to the times in which we live. Let the 
things to which the daily necessities of the ])ublic are 
relat(>d be taken under Government control and thus 
removed from the field of contention between owner 
and workmen. So long as there is industry in the 
world there will be differences of interest between 
the hirer and the hired, and controversies growing 
out of them. The time will never come when those 
whose interests are diametrically opposed will in- 
variably reach the same judgment — at least not short 
of the millenium — and the best thing to be done is to 
make it impossible for such differences to work such 
paralysis of public interests as we have just suffered. 


The Petaluma Courier reports that there is a movement on 
foot among the creditors of Frank Del^ong to have the isrreat 
ranch near Novato, consisting of '.MKK) acres, dividetl into small 
ranch tracts, of 20 acres and upwards, and sold so as to satisfy 
their claims on the property. Commentins upon this prospect, 
the ('((iin'o- {x)ints out that its consummation would be a great 
benefit to the county and to the town of Petaluma. 

Seb.vstohol fruit-growers are taking steps toward co-opera- 
tive action in the selling of their product. 

The slickens land on the old Garrett Kepple ranch, in Butte 
county, is turning out a magnificent crop of grain this year. 

The San Jose Neivx says that owing to the later ripening of 
fruits in the Santa Clara valley the loss by the railroad tio-up 
will be comparatively light there. The principal disposition 
of the crop is by the drying piwess, which is handled by the 
various fruit assoc-iations of the county. 

NciTiNti the local current price of wheat about S() cents per 
hundred- the Yolo M<iil .says that " at these prices it is prob- 
able that under ordinary circumstances much grain would go 
in store, but most farmers this year find it necessary to re- 
alize at once on their crops in order to pay pressing debts." 

The Pomona Proi/rcss is "informed by Horticultural Inspec- 
tor T. B. Atkinson that from January 1st to July 1st of this 
year, there have been shipped out from Pomona to points in 
California, Arizona and Texas, .511, 3Ui olive trees and 
deciduous trees, for orchard planting. The grand total for the 
six months has been .597,2!)1." 

The Santa Rosa Hcimhtirau reports that a large hop-house 
has just been built on the Llewellyn Hall place, in Alexander 
valley, adding that "during the i)ast year over 2(K) acres have 
been planted to hops in this vicinity, and present prospects for 
a bountiful harvest of a superior quality are excellent. Five 
new driers have been erected here this year." 

The Healdsburg Sonoma Tribune learns that contracts cover- 
ing .some .%">() acres of vineyard arc reported to have been 
made between the wine-growers of upper Sonoma counUv and 
the San Francisco wine syndicate, of which mention was lately 
made in columns. Grape-growers quite generally in 
Sonoma and Napa counties, as well as in the San .foaquiii and 
Santa Clara valleys, are pledging their crops to the combina- 
tion, and it now looks, says the Trilmnr, as though the day of 
deliverance for wine-growers is near at hand. 

Mk. George Hussman, in a letter to the Napa Rif/iiiter, 
urges grape-growers and wine men to join the syndicate. He 
says: " When the wine men of Sonoma, Santa Clara, Ala- 
meda and other districts are willing to join it as a unit, Napa 
men should not be behind. I consider it as the only salvation 
we have, but we want prompt and united action, so that it 
can go into activ^e operation by the first of next month, and 
give those who have wines on baud opportunity to empty their 
cellars and cooperage before the vintage commences." 

A LETTER from Pomona to the Los Angeles Ttmex declares 
that " w-hile there is distress in nearly every other agricult- 
ural industry, the Chino sugar-beet growers are going to have 
another very successful season. They have over .5600 acres of 
thrifty and vigorous sugar beets, and the experiments upon 
them show the saccharine quality is high. That makes the 
product valuable. Unless some calamity now unforeseen over- 
(•omes the Chino sugar-beet growers, they will make more 
money this year than at any time. There are many of the 
growers who are positive they will get from *I40 to $175 an 
acre for their beets this season." 

The grain product in San Joaquin county is rejiorted to be 
of extra good quality this year. The Stoi-kton Mail quotes 
Bruce Harri.son of the Farmers' Union as saying, after exam- 
ining many samples of new-crop milling wheat, that he found 
it averaging in weight Ki and <i5 jwunds for measured bushel. 
Continuing, Mr. Harri.son said: "The average weight in past 
years was from (il to 02 jxiunds. The lightest -sample — that i.s, 
of milling wheat — I have weighed this .season was Ki pounds to 
the bushel, and it contained a goo<l many oats. It was only 
this particular sample, by the way, that was foul ; most of the 
grain is clean and fine. The kernels are large and plump, and 
drop almost like peas. I attribute the excellence of the grain 
to the late rain and cool weather that prevailed while the 
heads were filling out." 

Col. W. H. Aike.n of Wrights, whoso ob.servations are al- 
ways valuable, adds the following postscript to a per- 
sonal letter to the editor: "I have just driven from my home 
to Mountain View and return. That there is a light crop of 
prunes in the valley is very evident to a traveler along the 
road. Trees are in good condition and land well cultivated, 
but nothing to speak of on trees. From Los Gatos via Sara- 
toga to Mountain View I am of the opinion that a ton to the 
acre would be a fair estimate, judging fi'oni what could be 
seen from the road. The Dr. Handy or Hume orchard near 
Saratoga will hardly yield that amount. Of course, the trees 
in the middle and back part of orchard may bring up this 
amount a little, but I don't think .so. I have to report a large 
crop on the Santa Cruz mountains. My trees, some ten thou- 
sand, are bearing very full — all they can stand up under. I 
believe 1 have the largest crop of prunes grown this year in 
central California ; it is a sight gfx)d for the eyes to .see and 
the mind to contemplate. I think the estimate of 30,000,(K)0 
pounds of dried prunes in the valley too high. Saratoga, 
Campbells and Willows are short of fruit, and where is fruit 
to come from ?" 

The Colusa .Siui notes that this year's product- of Mr. A. S. 
McWilliams' apricot orchard (fifteen acres, estimated to yield 
1)0 tons I has been sold at *21 per ton, or an average of *1'^() per 
acre. On the basis of these figures it makes an interesting 
comparison of the returns from fruit and grain farming. We 
quote: "Taking the figures for which this small crop of fruit 
will .sell, together with the exiHinse of produi'ing the .same, 
and compare it with the price of a crop of wheat from a piece 
of land of equal area, together with the of producing 
the same, and they will stand in about the proix)rtion of one to 
six. One might say from casual observation that in reckoning 
the amount gained we did not count the time one would have 
to wait for the fruit to grow from the planting of the trees, 
which is alwut five years, and compai-e this with the annual 
return of the wheat, or in reckoning the amount of the interest 
on both investments. The amount made on the fruit crop in 
one average season after the have been paid will 
equal the net profits of the cereal crojw for five years after the 
expenses are iwid. As interest on the money invested in the 
orchard at the end of five years, the orchard is left over and 
above expense, which is many times the interest one would 
receive on the proceeds of the five crops of wheat for the five 
years." Of course, comparisons of this sort are very likely to 
be misleading, but they are still very interesting, especially 
at this time when so many farmers are studying new ways of 
getting results out of the land. 


Olive Varieties. 

We are evidently upon the road to a better under- 
standing of the special uses and adaptations of the 
olive varieties. This has been held in view by 
growers for the last decade, and as a result the finest 
olives from all olive-growing countries have been 
brought in and acclimated. The issue is now press- 
ing, as many of these importations are coming into 
fruit, as to what the relative value of them for dif- 
ferent purposes and what their adaptation to local 
climates and soils. There will probably be greater 
differences disclosed in these lines than has been 
hitherto supposed, and in the years to come we shall 
discriminate as sharply between olive varieties as we 
now do in the case of temperate- zone orchard fruits. 

At a recent meeting of the Southern California 
Farmers' Institute. Mr. A. P. Hayne of the State 
University lectured upon the subject of olive oils and 
olive varieties. The lecture covered the same ground 
as University Bulletin 104, of which we have already 
given copious extracts in the Rural, but presents 
other lights on the subjects, and is in part called out 
by comments which have been made on that docu- 
ment. It strikes a most important matter in the 
olive interest, and we shall at this time give the part 
relating to the comparative value of different olive 
varieties, as follows: 

The necessity of analyzing olives of all varieties 
from all localities each year, till each region and soil 
of the State has selected one or more varieties that 
will give the maximum possible results, is l)eginning 
to be realized by the intelligent growers of California. 

There was a time when, to the average orchardlst, 
an olive was an olive, were it called Mission or Red- 
ding Picholine. The value of the crop was judged by 
its gross weight without any reference to the amount 
of waste matter, flesh or oil there might be in it. 
The mill-owner paid the same price for a ton of olives 
that contained 10 per cent of oil as he did for another 
ton that contained 30 per cent. Those planting 
olives for pickles rarely stopped to consider if one 
variety might not have 10 per cent more useless pit 
than another olive of the same size of fruit. It was 
supposed that, in this glorious climate of ours, all 
soils and localities were equally well adapted for 
olives, and that the quantity and qualitj' of oil made 
from trees grown on cold black adobe bottom was 
th(^ same as that from trees on dry, well-drained hill- 

Work of the Experiment Stations. — To-day, all 
this is changing. We have seen that, in the old 
world, eac^h locality has, after centuries of experi- 
ment, selected a variety that is best ada])ted to its 
particular soil, climate and special purposes. There 
it was. by force of slow hammer-and-tongs experi- 
ment, that these adaptations were made. We Cali- 
fornians have not the time to plant olive orchards in 
order to show our grandchildren what varieties not 
to plant. We must know, and know quickly, what 
selection to make. 

It is not possible for any private individual to do 
more than experiment for his set of local and very 
special conditions. He cannot generalize and show 
what is the rule and what the exception. Many take 
the exception for the rule; and with the very best of 
intentions, mislead others by giving unsound advice. 
It is the duty and privilege of the College of Agri- 
culture of the University of California, with the aid 
and co-operation of the growers of the State, to un- 
dertake thi^ task of collecting data for the and 
guidance of the horticulturists of the State. The 
University owns and controls culture stations in five 
of the leading typical fruit-growing regions of the 
State. At these culture stations will be found over 
55 varieties of olive trees — some good, many inferior. 
Th(! results of climate and .soil are noted at each sta- 
tion, and the crop .sent to the central station at Ber- 
keley, to be made into oil or otherwise experimented 
on. However typical may be the localities where the 
stations are located, there are local variations from 
the main type that render it necessary to call upon 
the local growers for samples of fruit for analysis. 
As a rule, the olive-growers have cheerfully aided the 
University with samples, for they see the value of 
knowing exactly the richness of the crop they have 
taken so much care and trouble to raise. In some 
cases samples of new and untried varieties have been 
sent in quantities large enough to be made into oil, 
thus furnishing invaluable data. During the past 
season I made oil at Berkeley from olives sent from 
Los Angeles coimty. x\ll credit be given to the pub- 
lic-spirited citizens who donated them. 

By means of the knowledge thus gained even a be- 
ginner is enabled to judge of the value of his lands 
for different crops, and to make the best selection 
accordingly. If he stops to consider that, g. 
were he to plant the Rubra on heavy, cold, adobe 
soil he will make tiKj per cent less oil than his neigh- 
bor, who has planted the same variety on well- 
drained, sandy .soil, he is very apt to give up olive- 
planting for some other crop better suited to the 
special conditions of his soil and location. 

Varieties Compared. — In order to illustrate the 
importance of this analytical work, let me call j'oui- 

July 21, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

attention to the table (also found on page 14 of Bul- 
letin 104): 










^ '■ 
C ' 





P* CD 

^- o 

^ _-.CD 





B $ 

■ ° s 






Va kiet v. 




■ ft) 

'■ &a 




















erage. . . 

riation . 





,ximum . 



.ximum . 





H H5 

22 28 











Nevadillo Blanco. . 



HI (Kl 

2-1 Ki 

i:i (16 








IS). 1)0 



31) 2<.l 

I'.l 211 

22 <M 

11 01) 









Redding Picholine. 


311 W 

17 711 

24 (Kl 

13 10 












26 III 

111 (ill 

22 8.=) 

6 51) 












2fi IHI 

11 61 

17 1)2 

H 21 








11). (Kl 



26 ."111 

21 ai 

2.S Ko 

5 00 









15. (Kl 



25 Ah 

2(1 IKI 

22 .SI) 

5 10 






16. IKI 



21 M 

II 711 

21 ») 















IB. 51 

7. -15 
























Here we have 11 varieties, of which more than one 
sample of each was received at the station. While 
this table is of necessity very incomplete, it is never- 
theless valuable as showing what we want to do for 
the olive-grower, and also what we want all those 
who have varieties of olives not fully rei^resented in 
this table to do for us. Instead of having, for exam- 
ple, but two samples of Nigerina from two different 
localities, we should have 20 samples from as many 
localities. So, as but few of the varieties are as yet 
in bearing at the culture stations, we must rely upon 
you olive-growers for aid in this most important in- 

It is with the aid of such a table that one contem- 
plating olive-planting can choose, if not the very 
best variety, at least a safe one. By a safe variety I 
mean one that, even when badly located, will give a 
fair average amount f)f oil. The Mission is a good il- 
lustration. Out of the 13 samples of this variety 
examined, we find the minimum oil content is 10 per 
cent. The maxhnum is per cent, with an aver- 

age of nearly 23 per cent. But in the case of the 
Oblonga, for instance, the minimum is 11 per cent, 
maximum 2ti per cent and average of 17 per cent, as 
against the 22.94 per cent average of the Mission; 
that is to say, that the gross weight of crop being 
the sam(\ the poorest locality for Mission would be 
two per cent better in oil than the average oil yield 
of the Oblonga. These are mei-e hap-hazard illustra- 
tions of the utility of analyzing olives from all locali- 

Olives Should Be Rated on the Oil Yield. — Hut 
aside from the value of analyses in the selection of 
varieties, it is a matter of the last importance to the 
oil -maker who buys, or to the grower who sells, 
olives, to know just what he is getting or giving for 
his money. The sugar-beet buyer pays so much a 
pound for the sugar the roots contain, not for size or 
beauty. Why then should not the olive men pay for 
what oil they know they are getting, instead of 
trusting to luck that the oil contents of his purchase 
is above the average ? This winter I visited one of 
the model oil mills of the State. The proprietor was 
buying olives from all parts of the country and pay- 
ing a uniform price. I took samples of olives from 
the piles in the crushing-room and found that some 
carload lots contained but 13 per cent of oil, while 
others ran as high as 28 per cent. The oil was 
mixed, and the man with 28 per cent got no more 
than the man who sold the 13-per-cent olives. 

But it would be dangerous to take the analysis of 
one year as a standard, for just as the sugar con- 
tents of grapes varies from year to year, just so 
there is a variation in the oil contents of olives. It 
is for this reason that we desire the olive-growers to 
send samples of their olives for several consecutive 
years, so that we may be able to know just how much 
"variation we arc to expect from each variety in each 

I wish to call attention to the waste of time and 
money that is very frequently made by oil-makers 
who try to make experimental tests as to the rela- 
tive oil contents of olives by using the ordinary ma- 
chinery. Few such tests have any value. They are 
misleading, not only to the person who makes them, 
but to all those who rely upon them. A little expe- 
rience in comparing such tests with the exact labora- 
tory methods will, I feel sure, convince the most 
skeptical of the waste of time and money. It is true 
that no machinery or mode of procedure will in prac- 
tice give you as high results as are indicated by the 
analyses; but since the unavoidable loss is nearly the 
same in each case, the analysis does show how much 
more or less you ought to get, as between different 
varieties treated alike. 

Disinterested Efforts. — I am sorry to say that 
in analyzing and experimenting on olives I am unable 
to please everybody. I do not own (unfortunately 
for me), an olive tree, nor am I interested in any oil 
mill whatever. I try to be as just as I can, and han- 
dle every subject with due fairness. Nevertheless, 
that I may offend some of those who have plantations 
or nurseries, of some variety that has not been 
praised, is inevitable. 

The experiment station is not created for the pur- 
pose of selling anybody's oil or nursery stock, and it 
is directed strictly on these lines. 

I say this because of adverse strictures on our 
work that have been published in an Oroville news- 
paper. It seem that the o'WTiers of the Redding 
Picholine, either orchardists or nurserymen (seem- 
ingly the latter), have undertaken to cast doubt on 
the accuracy of the experiments, and certain physi- 
cal properties of olive oil alluded to. 

I am indeed sorry that I have offended any one in 
doing my duty, but if those interested will take the 
trouble to investigate, they will find that the experi- 
ments on the Redding Picholine were made with all 
the accuracy of chemical laboratory analyses, and 
there is no mistake about the facts. So with all ex- 
cuses for the modesty of the work, I maintain that 
the offending Bulletin 104 is practically and scientifi- 
cally correct. 

The Pomelo Again. 

Last week we referred at length to the popularity 
of the pomelo or " grape fruit " as some call it. The 
following communication from H. Harris & Co., com- 
mission merchants of Boston, presents the com' 
mercial aspects of the fruit : 

" We wish to call special attention to the increas- 
ing demand for grape fruit. We sold to-day at pub- 
lic auction 69 boxes that came from 12 different 
growers. We mention this to show that it was not 
any especially fancy lot. The sixty -nine boxes sold 
from $2.12^ to $9.25 per box, one lot of 17 boxes sell- 
ing for $9.25 per box, and the 69 boxes averaging 
$6.21 per box. We strongly advise our friends to 
plant more grape fruit, as it certainly is growing 
more and more in favor every year." 

In forwarding this communication, the Earl Fruit 
Company say that they have made some .shipments 
from California which have resulted in a satisfactory 
manner. They say there are a few trees in Colton, 
and suggest that the planting of grape fruit on a 
large scale might be a good idea, as the fruit is 
getting to be a very great favorite in the East. 

C. B. Hewitt gave the following description of this 
fruit in the Crown Vista : They ripen about March 
1st to 15th in Florida, and are good until July. In 
southern California they will ripen fully two months 
later and be at their best when such a refreshing 
fruit is m the greatest demand — during the warm 
weather. When fully ripe the color of the rind is a 
chrome yellow. The leaves of the tree are much like 
the orange, although larger, more waxy and a 
darker green when fully matured. It is a very rapid 
grower, one-third larger than the seedling orange at 
the same age, a profuse bloomer and very fragrant. 
I saw one tree that measured nearly seven feet in 
circumference and over 40 feet in height, but it is 
over 30 years old, and bore between six thousand and 
seven thousand fruit, weighing on an average over 
one pound each. This seems a big story; however, 
if any one doubting this statement wishes to go to 
the trouble to investigate, I can procure the proof. 
I have heard of still greater trees. 

The Sphinx Moth and Jimson Weed. 

The Tulare Jtcgister objects to the advice to destroy 
the jimson weed because the sphinx moth takes to 
it. It says : 

Our idea on the subject is just the opposite. 
While we had not discovered that the sphinx moth 
deposited its eggs in the jimison weed, we are aware 
that its habits are to fly, mostly at twilight, and 
hover about the flowers of the jimson, sucking there- 
from the honey by means of a long, slender proboscis. 
We would advise the protection of the weed, and, by 
its assistance, exterminate the moth. One means is, 
put in each flower a few drops of sweetened water, 
containing Paris green or other poison. Another is, 
in the evening stick in the groimd among the bushes 
a lighted coal-oil torch. The moth will fly into the 
flame and be burned. By the poison or the torch 
we rid ourselves of the prime cause. If we destroy 
the weed they will deposit their eggs somewhere 

This poisoning of jimson flowers may be feasible 
enough, but who will go to that trouble? Entomo- 
logical experience favors stamping out favorite 
breeding places of insects rather than cherishing 
them to save something else. Make the pathway of 
the pest as rough as possible. If favorite breeding 
places are destroyed, a good part of the insects will 
never find any other. 

Progress of the Black Scale Killed. 

It seems likely that the Rhizobins wntraUs may 
prove as valuable in its way as the Vedalia has in its 
line. We have hitherto alluded to Mr. EUwood 
Cooper's favorable observations on this important 
austral ladybu'd, but it seems that the half has not 
been told about it. The other half is supplied by T. 
N. Snow in the Santa Barbara Press. He recites 
the fact that Mr. Cooper had failed to cope with the 
black scale with washes; that several species of Cal- 
ifornia ladybirds did not have ade<iuate eating power, 

and he was somewhat discouraged about the pest 
which was destroying his olive trees. A little more 
than two years ago about 50 Rhizohi; were brought 
to the orchard and colonized. They advanced at 
such a rapid rate that in October, 1893, State Quar- 
antine Officer, Alexander Craw, visited Ellwood and 
secured over 500 colonies (numbering more than 
10,000), which he sent to various parts of the State 
for colonization. His report at that time was vei-y 
flattering. The Rhizobii were multiplying rapidly, 
and the work done by them was beyond expectation. 

According to Mr. Snow's account, on June 27, 1894, 
Mr. Craw again visited Ellwood. He went to the 
orchard where he spent a week so pleasantly with 
his friends, the Rlu'zohii, last fall, and not one of 
them was there to welcome him. Not one hlock scalr 
was left of all that mighty army to tell the tale of 
slaughter. Mr. Craw wandered about Ellwood till 
he came into another olive orchard, where, to his 
surprise, he met the Rhizoljii, which, having cleared 
their former field, had transferred their forces to 
new grounds and were routing the black scales in 
every direction. He told Mr. Snow, on the 6th inst., 
that by next November he believed there would not 
be a black scale remaining in Ellwood. Mr. Cooper 
now declares his intention of breeding black scales 
in order to feed the Rliizohil, and thus induce them 
to remain at Ellwood. 

Olive Oil Machinery. 

To work well and economically with olives good 
machinery is necessary, and probably the outlay 
needed to .secure it will be cjuickly returned in the 
greater yield of oil from the fruit. It may, however, 
be necessary sometimes to rely at first perhaps, on 
cheap appliances and home-made devices. J. G. C, 
who, if we mistake not, is the Oroville judge who has 
done much in that region for the olive, gives the 
Riffistir an account of how he proceeded with his 
equijimcnt for last year, as follows: 

We corresponded with stone workers in Sacra- 
mento and San Francisco with regard to a granite 
crusher, but Robie of Chico gave prices most in 
keeping with a poor man's pocket book, and we 
obtained an excellent stone from the Chico marble 
works, 24 inches in diameter and 12 inches face. To 
this was attached a long pole for working with horse 
power and often adding sundry contractions for 
scraping olives into the track of the wheel, etc., we 
had an olive crusher at a cost of less than $20 that 
was entirely satisfactory in every respect. 

A press was next in order. A perforated cylinder 
of galvanized iron was obtained from San Francisco 
to receive the crushed olives. The press was evolved 
from trees growing upon Magalia Ridge, and was set 
up in a new building erected for a blacksmith shop. 
This press was quite a stupendous affair, consisting 
of a powerful double lever of heavy hewn timbers. 
The pressure was immense, and the first lever a foot 
or more in thickness, was soon bent out of shape. 
This was replaced by a hewn timber two feet thick, 
and with this we managed to finish our i)ressing, but 
it is bent so that it cannot be used again. The cash 
output of the entire plant, exclusive of labor, was less 
than fifty dollars. With this rude machinery 
the yield of oil was about a gallon to fifty-six pounds 
of berries. 


Native Ferns on Santa Cruz Island. 

Some of our readers whose outing may take them 
to the islands adjacent to our southern coast may be 
interested hi fern hunting. Recently we gave a 
sketch of Santa Catalina Island. Near Santa Bar- 
bara is Santa Cruz Island, and there Dr. Yates of 
Santa Barbara, so well known for fern studies, made 
an exploration, of which he sends a note to the May- 
flower. We quote as follows: 

Twenty-five miles south of Santa Barbara, Califor- 
nia, and separated from the mainland by the waters 
of the Pacific, lies a lovely island composed of vol- 
canic rock, risuig in abrupt perpendicular bluff's from 
the ocean. These bluff's vary in height from a few 
feet to several hundred feet, and arc worn into fis- 
sures and caves by the combined action of the rain, 
wind and the beating of the ever-movuig waves. 
From the top of these bluff's the island rises rapidly, 
presenting a sky line of mountains running from one 
end to. the other, a distance of some twenty-five 

In one of the most interesting caves of the bluff's is 
found, growing in profusion, a rare fern, PoijuxxJium 
Saiuli ri, clinging to the rougli basaltic walls and in 
the cr(>vic('s of the bluff' with such tenacity that it is 
difficult to detach the plants without breaking the 
rhizomes and tearing the flesh of one's fingers on the 
jagged rocks. This is a peculiarly isolated habitat 
for this fern, as its presence has not been noted south 
of this point, except at Guadeloupe Island, some 300 
miles distant, and to the north for a distance of 
nearly 300 miles, with the single exception of a small 


rocky islet along the coast about 100 miles north. 
The localities in which it has been noted are very 

In the .small strcam.s of this island (Santa Cruz), 
which empty into the 0(_'t'an, and at a short distance 
from the shore, matrnificent masses of Wnotlwuriliit 
rti<licmtx. Adiiiiitiim jxi/afio)! and Adlaiitum l uinrrjiiKitinn 
are found, and in one locality where a stream of clear, 
cold water trickles over the perpendicular face of a 
deep fissure, I recently discovered some beautiful 
clumps of A.y)/t'iiiit)ii Ji/i.r-/'iiiiiii(i, or "Lady fern,' 
with its soft and delicately-cut, droopinff frond.s, 
i^racefuUy intcrmixinij with those of the WixxltmnUti 
and Ad iti II til III. They were all nestled so closely to- 
gether in the nook as to almost hide the black walls 
and the surface of the stream which flows over the 
bottom of the fissure. 

Fc/liKis and Gf/iniiiif/nimmis are common on the hill- 
sides, and occasionally one side of a ravine or canyon 
ia sparsely dotted with V)unches of (lieihiuthrs iiii/ri- 
iiji/i_i//l(i. with its fronds growing to a height of nearly 
two feet, whereas, on the mainland, six to eight 
inches is a large frond. The fronds of Aih'autum 
pi'ihitiim also exceed in size any specimens which I 
have seen growing elsewhere, the insular climate 
being favorable to its vigorous growth, as it is to 
many other species of plants which arc common to 
the island and the mainland. 

In some instances the growth of a plant on this 
island is so much more vigorous than the same species 
on the adjacent mainland as to lead one to think 
them of different species. 

The State Floral Society. 

The regular monthly meeting was held at the State 
Board of Horticulture on Friday, July 13. President 
Wick.son in the chair and Miss E. S. Ryder as secre- 
tary Jim h III. 

Madame Michel of San Francisco, an old member 
of the society, was placed upon the honory list. 

Miss E. F. Bailey, accountant, reported funds 
enough on hand to pay a portion of th(> .society's in- 
debtedness for the premiums awarded at the rose 
show of 1893, and it was decided that 25 per cent of 
this indebtedness be discharged by the trea.sui-er as 
.soon as feasible. 

Miss Bailey submitted by re(juest a sketch of the 
recent rose show at the Midwinter Fair, which was 
accepted and the committee thanked for its services 
and discharged. 

A ft(>r discussion it was decided that the society 
announce a chrysanthemum show in San Franci.sco 
at days to be hereafter determined in November 
next. The following were appointed a committee to 
take charge of this show: Mrs. R. W. Brehm, 
Berkeley; Mrs. J. R. Martin, San Francisco; Mrs. T. 
\j. Walker, Oakland; Mrs. L. A. Hodgkins, San 
Francisco, and Capt. E. Kellncr of Berkeley. 

Arrangements were made for the next open-air 
meeting of the society, which will be held in Alameda 
on Saturday, July 28, assembling at Park street 
station at 1(1:30 a. .m. Mrs. Daniel Swett, Mrs. 
Stanley Stephenson and Mrs. Olive E. Babcoi-k are 
the local committee in charge of the meeting. 

Mr. Joseph Burtt Davy gave an illustrated lec- 
ture on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London. 
Mr. Davy was formerly assistant at Fvew and is now 
connected with the Department of Botany of the 
State University. His description of the time-hon- 
ored and famous London establishment was very in- 
teresting. We hope at another time to giv(> it in 
these columns, for all California flower lovers know 
of Kew but few know its history, facilities and 

Prof, and Mrs. J. G. Lemmon were present by in- 
vitation and took ))art in the proceednigs of the 
meeting. Mr. Lemmon is chairman for California of 
the organization which was effected at the World's 
Fair for the purpose of securing the adoption of a 
national flower by Congi'ess. It is proposed first to 
have State floral emblems adopted in all the States 
and approved by the Legislatures. When this is 
done the national flower projwsition will be taken up. 
Mrs. Lemmon desires the legal adoption of the 
Eschscholtzia, which was approved by the State 
Floral Society several years ago. This action has 
been ratified, at Mrs. Lemmon's request, by the 
Woman's Relief Corps and by the Midwinter 
Woman's Congress. It has also been approved by 
the California Bankers' Association, in the incorpora- 
tion of it in its insignia. It is now desirable that all 
floral societies and other organizations and indi- 
viduals should take the matter up, so that the neces- 
sary action can be quickly had from the Legislature 
next winter. 

The last hour of the session was charmingly em- 
ployed in discussion of the California wild flowers 
shown at the meeting, from Mr. Davy. The speci- 
mens were from the University Botanic Garden at 
Berkeley, where a good beginning has ali-eady been 
made in installation of the native flora. In a year 
or two this garden will be a well-known I'esort 
among lovers of native plants. 

Mr. Davy made another interesting exhibit, con- 
sisting of sweet peas grown this year from seed 
A'hich he gathered ten years ago from his home gar- 
'^'Mi in England. This shows that sweet pea seed 
-as a good hold upon vitality. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

Japanese Honeysuckle for Hedges. 

There is a growing dissatisfaction, says the Pomona 
I'rogriss, with the cypress hedges that one sees all 
over southern California. As wind-breaks they are 
a success, and along the sides of orchards where pil- 
ferers of fruit are wanted to be kept out they are of 
great use. But they are very dirty for seven 
months in the year; they catch dust, and draw 
heavily on the .supph' of water in the adjoining soil. 
In place of the old-time cypress hedge, a number of 
people have planted the Japanese honeysuckle in the 
past few years, and are pleased with it for hedge 
purposes. Of course a rude framework or wire 
fencing must be provided on which to train it. It 
has long, flexible branchlets, terminated by the 
fragrant blossoms, red outside, nearly vvhit(^ within. 
Plant from three to six feet apart and weave the 
branches as they grow in and out among the larger 
ones. It will soon cover the fence, and blooms pro- 
fusely in June. Another variety, the Lonirmi fni- 
;/nnitix.simii. is a winter bloomer, is evergreen and 
the most fragrant of all honeysuckles. It is an 
erect shrub and grows to a height of six feet. There 
are about eighty species of honeysuckle, and many 
of them are desirable for hedge purposes. 

Ja y 21, 1894. 


Hints on Fruit Drying. 

The Rural has given very full descriptions of fruit- 
drying processes and appliances, but each year there 
is something a little new in each. There are so many 
bright men and women in this business that it is 
likely to present new features and modifications of 
old ones as long as the business is pursued. The June 
number of Pucific Trw and Viiif has some notes of 
present practices in the San Jose region, of which 
we select the following as of interest, especially, 
perhaps, to those new in the work: 

Makino Trays. — Trays are made 3x() and 3x8 feet, 
the later p!-actice being the larger size. Trays hold 
from two to three pounds of fruit per square foot, 
according to variety of fruit. Sides, ends and lath 
are of Oregon pine; redwood shakes for bottoms. 
White fir looks nice, but in the end is not cheapest. 
They say it warps. Redwood does not stain badly if 
well seasoned. The sides and ends are 1x3 inches. 
Make a good work bench, 5 feet wide and !t feet long, 
and on it nail timbers, making a f(n-m to keep the 
tray material in exact shape while being nailed to- 
gether. After the shakes are put on, a lath is nailed 
along the ends and center. A piece of scantling of 
proper size and length, covered with a plate of iron, 
will clinch the nails of the center lath as they are 
driven at a small angle from the perpendicular. 
Some put on corners of hoop iron for extra strength. 

Gathering. — F'ruit must be ripe. Apricots may 
be more so than peaches and nectarines, which must 
be firm enough to cut. Avoid over-ripeness, and, 
above all, greenness. Let prunes be ripe. Best 
dryers pick from the ground without shaking, or very 
light. You can use some of the canvas arrangements 
if you shake lightly. Smooth the ground under the 
trees with a rake, and we have seen a small hand 
roller used with good effect. 

Prei'arino. — Cut apricots and peaches with a 
clean cut. Put fruit on trays as fast as cut, 
and get into sulphur house as soon as pos- 
sible. The trays are run in on a car. The 
market demands that all cut fruit be well sul- 
phured. Prunes should be dipped in hot lye 
water to dissolve the varnished coating of the skin to 
make them dry quickly. There are very perfect 
dipping machines, and machines that spread on trays. 
Operators use from one pound lye to 30 gallons water 
to one pound lye to 10 gallons; the stronger the less 
time it takes to cut. The machines rinse in clear 
water after dipping. An operator gets expert soon. 

GRAniNO. — Grade all prunes before drying. If you 
grade into .six or seven sizes while green, and the 
prunes are from the same class of country and all 
treated the same as to irrigation, they will dry evenly 
and need not be graded after, but generally the grad- 
ing is closer when graded again after drying. It 
goes without saj'ing that grades must be kept sepa- 
rate in the drying field. A little square of wood with 
the proper number on it may be placed in each tray, 
or other way of keeping track. 

Curing. — Dry until the water is out and the flesh 
begins to feel quite firm. You will soon learn the 
proper feeling to the hand. Then stack the trays 
for a day or two and the fruit will further cure and 
yet be pHable. Remove from trays to, 
each grade in a bin or pile by it.self, till cured. Ex- 
amine often and carefully. The fruit will go through 
a sweat and cure perfectly if put into piles when in 
the proper condition. To dry fruit down till it is 
like a lot of dry bones is a mistake. It may keep 
well and gain in weight while in transit East, but the 
flavor is gone and cannot be fully restored by subse- 
quent dipping. Apricots which are so soft when cut 

as to lose their shape are technically called " slabs." 
They taste better than they look, ' but do not .sell 
well. Pick them out. and all discolored pieces, and 
keep separate. 

Drying Olives. 

Some of our olive growers may like to try drying 
some of the next crop. We give the advice of two 
driers who commend the practices they describe. 
One is Mr. Wm. Pfeffcr of (Jubserville, who gives the 
Trii' iiiid. Vinv the following: 

As olives ripen during our rainy season, it requires, for the 
drying of olives, a sheltered place where the rain cannot fall 
on the fruit and where there is free circulation of pure air. 1 
think it is not a good plan to dry in the sun, if we had the 
chani-e to do so. I have not tried this way yet, but am in- 
clined to believe that the »h>\v drying process" in the shade has 
something to do with the disappearance of the bitterness in 
the olives. 

I use for the drying of olives the common fruit trays. The 
time required depends on the weather and the time "of vear; 
thus Missions laid out in December may not be dry enough to 
be taken from the trays in two months," while the .same kind 
laid out late in March may be rattling dry in three to fcur 
weeks. Much rainy weather delays the drying, fair weather 
hastens the proi-ess. I take care to pick the olives from the 
tree when in a dead-ripe condition, and lay them on the dry- 
ing trays just the way they come from the trees, without any 
manipulation whatever. 

When olives are thus dried I put them in .sacks or bo.\es, 
sprinkling with fine table salt. Salt is in some degree a pre- 
servative, and it aUso keejw the olives, in dry weather, from 
becoming tt)o hard for direct table use. Olive's thus preiiared 
and kept in a dry place keep for years. I have some now over 
two years old, and in spite of careless keeping they are yet in 
fair eating condition. 

We understand that Mr. Pfeffer advises serving 
the dry olives without preparation for the table. 
The Pomona Tim>x states that Mr. J. H Packard is 
of the opinion that the dried ripe olive does need 
preparation for the table, and at this time he has 
about 100 gallons in the preparatory process. He 
puts them in vats of water and soaks them about .30 
days. He finds this vastly improves them — in fact, 
makes them about equal in desirability to the pickled 
fruit fresh from the tree. He is confident that by 
his preparation the dried ripe olive will not only be 
popularized, but that it will serve to extend the use 
of the olive throughout the entire year instead of 
from half to two-thirds of the year as at present. 

It really seems as though both of these processes 
could be improved upon .somewhat. It takes Mr. 
Pfeffer two months to get the moistun^ out of the 
olive and Mr. Packard one month to get it back in 
again before eating. There is one-quarter of the 
year consumed in processing. How can it be better 


A Disease Which Puzzles Mr. Pennebaker. 

To THE Editor: — I have thought for two or three 
years of making some inquiry through your valuable 
paper concerning a disease which for four or five 
years has afflicted my jioultry. I have read every 
article on poultry growing in the Rural Press, as 
I have been a continuous subscriber (save for six 
months) since the first number was issued, but I have 
never yet noticed any disease described which afflicts 
the bird in the same way that .some of mine .suffer. 

Five years ago I had the Plymouth Rock breed, 
which did well for awhile, when they became un- 
healthy, sickened, and many died, seemingly without 
any visible disorder. They died on the nest, died on 
the run, fell dead from the roof^t, when seemingly in 
good health. In 1891 I decided to cross with 
thoroughbred Brown Leghorn. My first cross was 
black hens and Plymouth Rock males. The disease 
still followed them up. They would get lame in one 
foot or leg. very soon lame in both limbs, then they 
wcnild lie down, having lost the use of their limbs 
entirely, and flounder about on the ground or in the 
hospital coop till relieved by death. My loss for a 
year would average about one a week. 

About that date 1 sold my old farm and moved on 
to a new place where poultry never had been raised. 
Every building about the premises was new; every- 
thing was clean and healthy for man or beast. I had 
a new water ditch of 20 cubic feet capacit}' running 
within 50 yards of my barn and poultry house and 
yard. I removed two dozen hens from my old home 
to the new one, selecting a group that had always 
roosted away from the poultry house, on willow 
trees, and was to every appearance in perfect health. 
In a few months they began to show symptoms of 
same disease by moping around for days or weeks, 
then suddenly dropping dead. Others would show 
symptoms of roup or swelled head, others would go 
blind, with a slight dist^oloring of the pupil of the 
eye, while others fell from the roost dead without 
previously showing any signs of disease, and still 
some died in the nest. Now, will some of your valu- 
able contributors on jwultry tell us through your col- 
umns what the ailment is from which I am now losing 
from one or two every week"? 

Doubtless some of your readers will say it is for 
want of proper care in clean house and good food. I 
wish to say we have about 150 fowls all told. My 
laying house is. separate from the roosts, where all 

July 21, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press 

have ample room, with roosts level, four feet high. 
The place is kept clean, whitewashed two or three 
times each summer. The old nests are removed and 
burned and new nests made of alfalfa hay. Besides 
the water ditch I have boxes filled from hydrants 
three to five times every day with fresh water with 
an occasional mixture of carbolic acid dropped into 
the box. There are alfalfa fields on three sides of 
the poultry house, with a run on 20 acres. I feed 
Egyptian corn, soaked barley, boiled wheat, and at 
night dry, clean wheat, with milk once every day. 
There is an abundance of charcoal, and at times 
bluestoned wheat, with all the scraps from the table 
of crumbs, vegetables, meats, etc. I have also tried 
carbolic acid in bottles swung under the roost, in 
half- pint bottles with stoppers removed, and allowed 
to evaporate, and sulphur in bottom of nests. I use 
a little kerosene over the roosts with a paint brush. 
For those that have roup I have a mixture recom- 
mended of equal parts of oil, turpentine and carbolic 
acid, putting three drops in the mouth three times 
a day and rubbing over the swollen parts with the 
same mixture, always taking care to remove a bird 
to the hospital when found complaining, where they 
are feeding on bran mash, or cornmeal, or a mixture 
of both; but nine of every ten die sooner or later. 
Now, what it is and a remedy for it is what the un- 
dersigned would be pleased to know. 

Visalia, Cal., July 2, 1894. W. G. Pennebaker. 

Who can give a hint on this trouble? Our corre- 
spondent's outfit and regimen seem to be unexcep- 
tionable. Who can pick a flaw in his practice? It 
will be an interesting discussion if all would say what 
they think of the case. 

More Valley Methods. 

Mrs. F. Wear of Bakersfield, whose experience we 
have had the pleasure of twice describing in her own 
words in the Rural during the last few weeks, gives 
the Califorin'd Cnlf! valor another chapter of her 
methods which all will read with profit. She pre- 
sents her practice under several headings as follows: 

fst. Two years old is the usual age to keep hens, 
although I have hens that are three years that are 
still fine layers and the eggs hatch well. I never dis- 
pose of all my old hens, but keep a pen of the best. 

2d. The best breed to keep, if only one is kept, 
for profit is the Brown Leghoi'n. They are good 
layers and the bi'oilers are ready for market at six 
weeks. I thhik when wheat and grain are high that 
there is more profit in selling broilers at six weeks 
old at 25 or 80 cents than to wait longer for other 
breeds that bring 50 cents. Then all that are left 
over can be disposed of at fancy prices. 

3d. My exact treatment for little chicks from 
time of hatching until six weeks old is as follows: 
As I said in my first article, I have a coop (5x30 feet, 
divided into three parts. This coop is stationary and 
was built for winter use. In cold weather I keep the 
hen confined in this coop until the chicks ai-e one 
month old. But in spring and summer I have what 
I call my summer nursery coop, made of two-inch 
lumber, covered top and sides with half-inch mesh 
netting, so light that I can pick them up and move 
them around. As it is impossible to raise chickens 
with young and old mixed up together without get- 
ting them full of lice, and the smaller ones being 
underfed, to say nothing of being run over and 
trampled, I never keep my coops in the breeding 
yards, and as I have only one acre, and live in town, 
I have to utilize every space possible, so I have taken 
my front yard for my nursery. It is planted in olue 
grass and ornamental shrubs, and has an ornamental 
fountain in the center. In this yard I place my 
summer coops with the hens, and keep them there 
until the little chicks are six weeks old. The first 
week I feed about four times per day, di"y bread, 
crumbled, cracked wheat and table scraps, with 
plenty of sweet and sour milk — all they will drink. 
I grease the head and under the wings of the hen 
with mercurial ointment, and you need not fear of 
any vermin, when this ointment is used, either on 
young or old, but care must be taken not to let them 
get wet, as that would be certain death. 

I give about 25 to 40 chicks to each hen in summer 
and about 15 in winter. Care must be taken to not 
overfeed little chicks — only give what they will eat 
up clean at each meal, for if it is left it will become 
sour and unfit for food. 

My front yard has no fence and opens on to the 
street; and as I have over 300 little chicks, ranging 
in size from one week to two months, on the lawn, 
you may imagine it attracts a good deal of attention. 

I have one turkey hen that beats any brooder I 
ever saw. She will take any number given to her 
and has at present 40 little chicks, and is confined 
in one of the coops mentioned, and they swarm 
around it like a drove of bees. I keep the hen con- 
fined until the chicks are about six weeks old. 

4th. Weakness in incubator chicks, as near as I 
can tell, is from two causes — overheat in the egg 
drawer or weakness of parents. If from the first 
cause, feeding bonemeal will remedy nine cases out 
of ten. If the latter, I have found nothing that is 

5th. I use the Douglas mixture as a tonic; also 

tincture of iron which is just as good; one table- 
spoonful to one gallon of water. Use it until they 
show bright and healthy-looking head and eyes, then 

I had a few chickens hatched in the incubator with 
their feet doubled up like bolts so that they could 
not straighten them when they walked. Others 
walked on their knees. I fed bonemeal and I will 
give my method for straightening their feet. I cut 
out what I call a pasteboard shoe and bound the foot 
on this tightly. They wore this shoe one day and 
night and then they walked as straight as any 
chicken. I give my laying hens a tablespoonful of 
sulphur in soft food twice a week. This makes them 
moult early, but in winter it makes them more liable 
to take cold, so instead of sulphur I gave ginger and 
red pepper. I keep about 15 to each pen, and no 
matter how much I wish to keep more in each yard, 
I sell all surplus stock, for overcrowding would bring 
on disease. 

6th. "Do chickens recover from roup?" Most 
certainly they do and become as good as ever. If 
they did not, most fanciers would have to go out of 
the business. I have some prize stock that has gone 
through a siege of roup, and that, at the present 
writing, cannot be beaten in the State; and had any- 
one seen them during the disease, they would not 
have given me ten cents for them. 

7th. The best feed for general use is pure wheat — 
not screenings. While it is the most expensive, it is 
the cheapest in the long run. A small amount boiled 
will answer for cooked food, and swells to twice its 
amount dry. 

8th. My experience is more limited in raising 
turkeys and I lose some of the young ones, but I will 
give my plan. I keep the hen cooped the same as for 
little chickens. I give them no feed until the second 
day, then I feed them dry corn bread, made with 
milk, a little salt, red pepper and bonemeal, baked 
and crumbled dry. Give them milk to drink and let 
them run on the lawn. I have fair luck with them, 
but would like to hear from others on the subject. 


What Governor Markham Thinks About 
Good Roads. 

Governor Markham has prepared his views on 
California road-making for (Hood Ro<t<h, a monthly 
magazine published at Boston by the League of 
American Wheelmen. The article must have been 
pi-epared before the present unpleasantness, else it 
might be thought that the Governor's attention 
might have been drawn to the subject because it 
looked at one time as though he might have to walk 
from Pasadena to Sacramento. 

Naturally, in writing of the road movement in Cali- 
fornia for Eastern readers. Governor Markham had 
to introduce many facts already familiar to Rural 
readers.' These we shall disregard in preparing a 
review of his writing for our columns. We shall pro- 
duce only those portions which show what our Gov- 
ernor thinks should stimulate us to better road- 
making, and his opinion of present laws bearing upon 
that subject. 

The Old and New Systems. — The good-roads 
movement is of recent origin in California. Previous 
to the past year but two counties had given atten- 
tion to road economics as now understood, and even 
in these counties the activity was confined to that 
class of roads known as gravelled highways, and 
which do not stand first among roads. 

The State is one of vast proportions. Its extent 
is so great, its soil conditions, its altitudes, tempera- 
ture, and geological formations so peculiar, that it 
may well be said that no general system of road con- 
struction or road laws can well be made applicable 
to all sections of the State. 

For these reasons among others, our road legisla- 
tion has never been satisfactory. We are now, how- 
ever, operating under a law that is a closer approach 
to the ideal than any we had prior to last year, be- 
cause it moves on the principle that that government 
is best which is brought closest to the people. Under 
this law it is quite possible for the people of any sec- 
tion to set up a system suited to their local condi- 
tions and needs. Under it they can vote almost any 
expenditure they choose for road purposes, and for 
any system that most impresses them. 

Good road material is plentiful in the foothill and 
coast counties, as a rule, but, excepting gravel 
which cannot be classed as among the best, is, as a 
rule, scarce in the valley sections, involving a consid- 
erable cost for fiauling. 

Great Cost and Poor Roads. — Clearly the people 
of California, up to the time of the recent road con- 
vention in Sacramento, were unaware that they were 
pursuing a road practice far more costly than one 
that would give them permanent good roads; at 
least the few who realized the wastefulness of the 
prevalent system had failed to make much of an im- 
pression upon the public mind in that direction. The 
county surveyors made such a showing of bad eco- 
nomic and physical conditions that amazed the people. 
For instance, in one of the largest fruit-growing 
counties it was shown, in the ten years next before 

1893, more money had been expended on road work, 
by some thousands of dollars, than would have built 
300 miles of permanent macadam 16-foot road, and 
have paid for maintenance of the same for the ten 
years, interest on the aggregate sum at five per cent 
per annum, and have provided a sinking fund to dis- 
charge the principal in five-year payments, in 20 or 
25 years, while all the time the county would have 
enjoyed the benefits accruing from the improved 
roads. Yet the surveyor reported that in Sacra- 
mento county in 1893 there "was not one mile of 
road worthy to be called good," and that all the 
highways the county had could be duplicated for a 
small sum, say $25,000, or even a third less. 

Sentiment on Good Roads. — We in California are 
now thoroughly impressed with the fact that good 
roads mean advanced civilization, better conditions 
of society, economic and better living, ease of trans- 
portation, saving of time — the most precious of capi- 
tal — and the broadening of the invitation to live rural 
lives instead of flocking into cities and towns. We 
daily realize that all the blessings that flow from 
firm, humane, smooth, rapid, well-kept highways 
elsewhere, will here, under our favoring skies and in 
our mild climate, be greatly augmented. 

The convention made itself a pei-manent body. It 
elected an executive committee and an educational 
committee. It declared in favor of wide tires, mac- 
adam roadways, narrower roads, through or main 
trunk lines, and indicated a disposition to favor later 
on a system of State highways. On that point, how- 
ever, there is a great difference of opinion. Most 
Californians, it is believed, think that self-helpful- 
ness will be best conserved by putting road construc- 
tion upon counties alone, since there are sections in 
our State where first-class roads never will be con- 
structed, and which nevertheless pay into our com- 
mon fund considerable sums of money, as in the up- 
per timber and some mining regions, for instance. 

Bonding. — The convention was about evenly di 
vided in advising the issue of bonds to procure means 
to build good road systems at once. The Grange and 
Alliance men, as a I'ule, fought all bond and debt- 
creating propositions, though admitting that the 
present annual expense, under the uneconomic, old- 
fashioned .system of road districts, and dirt and 
gravel roads, undrained and • ill-constructed, is far 
more than the interest on a sum necessary to con- 
struct i)ermanent roads that may be kept in repair 
at low cost, and that in addition the sum expended 
under the present system will in a given group of 
years, say 20, exceed the interest and the principal 
of a sum sufficient to construct and maintain good 
modern roads. 

As a result of that convention there has been more 
practical information disseminated among the peo- 
ple on the road-economics question in the last ten 
months than in the whole preceding years of our 
State history. One county has acted already it has 
borrowed a quarter of a million dollars and has gone 
to work to construct permanent roads. In all the 
counties there has been agitation, public and other 
debates, lectures and Grange discussions on the sub- 
ject, of which they knew little before. Prejudices 
against road engineers have disappeared; scientific 
road-building has gained a hearing; essays on road- 
building have filled the papers and magazines, and on 
all sides there is an enlightenment and the gradual 
disappearance of ignorance and old-time prejudices. 

Why We SnotrLD Have Good Roads. — We need 
good roads because of our great distances, rainless 
months and sparse population. As it is. we are 
crippled badly in transportation of products, for 
want of even passable roads. We are taxed enor- 
mously for bad roads, because of long hauls, broad 
tracks, small population and climatic peculiarities. 
So, too, we find that those who would have come 
among us are repulsed by our road conditions, and 
will not be convinced that behind our poor highways 
lie rich possibilities, which, if told, would sound like 
romantic tales. They are accustomed to judge com- 
munities by their highways, and to expect only pov- 
erty, laziness and unthrift behind ragged, ill-kept, 
dusty, rutted, and, at some seasons, impassable roads. 

We are becoming a horticultural State pre-emi- 
nently, and fruit carriage to market for shipment is 
of first importance to us, and in it good, sn)ooth 
roads mean larger gains. We are a tourist State, 
and good drives are a necessity to us. We are an 
agricultural State, with lands richer than fabulous 
mines and capable of supporting five millions of peo- 
ple easily. But we cannot sell lands to people who 
cannot approach them, except with the greatest dis- 
comfort. These are but a few of the reasons peculiar 
to California that assure us that our people will not 
let the good-road agitation die out. As a rule, the 
people here are not in favor of national appropria- 
tion for road purposes. It is not deemed a proper 
function of P^ederal government. All such work is 
State work and should be State work alone, in order 
to encourage self-helpfulness. 

A rain-maker in India has an apparatus, consist- 
ing of a rocket capable of rising to the height of a 
mile, containing a reservoir of ether. In its descent 
it opens a parachute, which causes it to come down 
slowly. The ether is thrown out in fine spray, and 
its absorption of heat is said to lower the temperature 
about it sufficiently to condense the vapor and pro- 
duce a limited shower. — Atlanta Constitution. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 21, 1894. 


From Sutter County. 

To THE Editor : — I venture into your presence 
under the above caption because our county, though 
one of the smallest of the agricultural counties in the 
State, is again assuming a very important position 
in the family of counties. Since a month ago harvest 
In its fullest sense is engaging the minds and muscle 
of our people, with a result that is truly astonishing. 
Your readers will remember that during the spring 
months these jottings were liopeful beyond appear- 
ances that our glorious little county would yet 
redeem her wliilom reputation for good crops in 
spite of the then dry and piping north winds. Past 
seasons of similar ])r()j)ensities were shown to have 
dispelled anxiety l)y magnificent May weather and 
full crops. True, as was said by many, March and 
April and the forepart of May were more than usually 
un propitious for the husbandman, and no former 
sea.son had yielded such a crop of north wind. Our 
faith was put to the severest test, but events proved 
that om- confidence had not been misplaced. The 
cool weather of May and June and the light showers 
brt)ught forward a full average crop of grain of ex- 
cellent cjuality. The harvesters, as they traverse 
the fields propelled by steam and horse, i-eturn the 
farmer fi"om Kt to 20 sacks of grain to the acre. 
These contain about two and a quarter bu.shels each, 
hence the yield runs from 2(1 to 45 bushels per acre 
of wheat and Inu'ley, and in some instances astonish- 
ing yields are rei)orted. even as high as 70 l)ushels 
of barley to the acre. Of course here and there a 
lighter yield it met with, which, however, has l)een 
the case in the best of seasons, and not always the 
result of poor farming. 

Add to the above story the largest and best fruit 
crop in the history of the county, and you will have 
no difficulty in placing it in the front rank with all 
the counties of the State. 15ut oui- position is con- 
ceded and the struggle for preservation from the 
horrible nightmare of hydraulic nining, in which the 
county took an honoi'able and leading ])art, is fast 
I'cceding out of vision, leaving the i)rinciple intact for 
which we have contended, nanuMy: Enjoying your 
own j)ropei-ty in such a uumner as not to injure 
that of another pei'son." 

For economic reasons our county failed to make 
much of a show at the Midwinter Fair, but her people 
wei-e admiring visitors to Sunset City. I feel safe in 
saying there were scores of Sutterites to be seen at 
the great exposition every day of its existeni-e. The 
writer took advantage of excui'sion !'ates late in the 
season and entered tlie city on the last train before 
the general strike, and had the ]>leasure of retui-ning 
home by water. The i-oute was through San Fran- 
ci.sco, San Pablo and Suisun bays; Sacramento river 
to its jun<'tion with Feather i-iver, to Yulja City or 
Mai-ysville. the Feather river lying between the two 
])laces. The bays and a greatei- portion of the Sac- 
ramento river wei-e seen, which was greatly enjoyed 
by a large nundjer of jjassengers on board the 
Apache. In the by-gone steamer days this ti'ip was 
made in the night-time, hence this daylight vision 
was sonu'thing new and very enjoyable to all. For 
tlie first time have 1 seen this magnificent water 
highway by daylight, and can appreciate better than 
ever the wealth of the country bordering on this 

fn fertility these lands cannot i)e excelled on the 
gk)be, and for the entire reach of river from its 
mouth to Sacramento city, a distance of (iO miles or 
more, it is under th(> highest state of cultivation. 
Those ])ortions nearest the river being higher than 
farther back, is devoted to fruits of all kinds. To 
me it- seemed like an unbi-oken line of orchards on 
both sides the entire distance of at least 50 miles. A 
number of flourishing towns were visible among the 
stately oaks, walnut trees and other forest and fruit 
trees; and the entire distance was lined with fair to 
line farm residences, and not a few mansions were 
seen to guat'd this noble river from their i)leasant 

The fruit harvest being on, the customary numer- 
ous population was yet Tuore dense; and, it being on 
the Fourth of July, the day was being celebrated 
with music, anvils, fire-crackers and noise generally, 

and our steamer being saluted at every landing made 
it seem like passing through a grand continuous 

It is the trade of this matchless country that sup- 
l)orts daily lines of steamers to and from San Fran- 
cisco. To them the strike makes little difference, as 
they come and go by the river; i>ut the river is of 
inestimable value to them, hence we find them fight- 
ing for its preservation and improvement, and what 
country under the sun tit for the abode of man would 
not. Vei-il\'. the artificial injury to such a stream 
is the everlasting disgi-ace of the century, and our 
"sober second thought '" came not a day too soon. 

Above the City of the Plains the aralile strip along 
the river is not so wide and not so generally im- 
proved, but it is growing and the same spirit of 
progress is manifest everywhere. Twenty-two miles 
above Sacramento the smaller streams enter Feather 
river, and after an hour's ride the old town of 
Nicolaus is reached. This was once the county seat 
of Sutter county. It stands in the midst of a most 
fertile region, which is lai-gely going over (vom wheat 
and barley to corn, hops, alfalfa and stock. Navi- 
gation is yet good, but is difHcult during the low 
stage of water owing to the filling uj) of the channel 
by hydraulic mining on its tributaries. I will not 
burden this letter with a recital of the wrongs 
endured and the fierce battle waged to right them. 
It is a matter of history. 

A few miles above Nicolaus the bank lands widen 
to many miles, and the country is dotted all over 
with highly cultivated farms and farm dwellings and 
ra])idly growing and multiplying orchards and vine- 
yards which are taking the })lace of wheat and 
l)arl<\y fields. No better country lays out of doors 
and no better people reside within. 

At 4::^0 p. M. our little craft pulled up at Yuba 
City, its passengers the second day out from San 
Francisco. We .shall more than evei" appreciate the 
value of our rivers. 

But, Mr. Editor, I started out to say something 
about our last Grange meeting, and I wandered so 
far from my intentions that I will not attempt to do 
it justice if I could. It was the first evening meet- 
ing in a dtizen years, was largely attended and enter- 
tained with a most interesting pi-ogramme. 

Yuba City, July 10, 181I4. (iEoROE Ohleyer. 

The Nationalization of Railroads -Objections. 

To THE Editor: — In two former letters I have dis- 
cussed the possibility and the desirability of our 
Government owning the national highways — the rail- 
roads. Kindly allow me a little space to consider 
the objections commonly urged against the pi'oject. 

These are chiefly two — the political and the finan- 
cial. The objector on political grounds states that 
our Government is already too huge a machine; and 
were railroad operatives made employes of the Gov- 
ernment, it would place an t)verwhelming force in 
the hands of the party in power, by which it could 
eternally perpetuate itself in office and uninterrupt- 
edly loot the Treasury. 

The answer to this is very simple and wondei-fully 
easy. Discard the damnable doctrine, '"To the vic- 
tors the spoils;" appoint as your officials men proved 
personally com]ietent and let them hold their ap- 
pointment so long as competent, good behavior be- 
ing, of course, a part of the needed competence. As 
a proof that such a thing is quite possible, I need but 
refer to our army and navy. No Administration, so 
far as I am acquainted with history, ever dreamed of 
turning out all the rank and file because they differed 
in o))inion on political affairs. From lowliest drum- 
mer boy to proudest general, not one soldier fears 
any Damoclean sword of party vengeance. 

Organize your national railroad service on a sim- 
ilar sensible and .solid basis — aye, organize your 
whole civil service on this sensible, solid basis — and 
all fears of a corrupt political machine at once vanish. 
Your politics will no longer stink in your own nos- 
trils, nor stink to heaven. Your American eagle 
may then soar as it should in the azure heaven of 
l)urity and not, as now, grovel with bedraggled 
wings and corrupt carcass, defiled and begorged 
with the carrion of corruption — railroad corruption 
chiefly at that. 

Further, many roads are already in the hands of 

Government receivers, but I have yet to learn of Mr. 
Cleveland replacing any Republican officials by 
others of his own party. 

The financial difficulty sets forth that this nation is 
t(xi poor to own its railroads. It is quite a while 
since I went to sch(X)l to study mathematics, but 1 
can recall, after 35 years of business life, one of the 
axioms my teacliers drove into me, and I never yet 
met a man to gainsay that axiom — "a whole is 
greater than its pai-t." But that is exactly what 
those who uphold this financial objection do main- 
tain when their argument is boiled down. A jxirt of 
the nation — the railroad capitalists — is rich enough 
to own the railroads, but the ic/io/r nation is too poor 
to own them. Why is this thus ? Some may urge 
that foreign capitalists own the railroads; for argu- 
ment's sake, grant this. The fact remains that the 
loans were made to American capitalists, who are 
/ifiii of the American nation; the security for the 
loans is American, and but of American securi- 
ties. If jxtrf of the nation t-ould obtain that foreign 
capital, surely the irlntli nation could olitain as much 
without difficulty. So I think we may safely con- 
clude that the American nation is not too poor to 
own its railroads, even if they are worth $10,000.- 

The most ardent advocate of private ownership 
will admit that immense economies are possible un- 
der centralized control of railroads. I need not here 
repeat what I urged in my last letter, that the sav- 
ings in this respect alone under Government control 
might V)e enormous. 1 refer to them now for this 
reason, that it seems likely they might amount to 
one-half of one per cent per annum on the total valu- 
ation of all railroads. 

This one-half of one per cent per annum used as a 
sinking fund would pay oil' the whole proposed bonded 
indebtediu'ss of $10,000,000,000 in a term of 83 years. 
The nation would then own its railroads and be free 
from all interest charges. Meanwhile, the property 
for which it assumed the indebtedness would, in all 
human ])roi)al)ility, have increased in value may fold. 
So that in shouldering this vast mountain of debt we 
are not incumbering the nation with an ever-increas- 
ing incubus, but are at once lightening our own bur- 
dens and those of posterity. 

Moreover, it liardly needs any very trenchant pen 
to impenetrate the convictions of your readers re- 
gai'ding the tremendous financial loss they are incur- 
ring just at jnvsent for lack of govei-nmental owner- 
ship. The disaster and distress, not only pecuniary, 
but social, caused by the present railroad imbroglio, 
would be cheaply averted by even a large annual 
deficit under national control of what are practically 
our national highways. As to the nation's right to 
purchase its roads, 1 presume if the Government can 
confer on some few of its citizens a right of eminent 
domain, it can assume that right, under equitable 
conditions, for the benefit of all its citizens. 

Monterey. July 14, 1894. Ei)W. Berwick. 


To THE EniTon:— What is the best means or treatment for 
removinff windfalls from a yearliug filly. I know that in older 
horses uiul of lonp standing they are generally considered in- 
curable, but (x'rhaps in the case of a young animal it may be of 
use to treat them. It has one puff only, on the hind leg. 

Si BscKiiiEH, Walnut Creek. 


Windgalls are easily cured, whether the horse is 
young or old. Several years ago they were con- 
sidered incurable, but the veterinary science at this 
advanced period makes light of such things. My ad- 
vice is to blister with the following: 

Mercury bin iodide 1 part. 

Simple cerate ti {»rts. 

Tie her head up so she cannot bite the leg for a few 
days, then wash gently with warm wat(>r and castile 
soaj), then put on vaseline. In old, long-standing 
cases windgalls are trt'aled by tapping the sack by 
means of a hollow needle and airtight bottle, with 
necessary tubing. Then, after removing the oily 
fluid, inject in dilute iodine tmcture, after which a 
catharides or Spanish fly blister is applied. In the 
beginning, windgalls, bog spavins and thoroughpin 
can be ])revented by applying the 4-Ace liniment, 
hand rubbing and ct)ld water bandaging after driv- 
ing. Dr. E. J. Creelev, D. V. S. 

510 Golden Gate Avenue. 

Send for 



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thau other mills thai are oUed. Prac- 
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durability and sim^)licity. Governs 
itself perfectly, is easily erected, and is 
sold on its merits: in fact, U is the 
best mill on earth. The mill is made 
entirely of Steel and Oast Iron. Kach 
one of our Gem Windmills is Kuuraii 


We carry a full line all kinds Humps — for hand, wiudmill aud power use. 
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KINDS ^-^HuBzE^^lnterests \A/iII AI\A/ays oe Consulteci. 



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Grain received on storage for shipment, and for sale on consignment. 



July 21, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


Photography — Astronomy. 

In a lecture recently delivered by 
Edward Barnard in this city, he said 
that the introduction of photography 
into astronomy has gradually effected 
quite a revolution, and necessitated 
modifications in great telescopes. 
Photogi-aphy takes what the eye can- 
not do, for it is cumulative. It stores 
up the effect of light action during 
minutes or hours, consequently reveals 
facts which could not be ascertained by 
human vi-sion. With eye observations, 
if the driving clock falls a little out of 
time, and a star passes off' the microm- 
eter wire, the observer can shift the 
telescope a little and bring it back 
again. With photography this is not 
possible. Moreover, a slight shifting 
of the instrument will give an elongated 
image of large stars and a double image 
of small ones. The telescope, therefore, 
must be driven accurately, no devia- 
tion of more than one-twentieth of a 
second being permissible. 

The driving mechanism, therefore, 
has to be of the highest quality; any 
deviations of the clock have to be forth- 
with corrected by means of another 
timekeeper, and the telescope at once 
brought back to its true position. This 
extra timekeeper is a pendulum beat- 
ing seconds, and driven by electrical 
pulsations. At each beat it sends local 
electrical pulsations through a portion 
of the mechanism of the clock, while 
exercising its functions. Every por- 
tion of the whole instrument must be 
made to give its aid; the telescope must 
be rigid, firm, and the axis of every 
part fairly accm-ate. The current 
from the governing pendulum can re- 
turn from the clock by either of three 
routes, all of which come into circuit 
one after the other; and when every- 
thing is right, it gets back by the cen- 
tral contact. This part of the ap- 
paratus is called the detector, because 
it detects any error. If the current 
gets back through either of the others, 
the error is corrected by means, of a 
relay, electro-magnets and differential 
gearing. He rang two bells by means 
of the pendulum, each bell soimding 
seconds synchronously; then he threw 
one of the bells greatly out of time. 
The governing apparatus then cor- 
rected the error step by step, until in 
a few seconds the bells were again beat- 
ing synchronously. By this system, he 
said, it is impossible to introduce a 
time error without its being corrected. 

Table of Principal Allyos. 

A combination of copper and zinc 
makes bell metal. 

A combination of tin and copper 
makes bronze metal. 

A combination of tin, antimony, cop- 
per and bismuth makes britannia 

A combination of tin and copper 
mates cannon metal. 

A combination of copper and zinc 
makes Dutch gold. 

A combination of copper, nickel and 
zinc, with sometimes a little iron and 
tin, makes German silver. 

A combination of gold and copper 
makes standard gold. 

A combination of gold, copper and 
silver makes old standard gold. 

A combination of tin and copper 
makes gim metal. 

A combination of copper and zinc 
makes mosaic gold. 

A combination of lead and a little 
arsenic makes sheet metal. 

A combination of silver and copper 
makes standard silver. 

A combination of tin and lead makes 

$100 Reward, $100. 

The readers of this paper will be pleased to 
learn that there is at least one dreaded disease 
that science has been able to cure in all its stages, 
and that is Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the 
only positive cure now known to the medical 
fraternity. Catarrh being a constitutional dis- 
ease, requires a constitutional treatment. Hall's 
Catarrh Cure is taken internally, acting directly 
upon the blood and mucous surfaces of the system, 
thereby destroying the foundation of the disea,se, 
and giving the patient strength by building up the 
constitution and assisting nature in doing its 
work. The proprietors have so much faith in its 
curative powers, that they offer One Hundred Dol- 
lars for any case that it fails to cure. Send for 
list of testimonials. 

Address, F. J. CHENEY, Toledo, O. 

mg- Sold by Druggists, 7.5c. 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or less in this directory at 50c per line per 

Horses and Cattle. 

F. H. BUKKE, fi26 Market St., S. P. Al Prize Hol- 
steins; Grade Milch Cows. Pine Pigs. 

H. P. MOHK, Mt. Eden, Cal. Importer and Breeder 
of Clydesdale Horses, Holstein-Friesian Cattle and 
Berkshire Pigrs. Young- stock on hand and for sale. 

JERSK Y.S— The best A. J. C. C. registered prize herd 
is owned by Henry Pierce, S. P. Animals for sale. 

M. I). HOPKIN.S, Petaluma. Regristered Shorthorn 
Cattle. Both sexes for sale. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. P., Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

JERSEYS AND HOLSTEINS, from the best But- 
ter and Milk Stock; also Thoroughbred Hogs and 
Poultry. William NUes & Co., Los Angeles. Cal. 
Breeders and Exporters. Established in 187G. 


J. W. FORGEUS, Santa Cruz, Cal. Three well-bred 
Brown Leghorn cockerels or 2 pullets and 1 cock- 
erel for $5. A handsome lot of Barred Plymotith 
Rocks. I shall breed from 20 pens of P. Rocks this 
coming .season. All interested visit my yards or 
correspond. Mammoth Pekin Ducks. Satisfaction 
guaranteed. Reference: People's Bank. 

A. BUSCHKE, Tracy, Cal. Breeder of S. C. White 
Leghorns and B. P. Rocks. Eggs $1, $1..50 per setting. 

\VILLIAM NILES & CO., Los Angeles, Cal. Nearly 
all varieties of Poultry, Dairy Cattle and Hogs. 

Setid for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

Sheep and Goats. 

,1. It. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Cross- 
bred Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale. 
Prices to suit the times. Correspondence soiicited. 

R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal. Breeder & Importer. 
Southdown Sheep, also Pox Hounds from Missouri. 


F. H. BURKE, ()2fi Market St., S. P.— BERKSHIRES. 

.J. P. ASHLEY, Linden, San Joaquin Co.. Cal. 
Breeds Poland-China, Essex and Yorkshire Swine. 

MONROE MILLER, Elislo. Ventura Co.. Cal. 
Breeder of Registered Berkshire Hogs. 

H. J. PHILPOTT, Niles. Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Tecumseh and other choice strains of 
Registered Poland-China Hogs. 


Best Stock; also Dairy Strains of Jerseys and Hol- 
steins. Wm. Niles & Co., Los Angeles. Est. 1876. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

CHAS. A. STOWE, Stockton, Regisfd Berkshires. 

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SANTA ROSA. CAL. (Care Santa Rosa National 
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S. C \A/h!te Leg:horns, 
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Pigs of all ages for sale. 


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The Fastest and Best Hay Press 

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MONARCH, Bale 17x20x40, $600 

JUNIOR MONARCH, Bale 22 x 24 x 47, $500 

THE MONARCH loads 10 tons in an ordinary box car. 
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(Two Sizes) also for sale. 

WM. GRAY, General Agent. 

L. C. Morehouse, 

San Leandro, Cal. 

Made and Sold 
under the fol- 
lowing Letters 
Patent : 

No. 197,137.. ..Nov. 13, 1877 

No. 210,458.. ..Dec. 3, 1878 

No. 306,667.. ..Oct. 14, IS84 

No. 403.019.. ..May 7, 1889 


Agricultural Machinery. 

The purpose of this notice is to inform both farmers and merchants, who 
use or sell Horse Forks, that they must not purchase Horse Forks that in- 
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horse forks, manufactured by F. E. Myers & Bro., Ashland, O., and imported 
and sold by the Deere Implement Company, of San Francisco, are direct in- 
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patents, and are now paying royalty for manufacturing and selling them; and 
they have agreed not to sell any west of the Rocky mountains. 

All parties selling or using these infringing Horse Forks will be promptly 



6:25 Sixth Street, San F'l-ancisco, Cal 

4S"Write for Catalogue No. 15, devoted to Pumping Machinery and Steam Engines."®* 



HOOKER & CO., 16=18 Drumm Street, San Francisco. 


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RAISIIN \A/R/\F»S, S\A/E/\X F»/\F*ER, 


WAX OR PARAFFINE PAPER, as well as a large variety of other P apers for the wrapping and 
packing of Green and Dried Fruits and Raisins. 


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Hut Water; Ventilation; Moisture; ':olf-Reeulating; 
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Aurora, 111.; Chlcaffo, 111.; Dallos, Tex. 


The Pacific Rural Press 

July 21, 1894. 


They Are Dead. 

There was a man who never told a lie- 
But he's dead, 

Never said it was wet when the weather was 
Never said 

He'd caupht fish when he hadn't caught one, 
Never said he'd done something that he hadn't 

Never scolded his wife, and never got mad, 
And wouldn't believe that the world was so 

A respecter of men, a defender of woman, 
Who believed the divine and in that which 

was human ; 
Meek as Moses— he never was understood, 
And the poor man died of being too good. 
And he's dead. 

There was a woman who never had gossiped a 

She's dead, too; 
Who hated all scandal, nor listened to it; 
She believed in mankind, took care of her cat, 
Alwavs turned ii deaf ear to this story or that ; 
Never scolded her husband— she never had 

one ; 

No sluggard was she, but rose with the sun ; 
Never whispered in meeting, didn't care for a 

Or all of the feathers that one could put on it ; 
Never sat with the choir, or sang the wrong 

note ; 

Expressed uo desire to lecture or vote; 
For the poor soul was deaf as a post — also 

You might have called forever and she 
wouldn't have come. 

And she's dead. 

— Jeannette La Flamboy. 

The Old Home Paper. 

Ill printed, old-fashioned and homely. 
Bearing name of a .small country town. 

With an unfeigned sneer at its wrapi)er queer 
The postman in scorn throws it down. 

Dispatches and pictures are wanting ; 

For cublegrams terse search in vain ; 
Yonder great city sheet, with its "features" 

Makes the columns seem shabbily plain. 

But I con every line that it offers; 

Each item brings something to view 
Through the vista of years, of youth's pleas- 
ures and fears. 

And serves their keen touch to renew. 

The death of a girl I once courted. 
The growth of a firm I once jeered. 

The rise of a friend whom I loved to connnend. 
The fall of a man 1 revered. 

As I read 1 drift dreamily backward 
To days when to live was but joy ; 

1 think and 1 jMire till the city's dull roar 
('■rows faint, and again I'm a boy. 

Kare perfumes of green country byway>i. 

Far music of mower and bees. 
And the quaint little town with its street 
leading down 

To the creek and the low-bending trees. 

Arouud me the forms of my comrades; 

About us earth's glories unfurled; 
Each heart undefiled, with its faith of a child. 

Looking forth to a place in the world. 

And the paper tells how all have prospered ; 

I follow their lives as they flow. 
Applauding each gain and regretting eacli 

For the sake of the days long ago. 

Then, somehow, my cares seem less heavy 

For the voyage I take as I read. 
And I fancy, forsooth, that the vigor of youth 

Is imbibed to replenish my need. 

Above all the huge city dailies, 

With ponderous utterance wise, 
This scant page hath power to spread out for 
an hour 

A fairyland sweet to mine eyes. 

Ill printed, old-fa.shioned and homely. 
Bearing the name of a .small country town, 

I wait and I seek for the moment each week 
When the postman in scorn throws it down. 

—Charles M. Harger in Escondido Times. 

Jim's Balloon Ascension. 

" Aunt Jane! " 
" Well?" 

Jim's voice was jerky, pleading, anx- 
ious; Aunt Jane's quiet and unrespon- 

' ' There's a balloon ascension over to 
the fair grounds to-morrow." 

"I don't know that that concerns 
me — or you." 

" It does me, Aunt Jane. I want to 
go. Can't I? " 

" You have had j'our day at the fair. 

Jim hated to be called James, i)rob- 
ably because the only one who had ever 
called him so, being Aunt Jane, always 
spoke it in a chilly tone. 

"But. Aunt Jane," with an increase 
of anxiety, "if I'd known there was 
going to be an ascension I wouldn't 'a' 
went yesterday. I've never seen a bal- 
loon. I want to — awful bad. I'll — be- 
have real good." 

Jim's voice weakened a little on the 

last words; not that he did ^;iot mean 
an honest, stalwart promise, but he 
knew his behavior on the day before 
had been open to criticism. He was not 
at all surprised that Aunt Jane agreed 
with him in this. 

"James,'" in her coldest, quietest 
voice, " I suppose you remember some- 
thing of what took place yesterday." 

"I'm sorry — " began Jim, who, to 
tell the truth, had not felt any sorrow 
for his escapades until they now seemed 
in danger of erecting a wall between 
himself and further fun. 

"It's no good to be sorry, but it's 
some good for me to know that you are 
kept out of mischief. You got into a 
fight with the boys from Holmes' 
school. You let some of the prize 
ducks out of their cage, and they were 
chased by the boys, and I had to pay 
for them. You" — Aunt Jane's tone 
showed that she was approaching the 
climax of Jim's sins — "rode on one of 
the race ponies." 

"It wasn't in a race. It was just 
some of us trying the ponies. It went 
good, too, and they said I rode tiptop," 
Jim continued, consumed by his longing 
desire for just such a pony. 

"What did you look like when you 
came home'?" 

"Well — I tore my clothes, I know. 
And — but this bump's going down, and 
my eye'll be all right by to-morrow. 

liking and being liked by all except 
Aimt Jane. She, cherishing a belief 
that boys were prone to ill-doing and 
must be held down, did her best to 
keep him repressed by her chill man- 

He grew fairly to hate the measured 
tone, sometimes indulging in a willful 
bit of mischief by way of finding relief 
in rousing Aunt Jane to a little show of 

As he now lay in the hay, his whole 
soul arose in a rebellion quite foreign 
to his naturally genial disposition. 
With a little management Jim could 
have developed a frank and generous 
good will which would have made him a 
most lovable inmate of any home. 

" I won't stand it!" he cried to him- 
self. "I hate Aunt Jane, and — she 
hates me. Yes, I know it. She always 
stops me in everythhig I want to do. I 
won't mind her. I'll — go to the fair in 
spite of her!" 

It was a daring thought, but the rel- 
ish of it increased as he dwelt on it. 

"Yes, I will! I'll go, and I'll stay 
all day. And I'll do everything I want 
to do. If she'd been good about it and 
let me go, I 'd have been a good boy. 

' ' What'U she say when I come 
home? " 

The wild thought grew with the 

'' I won't come back! I hate it here. 


Aunt Jane, please let me! I'll behave 
well— honest and true I will." 

' ' I think you have had enough of the 
fair, and that settles it." 

Jim knew it did. He walked out 
without another word, but with just 
the birth of another thought in his 
mind — a thought so wild that at first 
it arose only to be set aside. 

He sped into the hayloft and threw 
himself down in a paroxism of anger 
and despair. The cool air blew in upon 
his hot cheeks, and the great elms, 
their yellowing leaves one by one be- 
ginning to loose their hold on the 
branches, whispered in the autumn 
breeze. The grass was still green, and 
everything alx)ut the prosperous, well- 
kept farm was pleasant to look upon. 

But Jim hated it. From the time of 
the death of his parents, two years be- 
fore, he had made his home with an- 
other branch of the family, in a house 
full of rollicking boys and girls, who 
received, perhaps, rather too iittle than 
too much training. Then circum- 
stances had ordered that he should go 
to Aunt Jane's. 

He had been received with kindness 
which was not intentionally cold. Miss 
Preston desired to do her duty by her 
orphan nephew. He was well provided 
with all that a boy belonging in a well- 
to-do family should have. But before 
he had been for a week in the big house 
on the big farm, Jim, if he had been 
that kind of a boy, would have cried 
his heart out with lonely homesickness. 

Not being that kind of a boy. he took 
refuge in things about him, making 
friends with servants and animals, soon 

I'd rather go and work for my living 
somewhere. I'll — ride a racehorse." 

The idea was delightful in its utter 
recklessness. Doubly so becaase it 
would be shocking to Aunt Jane. 

Early the next morning Jim stood in 
his room, firmly set in his new pur- 

The suit of clothes he had worn at 
the county fair lay on a chair, mended 
with the i)ainstaking care which Aunt 
Jane brought to all she did. If Jim 
could have remembered a single really 
tender word or look from his aunt, it 
may be supposed that his heart would 
have been touched by this evidence of 
of her care for him. If even she had 
once in a while roundly scolded him, it 
would have been, Jim thought, refresh- 
ing; but that cold and measured voice 

"I'll wear my best suit — yes, I will! 
What's the difference? As I'm never 
coming back, she can't roll up her eyes 
and look shocked at me. And I don't 
care if I do spoil 'em, either!" 

An hour later, at breakfast-time, 
Jim could not be found, nor did any re- 
ply come to the numerous calls of his 

"I'm ready to guess I know where 
he's gone, though, rafi am," said the 
housekeeper. "I saw him go out the 
side gate an' round the back of the 
barn just after I got up. So I reck- 
oned in my own mind he'd gone to the 
fair. Possessed about that balloon he 
was, all yesterday. Just like boys, you 
know, ma'am;" with a look which con- 
veyed an appeal for mercy for the 

But Aunt Jane set her lips together, 
thinking within her.self that for a lady 
who had never done such a foolish 
thing as get married, it was really 
rather hard to be bothered by the boys 
of other people. 

But as the hours wore on. Miss 
Jane's hardness relaxed a little. She 
was uneasy at the thought of the scat- 
ter-brained boy being at the fair with 
no one to look after him. 

Th(^ quiet of the place seemed op 
pressive. She had learned, scarcely 
realizing to herself, to like the sound 
of the careless shout and rattling talk, 
not to speak of the bright eyes which 
were so like those of her brother who 
left home so long ago, as the result of 
a trifling quarrel, never to come back. 

" I believe I'll drive over to the fair 
grounds myself," she observed in the 
early aftern<jon. I really wanted to 
get hold of a few of those premium 
Hubbard squash seeds. And this be- 
ing the last day, I could likely gel 
them. " 

Jim was having a glorious time at 
the Fair. He whipped a boy who was 
abusing a smaller boy. dashed in amon;/ 
a lot of horses to catch hold of one 
which was getting beyond the control 
of a woman who drove it, found a lost 
little girl and walked around with her 
for an hour in search of her friends, 
drank too much lemonade and ate too 
many peanuts, quarreled with 
some boys at a merry-go-round 
and got knocked off one of the 
wooden horses, rode a donkey 
in a race, and, after having been 
lavishly dined by the mamma of 
' the found little girl, was fully 
' ready to enjoy the balloon ascen 

The crowd ~ was collecting 
around it, with the asual inside 
fringe of boys; the verj' inside 
fringe being composed of those 
happy boys who chanced to have 
no one looking after them. Prom- 
inent among these was. of course, 

He balanced on the very edge 
of the hole in the ground in 
which was built a fire over which 
the balloon, in j>rocess of beuig 
filled with hot air, bobbed and 
swayed in a manner most excit- 
ing and aggravating to boys who 
could not get inside the more 
and more closely packed crowd. 
He conversed with the balloon 
man, offering to go up on that, 
or — remembering that he was. 
now to look after his own living 
— any other day. 

" Think you'd like it, do you ? " 
said the man. 

"Yes, I know 1 should." 
" But I go up on a traj)eze, till I get 
clear up. Then I climb into the bas- 

"I'd do that, " agreed Jim. "You 
let me try it." 

" I guess you'd better wait a bit." 

This was disapjK)inting; but Jim, re 
solved to learn all the ins and outs of 
balloon travel, continued to mix hun 
self with matters in a way which 
brought upon him more than one 
rating from those engaged in the infla 
tion of the big toy. 

" All ready ? " 

" Hurrah ! hurrah ! " 

Cheers rang up from a thousand 
voices as at length the aeronaut threw 
off his outside clothing and appeared in 
a suit of gayly colored tights. 

" Out of the way." shouted a man, in 
a voice of dismay. 

The shout was for Jim. As the 
trapeze ropes which liad been lying 
slack straightened out with the loosen- 
ing of the huge ball from the confining 
cords. Jim felt a rasping along his neck, 
caused by a swiftly moving rope. Then 
it tightened, and. with a gasp, he laid 
desi)erate hold of it alwve his head, as 
a half-noose cut cruelly into his neck. 

Cries of alarm filled the air but just 
now ringing with cheers. A dozen 
arms were reached out in attempt to 
help, but the boy had in one instant 
been jerked out of reach above the 
heads of the crowd. 

" Hold on ! hold tight ! " 

Frantic shrieks followed him. 

" Don't let go, or you'll be dashed to 
pieces ! " 

"Good boy ! Brave boy ! Hold on ! " 

July 21, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


The aeronaut had just time to let go 
his hold on the trapeze, his quick eye 
at once perceiving that his weight on 
the rope would take away the last 
chance for the boy's life. 

At that moment there fell upon Jim's 
ears a familiar voice, raised to a pierc- 
ing cry. 

" It's my boy ! Mine ! — mine ! Let 
him down ! Give him to me ! " 

And for one moment his terror- 
stricken glance fell upon Aunt Jane's 
face — not cold and forbidding, but 
strained in an agony of tender fear. 
With a scream of fright his " eyes met 
hers in a frantic appeal for help — the 
help he knew she could not give. 

The chorus of excited voices mingled 
in a hollow roar, then died into silence 
as Jhn went up — up — still struggling 
with that cruel rope. At last he got it 
around one arm, then another, loosen- 
that choking pressure about his throat. 
Another passing of the rope about his 
arms, each one attended with fearful 
effort. The blood rushed to his head. 
There was a blackness before his eyes 
and a roaring in his ears. 

Another violent struggle for the life 
which seemed so sweet now that it 
might be going from him. He gained 
another twist on the rope, and could 
now draw a free breath. 

A glance below turned him sick and 
giddy. As through a mist, he got a 
glimpse of the distant landscaj^e. 
He was moving on and up, a help- 
less speck between heaven and 

Where was he going ? When 
should he stop — and where ? 
Would it be hours in which he 
must be held in this wise ? 
Would darkness find him still 
drifting at the mercy of the 
wind 'i 

Then another thought came. 
This was being his own master 
— starti7ig out to have his own 
way ! What a wild longing seized 
him to be back among the quiet 
farm scenes which he had some- 
times found irksome! Even Aunt 
Jane's peculiarities could be 
borne. But how about that look 
caught from Aunt Jane's eyes ? 
No coldness or indifference there, 

Along with a cry for help 
went a fervent resolution to make 
better use of his life if blessed 
opportunity should come. 

" He's drifting over the lake." 

"Then that'll be the last of 
him. " 

"No — not if he gets down 
before dark." 

Excitement had run wild on the 
Fair gi-ound. Women cried and fainted, 
and men turned white, as the boy was 
carried beyond the reach of possible 
help. Throats were hoarse with shout- 
ing after him" directions which could 
not be heard. 

Aunt Jane, beside herself with ex- 
cited alarm, was taken in kindly hands, 
and at length conveyed home. 

" We'll bring you the news the first 
moment," she was assured. "We'll 
follow him up and keep constant 
watch. " 

Numbers of the coimtry neighbors 
followed the slowly moving balloon, 
which at no time rose beyond easy ob- 
servation. Boats were had in readi- 
ness as at length it hung over the lake. 

"It's coming down ! " 

" What makes me feel so funny, when 
I ain't hurt a bit '? " 

Jim asked it when near his quick ride 
home, sitting on the bottom of a light 
buggy, with his head on the seat. He 
was glad to lay it down again after a 
look around. 

" No wonder you feel funny, my little 
chap," said his kmdly caretaker. 
" ' No — you're not hurt, but it will take 
a, few days of your aunt's nursing to 
got you back where you were." 

And there she was — Aimt Jane rush- 
ing to meet him with a cry of thankful- 
ness. As she clasped him in her arms, 
it might have occurred to both that 
they had found something which they 
had before been missing. 

If Aunt Jane had, she never said so. 
But, in latter years of his happy boy- 
hood, Jim sometimes said to himself: 
"I had to go up in a balloon to find 
out — some things." 

The Worst of All. 

There are many fools that worry this world — 

Fools old, and fools who' re young, 
Fools with fortunes, and fools without. 
Fools who dogmatize, fools who doubt, 
Fools who snicker, and fools who shout. 
Fools who never know what they're about, 

And fools all cheek and tongue; 
Fools who are gentlemen, fools who're cads. 
Fools who're gray beards, and fools who're 
lads ; 

Fools with manias, fools with fads, 

Fools with cameras, fools with tracts, 

Fools who deny the stubbornest facts. 

Fools in theories, fools in acts. 

Fools who quarrel, and fools who quack ; 

In fact, there are all sorts of fools in the pack, 

Fools fat, thin, short and tall ; 
But of all sorts of fools, the fool with a gun 

(Who points at some one — of course, "in 
fun " — 

And fools all around till chance murder is 

Is the worst fool of them all ! 

— London Punch. 

'Kiss Her and Tell Her So." 

Integrity of character, a right sense 
of honor, manliness and respect for 
what is pure and good are all adjuncts 
to the perfect happiness of married Ufe, 
writes Mary J. Holmes in answer to the 
question " What Constitutes a Good 
Husband?" But most natures crave 
more than these, and what they crave 
is so easy to give that I wonder it is 
ever withheld. Said a woman of her 


A Boy "Who Learned a Lesson. 

" I thmk, sister, you are a foolish 
mother. I do not understand why you 
object to Benny boy accepting this 
little toy weapon. I expected my 
namesake nephew to enjoy his mimic 
sport. Sister, Benny isn't a girl." 

"No, brother," responded Mrs. 
Archer. " My son, we will talk about 
this pistol; then, when you have thought 
about it, if you desire to keep it you 
may. It is only a toy weapon, yet the 
report is disagreeable and snappy. 
Grandpa's head aches often. His ear 
is sensitive. The snappy sound annoys 
me, too. Your small sister is timid, 
and when you point your weapon 
toward her she suffers real fear. To- 
day I heard her dearest playmate, 
Lessy Minor, say : ' I shall not come 
over again while Benny has that gun. 
I am afraid.' Bounce and Melff are 
only dmnb animals, yet I do pity the 
poor dog and cat when they run in a 
fright if you snap your pistol at them." 

"My pistol is harmless. People know 
that. A dog and cat can learn sense. 
A boy likes fun," persisted Benny. 

" Is it fun to annoy dear old grandpa, 
frighten sister, her little friend and our 


husband who, when living, stood high 
with his fellow-men and surrounded her 
with every luxury: "I loved him most 
for his kind thoughtfulness and delicate 
attentions which made me feel that I 
was as dear to him after years of mar- 
riage as on the first day he called me 
his wife." And this, I think, is the 
secret of some women's happiness. 

It is not enough for a man to make a 
woman his wife, and after a few weeks 
or months of attention ignore her with 
a feeling that because he has chosen 
her to bear his name she must be for- 
ever satisfied, with no further demon- 
stration of his love. Women hke 
demonstrations, and there is a world 
of good advice in the two lines of an 
old ballad I lately read : 

"If your wife is dearer to you than life, 
Kiss her and tell her so." 

Boiled Tongue. — Wash the tongue 
carefully, and let it lie in cold water 
for several hours before cooking — over 
night, if possible. Lay it in a kettle 
of cold water when it is to be cooked, 
bi-ing the water to a boil slowly, and 
let it simmer until the tongue is so 
tender that you can pierce it with a 
fork. A large tongue should be over 
the fire about four hours. When it 
has cooled in the liquor in which it was 
boiled, remove the skin with great care, 
begmning at the tip and stripping it 
back. Trim away the gristle and fat 
from the root of the tongue before 
serving it. 

Ivory knife handles that have grown 
yellow with age or careless usage may 
be whitened by rubbiiag with sandpaper. 

dumb pets ? Was it fun for you when 
Mr. Wells' large red cow ran into our 
garden yesterday, tossing her head ? 
She frightened you, dear. A large boy 
in the alley laughed heartily when you 
ran crying to the house. " 

" I was afraid. The cow shook her 
head and looked so fierce." 

" Yes, you were frightened at harm- 
less, gentle, hornless, old Star. The 
boy knew Star was gentle. It was your 
cowardice which amused him. I should 
like to tell you of an old hunter who 
was one day visituig a village and in- 
vited to participate in a turkey shoot- 
ing match. He said : ' No, John Bibb 
never points a gun at any created 
creature for sport. I never shoot a 
bound or trapped animal. When I 
was a boy I scorned to stone an inno- 
cent bird. I shoot bears and game 
when I want food. I never waste 
powder and ball. I am a hunter, sirs, 
fair and square in my chase after 
animals given for man's use. I never 

hunt for sport; never, sirs. I have a 
little compassion upon the poor, dumb 
creatures which are not created to be 
wantonly tortured.' Now think, Benny, 
has grandpa, sister and Bounce any 
right ?" ^ 

An hour later. Uncle Ben, with his 
namesake nephew, were burying the 
toy pistol. 

"Cover it deep, uncle," advised 
Benny, " so no other boy will find it to 
torture his grandpa and the rest of his 
folks, snapping it close to their ears." — 
Ella Guernsey. 

Misnaming a Child. 

Not long ago a child was brought to 
me for baptism, and when I asked the 
father for the desired name, he replied 
that it was Bathsheba, writes the Rev. 
T. De Witt Talmage. Now, why any 
parent should wish to give to a child 
the name of that infamous creature of 
Scripture times passes beyond my un- 
derstandmg. I have often felt at the 
baptismal altar, when names were an- 
nounced to me, like saying, as did the 
Rev. Dr. Richards of Morristown, New 
Jersey, when a child was presented 
him for sprinkling and the name given, 
" Hadn't you better call it something 
else?" There is no excuse for any as- 
sault and battery on the cradle when 
our language is oppulent with names 
musical in sound and suggestive in 
meaning, such as John, meanmg "the 
gracious gift of God;" or Henry, mean- 
ing "the chief of a household;" or 
Alfred, meaning "good 
Joshua, meaning ' ' God 
or Nicholas, meaning 
people;" or Ambrose, 
mortal;" or Andrew, meaning "manly;' 
or Esther, meaning " a star;" or Abi- 
gail, meaning "my father's joy;" or 
Anna, meaning "grace;" or Victoria, 
meaning "victory;" or Rosalie, mean- 
ing "beautiful as a;" or Margaret, 
meaning "a pearl;" or Ida, meaning 
"Godlike;" or Clara, meaning " illus- 
trious;" or Amelia, meaning "busy;" 
or Bertha, meaning "beautiful;" and 
hundreds of other names just as good 
that are a help rather than a hin- 

Do Women Know? 

counselor;" or 
our salvation;" 
' victory of the 
meaning " im- 

That cane-seated chair bottoms that 
have become sagged may be made as 
tight as ever by washing them with hot 
soap suds and leaving to dry in the 
open air. 

That embroidery should always be 
ironed on the wrong side, on a soft sur- 
face such as heavy flannel or felting 
with a clean white cloth over it, and 
should be ironed until thoroughly dry. 
In this way the design will be beauti- 
fully brought out. 

That flies do not like the odor of clover 
and that a bunch of these blossoms left 
drying in a room will effectually expel 

That traces of mud may be removed 
from black dresses by rubbing the 
stains with raw potato. 

That covers of lard pails may be 
utilized by placing them xmder pots and 
saucepans when the stove is too hot. 

That pine tar burned in a sick room 
is an excellent disinfectant; it also in- 
duces sleep. 

That soaking canned goods in iced 
water for an hour before heating them 
will remove any tinny taste that may be 

That a thin piece of salt pork bound 
on to a wound caused by stepping on a 
nail or carpet tack will remove the in- 
flammation almost immediately and pre- 
vent serious consequences. 

Highest of all in Leavening Power. — Latest U. S. Gov't Report 




July 21, 1894. 


of the Tehuantepec 

In his June report the statistician of 
the Department of Agriculture makes 
a reference to the railway now in course 
of construction across the Isthmus of 
Tehuantepec under a concession held by 
Edward McMurdo of London. Only 
about 20 miles of the road in the center 
of the isthmus remain to be built, and 
the line is to be completed within a few 
months. Kxtensive works, estimated 
to cost $4,300,000, are being con- 
structed at the port of Coatzacoalcos, 
the eastern terminus of the railway, 
with the view of providing a safe an- 
chorage at that harbor for ocean-going 
steamers, and a long iron pier will be 
constructed at Salina Cruz, the Pacific 
coast terminal of the road. 

The completion of this railway line 
will provide a trade route between the 
United States and western Mexico, 
which will be more than 2000 miles 
shorter than the present route by way 
of the Isthmus of Panama. The owner- 
ship of the concession for building the 
railroad by a British subject might be 
a reason for apprehending possible dis- 
crimination against American com- 
merce but for the fact that under the 
terms of the concession the line will be- 
come the property of the Mexican Gov- 
ernment as soon as it shall have been 

Columbian Half Dollars. 

Among the subsidiarj' coin tui-ned 
into the various Sub-Treasuries of the 
country appear from time to time 
Columbian souvenir half dollars. These 
coins, under the act authorizing their 
issue, are a legal tender in amounts of 
$10 or under. They are taken at the 
Sub-Treasm-ies, of course, at their 
designated value only, whereas they 
cost the careless or forgetful persons 
who put them into circulation from $1 
to $2 apiece. But three of the 50c 
pieces have been thus presented at the 
New York Sub-Treasury, and none of 
the Isabella quarters have made their 
appearance. The Sub-Treasury in this 
city has received some of both. There 
were $2,500,000 of the Columbian half 
dollars coined, making a total of 5, (»()(),- 
000 pieces. The quarters are of great 
rarity, but $10,000 worth, or 40,000 
pieces, being coined. 

Coast Industrial Notes. 

—It is thought 40,000,000 ixjunds of »uf.'ar 
beets will be prodmied in California this sea- 
son— Chino district, 17,000,000 pounds; Wat- 
sonville district, 19,000,000; Alvarado district, 

—The U. S. and Mexican Government have 
a joint commission journeying down the Colo- 
rado from Yuma, the idea being to make a 
thorough examination and report to their re- 
spective Governments on the feasibility of 
dredging the river to its mouth, so that deep 
water vessels can go to Yuma. 

—On the Pacific coast there are 134 salmon 
canneries, 38 of which are lotvated in Alaska, 
39 in British Columbia, 23 in Washington, 24 
in Oregon and 9 in California. There are 24 
canneries on the Columbia river, equally di- 
\'ided in number between the Washington and 
Oregon side, and the same number of canning 
institutions also operate on the Fraser river in 
British Columbia. 

—There is a rapid development going on in 
canal building in Arizona. The territory will 
be enriched during the next six vears" with 
*8,000,000 in canals alone. The storage reser- 
voir of the South Gila Company is consider- 
ably larger than the bay of San Diego. The 
Verde Company has just let a «2,000,0(H) con- 
tract for its dam and canal. The Colorado Ir- 
rigation Company's canal will cost *o, 000,000. 

—The Colorado River Irrigation Company 
has concluded arrangements to raise capital 
for the building of its great canal on the 
desert, in San Diego county. Gen. L. A. 
Grant is president of the conipany and J. C. 
Beatty vice-president and general manager. 
They have obtained rights to water of the 
Colorado river to irrigate thousands of acres 
on the desert, and many square miles of land 
have been acquired. Preliminary surveys 
have been made, and for miles the I'ompany 
will utilize the canals cut by some prehistoric 
people, which have been found along and be- 
low the Mexican line, dug according to en- 
gineering rules and conforming to the 
topography of the country. The project of the 
present company is on a big scale, and is the 
greatest engineering and irrigation scheme of 
the continent, being intended to leclaini over 
500,000 acres of land. 

RUDY'S PILE SUPPOSITORY is guaranteed to 
cure Piles and Constipation, or money refunded. 
Flftj Cents Per Box. Send stamp for Circular and 
Free Sample, to MARTIN RUDY, Lancaster, Pa 
For sale by all first-class dru^sts. 

Porteous Improved Scraper. 

Patented April :i ls,-<S. Pali-iilcil Api-il IT. 1883. 



The attention of the public in eailed to this 
S<Taper and the nian.v varieties of work of which It 
Is capable, such as Railroad Work, Irrigation 
Ditches, Levee Building. Leveling Land. Road M.ik- 
Inu. etc. 

This Implement will take up and carr.v Us load to 
anv desired distance. It will distribute the dirt 
evenlv or deposit Its load in bulk as desired. It 
will ilo the work of Scraper, Grader, and Carrier. 
Thousands of these Scrapers are in use In all parts 
of the countr.v. 

JST'Thla Scraper Is all Steel -the only one maiiu- 
f.ictured In the State. 

Price, all Steel, four-liorse. 111140: Steel, two-horse, 
*:U. Address all orders to 







. wnxiAJis 

Schenectady, N.T ^ 
»iid BrockTillc, Onl • 


for your 


Anj size yoa want. 30 
to 66 in. high. Tires 1 
to 8 in. wide — hnbs to 
fit any axle. Saves 
Cost many times in 
a fleaaon to have eet 
of low wheels to fit 
roar wagon for hauling 
grain, fodder, manure, 
bngs, ko, Noreeetting of 
tires. Oatl*g free. Address 
^ulncyi 111* 

Davis Inter- 
national Cream 
Hand or Power. 
Every farmer 
that has cows 
should have 
one. It saves 
half the labor, 
makes one- 
third more but- 
ter. Separator 
Butter brings 
one-third more 
money. Send 
f o r circulars. 

Davis & Rankin Bldg. & Mfg. Co. 
Agents Wanted. Chicago, 111. 

I EWIS' 98 % LYE 



The stroiiKPat and purest Lya 

ma-le. Unlike other Lye, It being 
a fine powder aud pacKed In a can 
with removable Uu, the contents 
are alwavs ria<ly for us«i. Win 
make tlii> be»l perfumed Hard Soap 
In 'JO mlnules wilboat bolllnR. 
It Is tlie lieat furcleanslug waste 
pipes, dlslnf.-illiig sinks, closeta, 
watliinR bottles palnta, trees, etc 


U«Q. Agu., Phlla., Fa. 


4 Ton. 



arDsUtandat jooB-K. StMiak aaaamptsUB* m 
boOdiiic aad t«stlD« aOnrad bafar* ■MsytaaaSk 

OSGOOD A THOMPSeHt. sisis^mi A k 

Twenty-flve per cent cheaper than any other on the 
market. Send tor Catalogue. 

C. H. LINDEMANN, Agent, 

la« KEAKNV STKKKT, .S.4N KK..\N(,'ISC<). 


Loans negotiated on securities. Mines 
and mining prospects of guaranteed value sold on 
working bonds. C. U. UWLNKL,LI<:, Grand 
Hotel, San FrsacUco, Cal. 

Alexander & Hammon, 




The most Complete Assortment ot General Nursery Stock grown on the Piicillc Coast. 

1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894=95 in Stock. 

4S" Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Guaranteed to be healthy and free from 
cale or other pests. 

Send for Calalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander & Hammon, 

Blegs, Butte Countv. Cal. 


tarn SAN JOSE, CAL. j^i 

Agrioultural Imple^me^nts. 


' ••nrtltrf^'^iy^ Write for t'treulars and l"rl<T». Sent free. ■**^^^''Mvrm» ^ 

P. & B. f ™ DRYING PAPER. 

♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ 




PARAFFINE PAINT CO., 116 Battery St., 


E. G. JUDAH, Agent, 221 South Broadway, Los Angeles. 







Write for Catalogue No. 1!>. 


With only one valve and GREATEST ECONOMY OF KUICL. 
Cheaper than Single Engine of same horse power. 

.^^^^^^MANUFACTtJRED BY --^^^^ 


68.5 Sixth Street, Sail FraiielHeo. 


For All Purposes. 


Use for operation only One-Half Pint Kerosene per hour per horse jjower. 


"-^«xfla^^>- COMPLETE OUTFIT. 2400 GALLONS PER HOUR, $300. 

Write for Illustrated Catalogue. 

PERKINS PUMP AND ENGINE CO., 117 Main St., San Francisco 


220 IWetrU^ot St., San'f='ronclsco, Cal. 

July 21, 1894. 

The Pacific 

Rural Press. 


Patrons of Husbandry. 

Random Thoughts. 

By A. P. RoACHB, W. M. S. G. of California. 

'Mid bayonets gleam the cause of peace 
Is lield till anarchy shall cease. 

The coming State Grange session 
will necessarily be compelled to pass 
upon a vast and varied amount of busi- 
ness, and as many hands lighten labor, 
and as "a place for everything and 
everything in its place " conserves the 
best' interests of all human effort, the 
committees on whom the brunt of the 
battle for 1894 will fall, and whom it is 
sincerely hoped will allow no light or 
trivial cause to prevent from serving, 
are as follows: 

standing: Committees for 1894. 

Intkoduction. — Chairman, Sister Overhiser ; 
Sisters M. A. Miner, Nellie G. Babcock, 
Rachel Coulter. S. J. Cross; Brothers Wm. 
Johnston, I. C. Steele, D. Walls, Wm. Eddie, 
R. P. McGlincy. 

Chedextials. — Chairman, Brother J. D. 
Huffman ; Brothers L. S. Rodman, Peter Han- 
son ; Sisters M. E. Raxton, Mira V. More. 

Division of L a kok.— Chairman, Brother W. 
L. Overhiser; Brothers C. Christiansen, H. D. 
Strather; Sisters J. Sharai, Delia KruU. 

Resolutions. — Chairman, Brother George 
Ohlever, Sr. ; Brothers D. A. Ostrom, M. 
Prenio, Sisters M. D. Brainard, Hattie Jones. 

Finance. — Chairman, Bi'other Daniel Flint; 
Brothers S. W. Pilcher, W. M Sims; Sisters 
Mary Merill, Roxy Denis. 

Le(jislati()N. — Chairman. Brother John 
Tuohv; Brothers E. W. Davis, Harry C. Raap; 
Sisters J. M. Talbot, S. A. Jackman. 

Co-opekation. -Chairman, Brother A. P. 
Martin ; Brothers W. D. Houx, Paris Allen ; 
Sisters T. Skillman, M. J. Worthen. 

Transpoktation. - Chairman, Brother E. 
Greer; Brothers Marion T. Noyes, B. F. Wal- 
ton, D. A. Ostrom, A. Bickford ; Sisters Ella 
Hedger, A. E. Palmer. 

Education. — Chairman, Brother E. W. 
Davis; Brothers A. Henderson, S. H. Jack- 
man; Sisters R. O. Twitchell, M. B. Lauder. 

Good of the Ok deh.— Chairman, Brother S. 
T. Coulter; Brothers J. H. McKune, T. F. 
Prather; Sisters N. A. Sanders, S. J. Cross. 

Faumers' Institutes. - Chairman, Brother 
Frank Chapin ; Brothers O. N. Cadwell, Delos 
Gage; Sisters Libbie Wood, S. A. Bicknell. 

Dormant Granges. — Chairman, Brother E. 
J. Pettit; Brothers M. W. Hall, J. A. Sim- 
mons ; Sister Minnie Toomey, E. Z. Bones. 

Experiment Stations. — Chairman, Brother 
Amos Adams; Brothers John Reece, J. H. 
Martinus; Sisters L. H. Applegate, Fannie 
H. Lavvtou. 

Puiii-K'ATioN. — Chairman, Brother A. T. 
Dewey; Brothers O. P. Housken, George 
Thresher ; Sisters Beecher of Stockton, E. 

Eeoislative CoMMiTTEE.—Created through 
special enactment of State Grange, to serve 
two years. — Chairman, Brother Thomas Mc- 
Connell; Brothers Wm. Johnston, J. D. Huff- 

LiTEKAHY. — Chairman, Sister P. C. Noyes; 
Sisters W. D. Ashley, Amos Adams, Jessie 
Peck, Ida Hall, A. Dewey, Agnes Fine, Fannie 
Gamble, M. A. Man'lev, Bessie Ailing; 
Brothers C. W. Norton, 'S. A. Webb, E. C. 
Bedell, John Denman, J. A. Perry. 

Music. — Chairman, Sister Frankie Greer; 
Sisters Gussie Wilcox, West of Stockton, J. 
K. Roadhouse; Brothers W. D. Houx, J. Con- 
nell, M. J. Hopkins. 

Feast of Pomona. — Chairman, Brother 
Marion T. No.ves ; Brother Trainer of West 
San Joaquin; Brothers and Sisters J. P. 
Jefferson, C. B. Pearson, G. N. Sanborn, C. S. 
Rodgers, J. S. Eddington, Bates Dehart, J. 
M. White; Sisters J. D. and F. Huffman; 
Brothers and Sisters C. D. Bilderback, F. M. 
Bruce, W. W. Kilgore, J. HoUister, W. Ren- 
wick ; Brothers Cyrus Jones, George P. 
Loucks, Chas. Brovifn. Local committee yet 
to be appointed. 

Conferring Fifth and Sixth Degrees. — 
Chairman, Sister Daniel Flint; Sisters Nettie 
Brouse, Emma Perry, Etta Cornell, Dee D. 
Hull, Rosa Ostrom, May Button, Eda Walton, 
Matie Edinger; Brothers C. Hull, T. L. 
Beecher, Jr., A. D. M. Mcintosh; Brother 
and Sister Frisbie. 

Constitution and By-Laws. — Chairman, 
Brother B. F. Walton ; Brothers G. P. Loucks, 
Cyrus Jones ; Sisters Rachael Coulter, S. J. 

All State Grange officers and mas- 
ters of subordinate granges are re- 
minded that the law reciuires their an- 
nual reports to be in the hands of the 
printer by the first of September. 
Send in your reports, patrons, to Sec- 
retary Don Mills, Santa Rosa, and they 
will be published in due time. Don't 
forget your last quarterly dues; if they 
are delayed the secretary cannot com- 
pile his report for the National Grange, 
and your grange might lose its repre- 

Nuggets from Lecturer Messer. 

The following notes are from the of- 
fice of National Lecturer Alpha Messer, 
who has gotten home again at Roches- 
ter, Vt., and has settled down to his 
regular work : 

Many farmers would think iix)re of 

themselves and their calling if they 
understood how much they are re- 
spected by intelligent and cultured 

Ten years ago the first grange was 
organized in Herkimer county, N. Y. 
There are now 22 granges in the county 
and the most of them are healthy and 
prosperous. The grange store in Little 
Falls last year sold $56,872.57 worth of 
goods with an invested capital of only 

The Utica (N. Y.) Ptri^s says that 
people living in cities have but a vague 
idea of the order of Patrons of Hus- 
bandry, and when they make the dis- 
covery that it is not a body of cranks, 
but composed of earnest, thoughtful, 
cultured and well-dressed men and 
women, they are compelled to give them 
the respect which such people always 

The people want the best men for 
positions of trust and honor, and the 
country calls for such men as legis- 
lators. Second-class lawyers, ward 
politicians and demagogues have been 
weighed in the balance and found want- 
ing. Men are called for. We have 
them. Will the people elect them? 

Notwithstanding the business de- 
pression, the grange prospers and the 
record of increase is gratifying. The 
number of new granges organized for 
the year ending September, 1893, was 
80 and the number of reorganizations 
was 28. For the first five months and 
six days of the current year new or- 
ganizations number 80 and reorganiza- 
tions 45. 

Many farmers not members of the 
grange make a mistake in thinking that 
its educational features consist mainly 
in preparing and reading essays and 
discussion of topics relating to home 
and farm life. This is only a small 
part. This education not only em- 
braces the farm and home, but all that 
relates thereto, including financial, 
economic and even political questions 
when of a non-partisan nature. 

San Jose Orange. 

It Tal<es Holt! of the Tuberculosis Question 
in a Practical Way. 

To THE Editor: — The following reso- 
lution has been adopted by San Jose 

Whereas, Statistics prove that a large per- 
centage of deaths from tuberculosis or con- 
sumption of the lungs is caused by the use of 
diseased meat and milk dealt out to us daily 
by our meat men and milk peddlers (uncon- 
sciously, perhaps, on their pait, but never- 
theless true! has been abundantly demon- 
strated by leading scientists throughout the 
country, who positively assert that there is no 
fact within the range of medical knowledge 
more su.sceptible of proof than that meat and 
milk taken from tuberculus animals and con- 
sumed by human beings are the most active 
causes not only of consumption but many other 
diseases that afflict humanity, and 

Whereas, We are conscious, furthermore, 
that all the danger that environs us does not 
come through the instrumentality of the 
butcher and milkman, as we may be di-awing 
from our own family cow poison that we and 
our household partake of, thus scattering 
disease and death among those we love most ; 

Whereas, San Jose Grange is of the opinion 
that the Supervisors of Santa Clara county 
have authority under the law now in force to 
appoint a Board of Health, with power to 
eradicate as far as possible tuberculous ani- 
mals, and the meat and milk from such ani- 
mals as may be offered for sale in Santa Clara 
county ; therefore, 

' Resolved, That the Supervisors of Santa 
.Clara county be and they are hereby earnest- 
ly requested to appoint a County Board of 
Health consisting of five qualified persons, 
either by appointing and enlarging the sphere 
of duty of the Board of Health of the city of 
San Jose or by using a portion of them and ad- 
ding others thereto. 

Resdlur.d, That San Jose Grange is unalter- 
ably opposed to the cieation on the part of the 
State of anymore commissions, as the biennial 
I'eports of the proceedings of said Board can, 
with more propriety, be made to the State 
Board of Health, thus saving thousands of 
dollars to the State. 

ReHolce.d, That a committee consisting of 
Brothers Wingate and Mt^Glincy are hereby 
apiwinted to present these to the 
Supervisors at their next meeting. 

Fruit, fruit, fruit is the all-absorbing 
question of the day among the members 
of the San Jose Grange, and work from 
"early dawn to dewy eve " is the con- 
dition of the fruit-grower. The result 
is our grange meetings are poorly at- 
tended; not more than 35 or 40 are in 
regular attendance. 

Many of our members will dry their 

apricots and peaches; others are sell- 
ing to the canners. 

The railroad strike has caused some 
of our members to lose heavily on their 
cherry crop. One member — a widow 
lady who ships many carloads of 
cherries each year — said she had 
cherries all along the road to New York 
when the cars stopped running and 
could not tell how much her loss would 
be; but she entertained the dim hope 
that the railroad would be liable for 
her loss. 

It is probable that the horticulturists 
will assign their claims to one person 
and make a test case of it and have the 
liabilities of common carriers judicially 
determined. The fact that the railroad 
strikers frequently offered to operate 
not only freight trains, but also pas- 
senger trains, without the Pullmans 
will be a point greatly in favor of the 
shippers of fruit. Amos Adams. 

San Jose, July 15, 1894. 

The Anti=Option Measure. 

National Master Brigham has just 
issued the following circular letter ad- 
dressed to the Patrons of Husbandry 
of the United States : 

Delta, Ohio, June 28, 1894. 

The Anti-Option bill has passed the House 
by a large majority, and it now dejjends upon 
the Senate and the President whether or not 
an effort shall be made to stop gambling in 
farm products. 

It is highly important that all who favor the- 
bill make their wishes known to the Senate 
at once. Some of the Senators may not have 
much confidence in the benefits to be realized 
from its passage, but if they are made to 
understand that the people are in favor of the 
object of this legislation, enough of them will 
vote for it to insure its passage. 

Please write to your Senators at once on 
this subject ; also try to secure favorable 
reference to it in your local papers. As the 
Senators, in the pending tariff bill, have care- 
fully protected evei-y " trust" in the country 
except the farmers' trust (which is princi- 
pally " trust to luck," so far as a vast ma- 
jority are concerned ), they may now feel in- 
clined to do something for us. At all events, 
we should do our duty. Col. Hatch has made 
a grand fight, and he .should receive a shower 
of congratulations from the farmers. 

I am glad to be able to say for our order 
that the reports from nearly all sections of the 
country are very encouraging. Extensive 
preparations are being made foi- a vigorous 
summer campaign. Speakers who confine 
their remarks to the legitimate work of our 
order, and avoid partisan questions are doing 
verv effective woi'k. 

There is a time and place for all things that 
are right. Fight for your party principles 
zealouslv in the political campaign, but in the 
grange campaign fight for grange principles 
only. We must avoid the " reef" upon which 
other farm organizations have met ship- 
wreck. Fraternally yours, 

J. H. Brigham, 
Master National Grange, P. of H. 






that are i n 
any way dan- 
I gerous or of- 
' fensive, also 
patent medi- 
c i n e s , nos- 
t r u m s , and 
empirical preparations, whose 
ingredients are concealed, will 
not be admitted to the Expo- 

Why was Ayer's Sarsaparilla admit- 
ted ? Because it is not a patent medicine, 
not a nostrum, nor a secret preparation, 
not dangerous, not an experiment, and 
because it is all that a family medicine 
should be. 

At the 


Chicago, 1893. 
Why not get the Best? of 





















con PAN Y. 



New Dried Apricots 

If you have a parcel to offer, submit samples to us. 
We are the principal handlers. 



Capital Paid Up »1, 000, 000 

Reserve Fund and llnilividetl Profits, 130,000 
Dividends Paid to .Stockliolders. . . . 833,000 


A. D. LOGAN President. 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER.... Cashier and Manager. 
PRANK Mcmullen Secretar.v. 

Gener.'il Bankins-. Deposits Received. Gold and 
Sliver. Bills of Exchantie Bontriit and Sold. Loans 
on Wheat and Countrv Produce a SpeciaU.v. 

Januar.v 1. 1894. A. MONTPELLIER, Manatrer. 

CPPnWHbAI .Square ulad.Ww Red Wonder'! 
O k ^ LJ Winter Fife.EiirlyKed OlawBon and improved 
Fultz Whe it. Mammoth White Polish and Finland Rye. 
Send 2c stamp for Samples and Catalogue of Seed Wheat, 
Trees, Plants, Potatoes and Seeds f. r l-'all Planting. 
Snin'l Wilson, iked g,oK'r, ,«lecbnnic8Ville, Pa. 


A man aslied the Rural New Yorker what 
wire fence would hold liis unruly bull. Sev- 
eral e.xperieneed readers answered that The 
Page would do it, one statins that "nothing 
short of a traction engine would go through 
it." Wo are now looking for a real vicious 
engine and propose to back The Page In a 
siiuure figlit for the championship. 

Looli out for i)articulars. 



Business College, 

34 Post Street, - - - San Francisco. 


This College instructs in Shorthand, T.vpe-WrltinE. 
Bookkeepinpr. Telog-rapby. Penmanship. Drawing, 
all the English branches, and everything pertaining 
to business, for full six months. We have sixteen 
teachers and give individual instruction to all our 
pupils. Our school has its graduates In every part 
ot the State. Send for Circular. C. S. HALEY. Sec. 



The German Savings and Loan Society, 


For the half-year ending June 30, 1894, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of five (5) percent per 
annum on Term Deposits, and tour and one-sixth 
(4 1-6) per cent per annum on Ordinary Deposits, 
payable on and after MONDAY, July 2, 1894. 

GEO. TOURNY", Secretary. 


The Pacific Rural Press 


San Francisco. July 18, 1894. 

WHEAT— There is not much trading in progress 
just now. but dealers expect more activity as the 
season wears along. July is not usually a very 
lively month for export operations, and no great 
total in the shape of grain cloaranres is probable 
until after August is entered. From that time for- 
ward business is apt to be somewhat brisk. The 
market can be quoted easV at SHlc ctl. for stand- 
ard shipping Wheat, with M'/.c for a choice article. 
Poor qualities sell down to TlXnT.ic V ctl. Milling 
Wheat is quotable at a range of $l(n I I16M "# ctl., 
the latter being a full figure. 

BARLEY— There is no great momentum to the 
Barley market, trade being confined to light job- 
bing demands. The market is not heavily stocked 
with feed descriptions, though there is enough of- 
fering to satisfy all present requirements. Hold- 
ing is rather firm than otherwise, particularly of 
choice old quality. There is nothing doing in 
Brewing and quotations are altogether nominal. 
One lot of new Chevalier has been received, but it 
was of inferior quality. No good stock has yet 
changed hands, so it is impossible to furnish guid- 
ing quotations. We quote feed: New, 82'/i(a.82Mc: 
Old, 85@87V4c ; Brewing, new. nominal. 

OATS— Trade is of dragging character. Very 
little disposition is shown to buy, while the few- 
lots that do change hands are of insignificant pro- 
portions. Prices have undergone no material 
change, though the tendency is certainly not up- 
ward We quote: Milling, $1 !H'4(S>1 IH'/a : Sur- 
prise, *1 SlYiCml 42!4; fancy feed. $1 30@1 3214: good 
to choice, Jl'lS&l 25: poor to fair, *i;03H@l 12'/4: 
Black, nominal; Red, nominal; Gray, $1 15@1 25 
* ctl. 

CORN— Slow demand. Stocks not large. Quot- 
able at $1 2f)@l 22'4 for large Yellow, $1 SS%@\ 35 
for small Yellow and *1 -HI® I 45 for White. 

CRACKED CORN— Quotable at $27 50@28 50 

CORNMEAL— Millers quote feed at $27fa328 ^ 
ton; fine kinds for the table in large and small 
packages, 2%@SHc lb. 

OILCAKE MEAL— Quotable at $35 ¥ ton from 
the mill; jobbing, $37.50. 

COTTON SEED OILCAKE— Quotable at $.30 ? 
ton; jobbing, $32.50. 

SEEDS — We quote as follows: Mustard. Brown, 
je(Si$2 25: Yellow, $3(ai$3 25: Trieste, $2 .500; $2 75: 
Canary, 3@4c; Hemp,35^ to 4Mc ¥»; Rape, -ZCa-iV^c: 
Timothy, eVsC ^ lb; Alfalfa, lOgillHc; Flax, $3@ 
$3 25 ^ ctl. 

MIDDLINGS— Quotable at $19®aO ^ ton. 

MILLSTUFFS— We quote: Rye Flour. 3Hc: 
Rye Meal. 3c; Graham Flour, 3c: Oatmeal. 4}<(c ; 
Oat Groats, 5c; Cracked Wheat, SMc: Buckwheat 
Flour, .5@5Mc: Pearl Barley, 4ii to 4iic ¥ ft; Nor- 
mal Nutriment, $3 case of 1 dozen cans; Break- 
fast Delight, $3 25 case of 2 dozen packages. 

FEED— Manhattan Horse Food (Red Ball Brand) 
in 100-ft cabinets. $8; Manhattan Egg Food, 100-ft 
bags, $11 50. 

BRAN— Quotable at $I6@$17 f, ton. 

HAY— The market is crowded with supplies, 
there being much delayed stock coming to hand 
by rail. As a consequence, there is a weak tone 
to prices. Wire-bound Hay sells at $1 per ton 
less than rope-bound Hay. Following are the 
wholesale city prices for rope-bound Hay : 
Wheat $9(a$12 50; Wheat and Oat, $8r«:ll: Wild 
Oat, $8&10: Alfalfa, $7&>$9; Barley, $«r<f,$9 .50: 
Clover, $'8@ 10 50; compressed, $9^11; Slock, .$6@7 
^ ton. 

STRAW— Quotable at — (a— c ^ bale. 
HOPS— No buyers. Nominal at 9®12c t> lb. 
RYE— Market very quiet. Dull at 90(a'97V4c ctl. 
BUCKWHEAT— Quotable at $1 10(3)$I 20 'f ctl. 
GROUND BARLEY— Quotable at $19 50@20 ^ 

POTATOES — Business is fairly active, keeping 
prices moderately steady. We quote: Early Rose, 
30(Si40c in sacks and .SOc to 55c f ctl in boxes : 
Whites, 35@.50c in sacks and 40c to 60c in boxes. 
Sweets, .3(Ss4c V lb. 

ONIONS— Steady inquiry at 2.5(ai35c * ctl for 
Red, and 50(3 «.5c for White. 

DRIED PEAS— We quote: Green, $1 50 to $1 75: 
Blackeye, $1 60@$1 65; Niles, $1 .50 to $1 75 ^ ctl. 

BEANS— Shipping has been resumed and some 
activity is reasonably expected. One firm to-day 
sent of! 11 carloads to various southern point.s, 
mostly to Texas and Arizona. Bayos, >t2 .■3ii(S.t2 40: 
Butter, $1 90 to $2 for small and $2((f2 20 for large; 
Pink, $1 75(ai$l 80; Red. $2(5,$2 05; Lima, 60 to 
$3 75; Pea, $2 65ei$2 75; Small White, $2 50 to 
$2 75; Large White, $2 .50(a.$2 65 ^ ctl. 

VEGETABLES — Liberal consignments come 
through daily from all directions. Prices as a 
rule are in favor of buyers. We quote : Green 
Okra, $1 ? box; Egg plant, $1(5 1 25 ^ box: Cucum- 
bers, 20(n ,35c for Vacaville, and .30ra .50c -f box for 
bay; String Beans. 2,5c@$l per sack; Summer 
Squash, 20(n :«c per box: Green Corn, 75cffl$l 25 ¥ 
sack for common and 17l4(n20c ^ dozen for bay; 

Berkeley Corn. $Un.l 25 per box; Marrowfat Squash, 
$20 ¥ ton; Hubbard Squash, —(5— f ton ; Green 
Peppers, 2.5(a50c ^> box for Chile and 25(afiflc fi box 
for Bell; Tomatoes, 'Muitk- f" box; Turnips, 
7.5c f ctl: Beets, 7.5c sack: Parsnips, $1 25 
ctl; Carrots, a5(aj40c; Cabbage, 60(a»75c; Garlic, 1V^(5^ 
2c ^ ft; Cauliflower, 60(»70c t» dozen; Dry Peppers, 
17V4®20c f> ft: Dry Okra, — c Tf ft. 

FRESH FRUIT— Shipping by rail has been re- 
newed, and the local market is not likely to be 
furnished quite so lib(!rully as it has beeii for the 
past two weeks. But there is no doubt that sup 
plies will be large enough to more than satisfy 
trade wants. Figs are still dumped, being 
over-ripe. White Nectarines, 30(5 50c box: 
Red Nectarines, 40(3>50c ~f box; Crabapples, 25(ai40c 
box; Grapes, 2.5(a..50c ¥ box; Peaches, 2.5fa't)(te 
box and 40(aj65c "# bskt; Crawfords, 40ra66c ^ 
box and ,30(5)50c bskt: Black Figs, 25@35c box 
for Mayers and 50(ci 75c for 2-layers ^ box : White 
Figs, Mayer, 2.5(<i 30c; 2-layers, 3.5(gi50c; Cherries 
Royal Ann, 15(5.3llc 1> drawer and Ift/ IV^c ? ft for 
loose; Cherries, black, 2.5fa 40c ^ box; do, loose, 
2(ai3c ¥ ft; Apricots, Koyal, 2,5(5 40c 1?, box, 20(5)3.50 
bskt, and ^iftulc H ft in bulk; Moorpark Apri- 
cots, 4t»@i50c "# box and ai(3i45c •Ji bskt; Plums, 
i/, ¥ Ih; Apples, 25(®7.5c box, and 1,5(5 25c 
^ bskt; Pears, common, 25(5 40c IS* box and 20(6i25c 
Ifi bskt; Bartlett Pears, .30gii65c i» box; Canta- 
loupes, $1 50®3 50 V crate; Watermelons, $2 50@3 50 
¥ dozen. 

BERRIES — Prices continue low, receipts being 
liberal. Wequote: Raspberries, $2ra 3 .50 ^ chest ; 
Strawberries. $2 50@4 "#( chest for Sharpless and 
$8(2)10 for Longworths; Blackberries, $1 75@3 ^ 

CITRUS FRUIT— Stocks of Lemons are not 
large and prices are steadier. Fair demand pre- 
vails for both Limes and Lemons. We quote: 
Mexican Limes, $3 .5U'«4 t^box; California Lemons, 
$1 25(at2 for common and $2 .50@3 for good to 
choice; Bananas, $1 .50(512 50 If* buucb; Pine- 
apples, $1®4 ^ dozen. 

DRIED FRUIT— Much fruit, Intended for green 
slkipnent, has been dried ou account of the rail- 

road blockade, so that the output of many kinds 
will be quite large. Bids of 4;4c are said to be 
made for new Prunes, four sizes, September de- 
livery We quote as follows : Apples 5(*^ec 
for quartered, 5(a6c for sliced, and 9®Ilc for 
evaporated; Pears, 6® 8c ¥ lb for bleached halves 
and2®4cfor quarters; bleached Peaches, August- 
September deliver. 6c bid, 6'4 asked; sun-dried 
Peaches, 7c ?i ft August-July delivery; Apricots. 
7«(2i8'4 * ft spot, 7y3C for July and Tc tor August 
delivery : Prunes, spot. 5®,5i4c for the four siz(3s, 
-c for the five sizes and 3'/,®4c for small; 
Plums, 4®5c for pitted and IHc to 2c for un- 
pitted; Figs, black, S(a:Ac for pressed and l'/s®2c 
for unpressed; White Nectarines, — ®— c; Red 
Nectarines, — ®— c ^ ft. 

RAISINS— California Layers, 60c®|l; loc^e 
Muscatels, in boxes, .50<« 75c; clusters, $125@150; 
No 1 loose in sacks. 2'4ra :^c f> lb; No. 2, do, 2M® 
2i/jc; dried Grapes, m(a l%c ^ lb. 

HONEY— Light stocks keep prices steady and 
firm' Business, however, is of small volume. 
We quote as follows: Comb. 10'4c to ll'/jc 
for bright and 9(&K)c for dark to light am- 
ber- water white extracted, 6>4Ca'7c; amber ex- 
tracted, 5'/2® Rc; dark, 4%®5;4c 1> lb. 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 24@2.5c ^ lb. 

BUTTER— The market is weak, supplies being 
large More or less accumulation of stock is 
seen at the various depots, as the outward 
movement has been very light for the past 
two weeks. We quote as follows: Fancy 
Creamery, 15'/.@I6!4c; fancy dairy, 14!4® 15c; good 
to choice, 13@14c: store lots, ll®12c; pickled roll, 
new, 17®19c 1* lb. 

CHEESE— Quiet but steady at old figures. 
We quote as follows: Choice to fancy, 8c to 8v;c; 
fair to good, 6H to 7'/gc; Eastern, ordinary to Une. 
14® 15c ¥ ft. 

EGOS—Prices have softened considerably with- 
in a few days, owing to liberal forwarding from 
nearly all shipping points. Consignments of East- 
ern are expected now that transportation has been 
resumed We quote: California ranch, 18®20c, 
with occasional sales at 21c; store lots, KS®15c 
'f* dozen; Eastern eggs, nominal. 

POULTRY— Arrivals are in excess of the de- 
mand, while consignments of Eastern are likely 
to come along any day. The market, therefore, is 
anything but strong as regards prices: We quote; 
Live Turkeys— Gobblers, 13(51.50: Hens, 1.3® 15c; 
Roosters, $4®4 50 for old, $4 ma 6 ."jO for young ; Broil- 
ers, $1 50® 2 50 for small and $.3(«3 .50 for large; 
Fryers, $4®5; Hens, $4®4 50; Ducks, $3(55; Geese, 
$1(5 1.-25 ¥ p-air; Pigeons, $1.25®1.50 ¥ dozen. 

GAME— Nominal. 

PROVISIONS — Fresh supplies of Eastern 
Hog product are expected in the near future, 
when a decline in quotations is almost cer- 
tain. We quote as follows; Eastern Sugar- 
cured Hams, 17@18c ^ ft; California Hams, 14 
®>1.5c; Bacon, Eastern, extra light, sugar-cured, 15 
®16c; medium, 10c; do, light, lOHc; do, light, bone- 
less 1,3c; light, medium, boneless, lU4(ail2c; Pork, 
extra clear, bbls, $20: hf bbls, $10.50; clear, bbls 
$19; hf bbls $10; boneless Pig Pork, bbls, $21 50; hf 
bbls. $11; Pigs' feet, hf bbls, $4 75; Beef.mess, bbls, 
$7 50 to $8; do, extra mess, bbls, $8 .50(5 $9; do, fam- 
ily. $li)((i$10 .50; extra, do, $ll(a$ll 50 bbl; do, 
smoked, 9(5.1(lc; Pickled Tongues, hf bbls,$8; East- 
ern Lard, tierces, 7^i(u8c; do, prime, steam, 9!/2C; 
Eastern, pure, lU-ft pails, 91/50; .5-ft pails, 9Hc; 3- 
ft pails, 95sic; California, 10-ft tins, 9c; do, 5-lb, 
9J4c; do, kegs, 10'/»c; do, 20-ft buckets, 10c; com- 
pound, 7c for tierces. 

WOOL — The market continues in depressed 
condition. Some demand has prevailed for Hum- 
boldt and Mendocino descriptions, with sales 
footing up probably 150,000 pounds. The weekly 
report of Thos. Denigan, Son & Co. says; "For 
two weeks there has been no large business, 
though at the close of the week the shippers have 
been free buyers of Northern Wools at our quota- 
tions. There is yet a feeling that the tariff tinker- 
ing will prove abortive, and that Congress will ad- 
journ without final action, and shippers who have 
this opinion seem inclined to back their judgment. 
Scourers are making no new purchases." We 
quote spring: 

Year's fleece, f* ft 5@ 7c 

Six to eight months, San Joaquin, poor 5® 6 

Do, fair 6® 8 

Humboldt and Mendocino, fair 8@10 

Do, choice 12®)13 

Northern California 9@10 

Calaveras and Foothill 8® 9 

Oregon and Washington- 
Heavy and dirty 6®. 7 

Good to choice 8®il0 

Valley 10® 12 

Nevada — 

Heavy 6® 8 

Choice, light 9® 10 

HIDES AND SKINS— Quotable as follows : 

Sound. Culls. 
Heavy Steers, 54 lbs up, ^Mb. . . .4!4@45ic .33^®4c 

Medium Steers. 78 to 56 lbs 314@3?i 3 ®— 

Light, 42 to 47 pounds 3 ®XH 

Cows, over 50 lbs 3 @3M 

Light Cows, 30 to 50 lbs 3 @— 

Stags 3 ®— 

Kips, 17 to ,30 lbs 4 @— 

Veal Skins, 10 to 17 lbs 5 ®— 

Calf skins, 5 to 10 lbs 7 

Dry Hides, usual selection, 6'/sc; Dry Kips, S'Ac: 
Calf Skins do, 6'4c; Cull Hides, Kip and Calf, 4c; 
Pelts, Shearlings, 10f5;20c each; do, short, 2.5®. 3.5c 
each: do, medium, 40®50c each; do, long wool, .50(fii 
7.5c each; Deer Skins, summer, 25c; do, good 
medium, 15® 20c; do, winter, ,5c 'f. lb; Goat Skins, 
2.5®40c apiece for prime to perfect, 10@20 for 
damaged, and .5c to 10c each for Kids. 

TALLOW— We quote; Refined, 5^®578C; ren- 
dered, 4>4®4Hc: country Tallow, 4c; Grease, 3@3Hc 
V lb. 


Prices keep uniform, there being arrivals enough 
to meet all demands. 

Following are the rates for whole carcasses from 
slaughterers to dealers: 

BEEF— First quality, 5V4® 6c; second quality, 4H 
®,5c; third quality, 4@4ysC ^ lb. 
CALVES— Quotable at 5(5^7c f ft. 
MUTTON— Quotable at5Hfa!6i4c ~t lb. 
LAMB— Spring, 6H®7!/sC lb. 
PORK — Live Hogs, on foot, grain fed, heavy and 
medium, 4H(aiy^c: small Hogs, 4i4®4?ic; stock 
Hogs, 3'/4c; dressed Hogs, 6!<c@7c ^ lb. 

Fruit Exchange Bulletin. 



2 @— 

3 @— 

4 @- 
6 @— 

Following is Bulletin No. 18 in its 

complete official form: 

San Francisco, Wednesday, July l.Sth, 1894. 

To the Fruit-Gri>wc7K i>f California: — Cor- 
respondents whose letters have been held 
back by the blcK-kade of the mails rejxirt to 
the Exchange that apricots, peaches, prunes, 
and to a less extent i>ears, are showing effects 
due to the drouth of last winter and early 
spring. It is now certain that in some sec- 
tions where large yields have been counted 
upon, the product will be comparatively light. 
The suspension in shipping for the "past 15 
days is severely felt in all fruit sections. In 
addition to the losses on fresh fruit, dried 
apricots ready for early shipment have been 
delayed and now swell the offerings from 
later localities, with a tendency to make 
lower prices. The late at'tion on the part of 
producers and dealers to establish a system of 
grading for California dried fruits, and pro- 
vide for a competent committee to select and 
verify samples as standards for such grades, 
and to place the same within easy reach of all 
interested partie.s, is highly commended and 
will do much for the permanent advantage of 
the fruit industry. California dried fruit is 
assuming proportions of su(;h magnitude as to 
require the application of the very best 
methods known in business. It will require 
time and persistent effort to bring the system 
of grading recently adopted into general use, 
but when once established it will materially 
aid in enlarging the market for all varieties 
and making the l(x-alities that produce goods 
of superior guality better known. The terms 
adopted — "Fancv," "Ciioick," "Standard'' 
and "Prime" are familiar to the trade and 
will be readily understood. The standards 
will be .selected with a view to properly 
classify and at the same time to embrace all 
fruit of commercial value, so that it can be 
sold by grade instead of by unreliable sample 
I as formerly. 

To make the system complete and to realize 
I the best prices, fruit should be brought to- 
gether at convenient points in large quantities 
convenient for shipment, placed in fruit ware- 
i houses constructed for the purjxjse, owned 
I and controlled by assCH-iationsof fruit-growers, 
and there manipulated, graded, packed and 
t labeled under skillful management, using the 
I most approved appliances. All the "fancy" 
and much of the "choice" should be put up 
in neat packages of .5, '25 and 50 pounds. All 
such packages should be lined with pajwr im- 
pervious to air and moisture, and the fruit 
so protected from all damaging influences as 
to guarantee its good appearance when opened 
for use. Each package should be nicely 
labeled to denote, in addition to the kind and 
grade, the locality where grown and the 
person or association producing the same. 
The small package should be packed in cases 
to eorresjxind with the larger ones. The com- 
mon impression among growers that they are 
no longer responsible for the appearance or 
keeping qualities of dried fruit after they 
once sell or part with the same, has done 
much to deteriorate the quality and lessen 
the value of all kinds of dried fruit. 

All manufactured articles, especially food 
products, arc finally tested by the consumer 
at the time of using and are valuable only as 
they stand such test. If from any cause they 
became injured or deteriorate in quality or 
flavor before reaching such consumer — and 
many months may intervene — their market 
value is destroyed to that extent, and such 
injury or loss eventually falls upon the pro- 
ducer. Hence experience has taught all man- 
ufacturers to so pack and protect their prod- 
ucts that their appearance and value are un- 
changed until they reach their destination 
and enter into consumption. This sensible 
business regulation will apply with equal 
force to all kinds of dried fruit and should be 
carefully observed if they are to be made 
a standard article. 

Under the operation of influences referred 
to in our bulletin of last week, the situation 
respecting dried apricots is less satisfactory 
than at that time. Just why this should be 
so, is not clearly underst(X)d. No fruit has, as 
yet, actually reached the Eastern market, and 
it would seem absurd that prices should be 
regulated before an appeal to the test of actual 
consumptive demand. However, it must be 
admitted that the face of things in the local 
market is not .so bright as it was a week ago. 
At the same time we see no reason to retract 
the statement then made that if the goods 
can be sold and delivered as the market re- 
quires them, better prices than those quot- 
able will prevail. It .should be known that 
the goods which seem to have fixed the pres- 
ent selling price- ranging about 7)4^ cents per 
lb.— were chiefly early and small varieties. 

Peaches are being quoted by dealers — f. o. b. 
at California points — at prices ranging from 
from 5 to 6 cents. 

California Fruit Exchange, 
B. F. Walton, Pres. 

Compared with 1892, the fallinf^ off was 
over 50 per cent for Russia. Gormany. 
Italy, Ireland and Enjy^land furnished 
a much smaller number of imniiijrants, 
while the fif^ure for Poland fell from 
83,299 for 1892 to 13,664 for 1893. 

To Peach Growers and Canners. 

The "American Cling-stone Pitting Co.'' 
make an announcement in this issue of the 
Rt'RAL Press that is worth the attention of 
canners and fruit men generally. It includes 
letters from vi-ell-known people who have put 
the Cllng-stoue Pitter to the test of practical 
operation and who give their experience. Mr. 
Flickinger of San Jose, the Oakland Preserv- 
ing Co., the Los Gatos Canning Co., and 
others equally reliable, are in the list. It 
would seem from all the testimony given, that 
a really practical and satisfactory pitter has 
been found. 

During the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1893, a total of 502,917 immigrants 
of all nationalities entered the United 
States, a decrease of 120,167 from the 
preceding fiscal year. Europe sent 
488,832; Asia, 6999; the West Indies, 
3159; Oceanic, 2665; South America, 
610; and Africa, 327. German}^ con- 
tinues to send the largest number of 
immigrants, having contributed during 
the last fiscal year 96,361; Itulv comes 
next with 71,145; Ireland with 49,2.33, 
and England with 46,501, the total for 
the United Kingdom being 109,086. 
Russia decreased her population by 
sending us 37, 177 of her people, and 
Austria - Hungary furnished 59,633. 

Weather and Crops. 

Report of Sergt. .1. A. Barwick. Director State 
Weather Bureau. 
The average temperature for the week end- 
ing Julv Itith was: For San Francisco .>s°. 
Eureka .54°, Red Bluff s-i°, SacraraenU) 72°, 
Fresno 82°, Los Angeles l)(>° and San Diego (14°. 

As compared with the normal temperatures, 
a heat deficiency is everywhere shown, ex- 
cept at Red Bluff, where an excess of 2° is re- 
ported. The deficiency of heat at other points 
is as follows: San Francisco '.J°, Eureka 'i°, 
Sacramento and Fresno 1°, Los Angeles 0° antl 
San Diego 4°. 

The deficiency will be noticed to be quite 
general in southern California coast counties, 
while in the great fruit-belt regions of the 
Sacramento ami San .loaquin valleys tVie defi- 
ciencies are not great enough to retard Ihc 
rapid ripening of fruits. The reports show 
that they are ri{>ening very fast, and unless 
the present disturbances cease at once on the 
great shipping routes to the East, the valley 
orchardists will have to do the very best that 
can be done in saving their fruit by drying. A 
great cry, as with one voice, comes from the 
fruit belts praying for unobstructed roads and 
rapid transit to the East at once, and lasting 
at least long an(jugh for the great ci-op of i>er- 
ishablc fruit to reach markets where it is in 
the gi-catcst demand. 

Wheat continues turning out well, as 
does barley. The prosjiects for an abundant 
graiie crop were never better. Hops also 
promise a big yield. 

With such glowing prospects of abundant 
summer crops, it is a most heartrending sight 
to see the labor of the jxKirand iniKx-enl tillers 
of the soil come to naught, thereby placing 
them in a most unhapijy and precarious finan- 
cial position and condition. 

Colusa — Grain is being harvested fast, and 
is turning out better than expected. 
1 Butte — Grain in the county is turning out 
well. Near Gridley it is turning out from 1(1 
to 1'2 sacks per acre ; at Durham as high as 14 
sacks, while near Chico the crop is large, and 
the grain is large and plump. 

Sutter — Many wheat fields are turning out 
from 13 to Ki sacks to the acre, while some go 
20 sacks to the acre. Winter sown that was 
damaged .somewhat by the north wind is turn- 
ing out from 7 to 10 sa<'ks per acre. The wheal 
this season is all of choice quality, weighing 
from I'M to 153 pounds to the sack. Work has 
almost stopped on apricots. The warm weather 
is ripening the peach crop rapidly. Prunes 
are ripening fast and there is some danger ol 
a slight crop if very warm weather continues. 
The vineyards are in fine condition. 

Solano Grain of all kinds is turning out ex- 
ceptionally well. The wheat is yielding more 
than an average and the quality is better 
than usual. The farmers living on what is 
termed the Dix(jn ridge have never had larger 
crops of summerfallow than they have this 
year. Twenty sacks to the acre is nothing 
uncommon, and some of the yields are unpre- 

Sacramento— The weather has been all that 
could be desired for the fruit crop. On ac- 
count of the great strike, growers will \osi' 
heavily on all varieties of early plums and 
peaches, which will be a total loss. Pears arc 
now in their prime; trees are breaking down 
with their heavy crop. Hops are looking well. 

Sonoma- An extensive prune-raiser contra- 
dicts the statement that the crop of prunes 
will be short this year and claims that it will 
be fully as large as last year's yield. It is 
known that in some orchards along Russian 
river the cVop will exceed that of l.S'.)3 and fall 
a little behind the crop of two years ago. The 
quality of the fruit will be large and choice. 

Contrii Costa — Wheat is yielding better 
than at first expected. 

San Benito — The hay crop up in Bear Valley 
is turning out much better than expcctcci. 
In summerfallow the estimate is made that it 
will average about two tons to the acre, and 
winter sown about one ton. 

San Joaquin — Watermelons, instead of be- 
ing ripe and ready for sale ou July 4th, as they 
were last year, will not be plentiful much be- 
fore August 4th, according to our best water- 
melon experts. On the islands this season 
grain is not up to its usual standard. A large 
acreage is given to beans, which are generally 
looking well. 

Fresno (Easton)— The i>ast week has bee» 
hot. Everything is growing well. Apricol 
cutting has closed and the crop was a gootl one. 
Long-rooted weeds are now making a luxuri 
ant growth where the wheat crop was a fail 
ure. (Fresno.) Weather favorable for all 
crops. Highest and lowest temperatures. Km; 
and til. 

San Luis Obispo — Barley is not doing as well 
as expected. Dairy cows are doing much 
better than was expected. 

San Bernardino (Chino) The beet crop at 
the present time is in a most excellent condi 
tion. Its maturity will be somewhat latci 
than last year owing partly tx) the fact that 
the bulk of it is growing on the lower, damp 
land, and partly because the weather has con- 
tinued cool, thereby keeping up the growth of 
the plants. This assures a heavy tonnage per 
acre. (Redlands. ) Every indication is for a 
comparatively light crop of oranges all over 
southern California the coming year. 

Late experiments give considerable 
strength to the belief that the aurora 
borealis is caused by an electrical dis 
charge among the particles of nieteorit- 
iroD dust contaioedl m tbc atinospherc. 

July 21, 1894. 

The Pacific 

Rural Press 


Effect of riusical Notes on Explo- 

Some singular facts have been devel- 
oped in regard to the influence of musi- 
cal notes upon explosives. When an 
"intense" explosive is approaching the 
"critical" stage, and its molecules 
therefor are in a condition of very un- 
stable equilibrium, the sudden emission 
of a musical note will frequently bring 
matters to a climax and induce detona- 
tion. It has been found that of a cer- 
tain sample of dry fulmmate of mercury 
the lowest temperature at which it 
would explode was 342 deg. Fahrenheit, 
and portions exposed ta a heat of 335 
deg. for some time, allowed to cool and 
again heated to that degree (these 
alternations being several times re- 
peated), remained without change. 
Yet particles of the same fulminate, 
placed as before on an iron plate, but 
at a temperature of 310 deg. to 320 
deg. only, would generally explode 
sharply when certain notes were 
sounded near, upon a violin string or a 
cornet. With the human voice it was 
much more difficult to obtain an effect 
of this kind, but occasionally such an 
experiment would succeed. Similar 
results were noticed with most of the 
nitro-compounds, blasting gelatine in- 
cluded, while chloride and iodide of 
nitrogen were frequently so explodable 
at the ordinary temperature. Lascel- 
los-Scott, assuming that (a) the mole- 
cules of explosives were always in a 
condition of either linear vibration or 
spiral "swing;" (b) that the velocity 
of such oscillations was constant with 
each substance according to its compo- 
sition; (c) that the amplitude or wave 
length thereof varied with the tempera- 
ture; thought it not unreasonable to 
sujjpose, as the oscillations extended 
until they approached the point of dis- 
ruption, that the impact of sound 
vibrations bearing some simple numeri- 
cal relation to their own might carry 
those molecules too far, and thus pre- 
cipitate their severance. Whatever 
the true explanation of the phenome- 
non may be, it is certain that a given 
(explosive) substance may be more 
readily detonated by a certain note; 
for instance, with a "pitch" wherein 
(the third space in the treble clef) was 
i"e presented by 538 vibrations per 
second, the nitro series of explosives 
seemed to be most influenced by the 
note F; the fulminates by the treble D; 
and the upper B-flat more successfully 
detonated iodide of nitrogen than any 
other note. These are decidedly un- 
comfortable details, and one cannot 
help sijeculating on the extent to 
which the ^jrogramme of a regimental 
band on parade might have to be modi- 
fled in consequence of the vicinage of a 
given explosive " approaching its criti- 
cal temperature." 

Not many days ago, says the New 
York lltnihl. a few gentlemen con- 
nected with the telegrai)hic or electric 
business were assembled in a room in 
the eleventh story of the new Postal 
building on Broadway. They had not 
been there very long when astonish- 
ment was depicted on their faces, and 
by and bj' found expression in words. 
A book on the table about which they 
stood or sat was speaking. "Is it 
possible," exclaimed Mr. Chandler of 
the Commercial Cable Company, " that 
those spoken words can come from that 
book?" " Yes, it is," said Mr. Francis 
W. Jones, the electrician of the com- 
pany; "that is Mr. Mai-shall's tele- 
phone." W. Marshall, of No. 709 Lex- 
ington avenue, had prepared this 
remarkable feat for the electricians. 
He began by taking up an ordinary 
book and placing in the leaves several 
slips of tin foil, about one and a half 
inches wide and four inches long. Then 
he attached a couple of flne wires to 
another room, where they were at- 
tached to the transmitter of a tele- 
phone. Then a conversation began, 
with Mr. Marshall in one room and one 
of the persons in the room where the 
book lay. Each word that came from 
the book could be distinctly heard in 
every corner of the room. The visitors 
had never experienced anything of the 
kind before, and they said it would 
eventually revolutionize telegraphy. 

The Chemistry of Cleansing. 

Prof. Lewis, ui his lecture on "The 
Chemistry of Cleansing," has put some 
scientific facts into very plain lan- 
guage. He says that dust is one of 
the materials which nature used for 
her cleaning-up processes. This comes 
about since dust contains "germs," 
which, by provoking and aiding decay, 
resolve matter which nature wishes to 
remove into the elementary constitu- 
ents of carbon-dioxide and water 
vapor. As for these germs, we swal- 
low, each of us, some six million in a 
day, and when nature arrives at the 
conclusion that we are so feeble that 
we need removing, a few of these are 
specially utilized. Prof. Lewis spoke 
of the usefulness of tea leaves in rid- 
ding us of dust, and then passed on to 
the substitute for tea leaves, which we 
use to get rid of the dust accumulated 
on our skins — soaj). The reason that 
mere rinsing in water will not take the 
dirt from our hands is that the natural 
oil of our skins glues the dust. The 
action of soap dissolves this union. 
Soap may theoretically be said to con- 
sist of alkalies, of olaic and of stearic 
acid. An alkali of itself would loosen 
the dust from the fatty matter on our 
skins, but alkali by itself is injurious to 
the skin. Here the two oily acids come 
in; they counteract the effect of the 
alkali, and have also a modifying effect 
on the skin itself. Prof. Lewis said 
that he spoke of the "perfect soap," 
as against the ordinary soap of com- 
merce. There is a good deal sold which 
is not perfect, which contains an excess 
of alkali — or an excess of water — 
profitable only to the manufacturer. 
Prof. Lewis added, with a touch of 
humor, that the object of some manu- 
facturers seems to be to make water 
sufficiently stiff to stamp it into tablets. 
Some soaps contain 50 per cent of 

Sanitation by Sea Water. 

The new system of sanitation adopted 
in Havre — based upon the electrolysis 
of sea water — has proved a gratifying 
success. The electric current decom- 
poses the chloride of magnesium, while 
the chloride of sodium serves as a con- 
ductor, the result being a liquid disin- 
fectant of great power, being almost 
odorless, leaving no residuum when 
used for purposes of flushing, and is en- 
tirely inoffensive. The solid matter in 
sewage is instantaneously consumed in 
this solution, as well as the organic 
matter, what is left being simply an 
odorless and troubled liquid, incapable 
of fermentation, and containing only a 
few phosphates — the salts of ammonia 
and the salts of the disinfectant. Of 
the two classes of microbes anaerobic 
organisms, requiring air to live, the ac- 
tion of this chloride compound on the 
first is simple, for, as they cannot live 
in the presence of oxygen, their extinc- 
tion is swift and sure. The destruc- 
tion of the microbes which require free 
oxygen to support life is equally 

The Fatigue of Metals. 

A correspondent of Knowledgr shows 
that the phenomena of muscular fatigue 
correspond very closely to the fatigue 
of metals. Fatigue of metals — a phrase 
which has come into use only in recent 
years — describes a condition of the 
material not previously understood. 
It expresses the straining of the rela- 
tionship to each other of the molecules 
of which the metal is constituted, a 
meaning which the term weariness, or 
literally wornness, does not convey. 
Engineers are familiar with the facts 
that parts of machinei-y break down 
after having worked satisfactorily, and 
apparently with safety, for months, or 
it may be for years. The cause of such 
breakage, once a mystery, is now known 
to be fatigue. This principal is illus- 
trated in the breaking of a piece of 
wire. It is bent backward and forward 
until rupture takes place — from fatigue. 

If, however, metals are strained 
beyond the elastic limit, but not broken, 
and if the straining is not continued, 
the material will recover its elasticity 

by rest alone. Prof. B. W. Kennedy 
has clearly demonstrated this recuper- 
ative property of metals. Bars of 
steel and iron strained m a testing ma- 
chine beyond the elastic limit, and so 
weakened thereby that if they were 
tested again the following day they 
would take permanent set at one-third 
or less of their former load, would, if 
allowed to rest for about two years, be 
found not only to have recovered their 
elastic limit of strength, but to have ex- 
ceeded it and to have become stronger 
than before in the direction in which 
they had been pulled. If the period of 
rest was materially shortened, the 
restoration of strength was found to 
be corresjwndingly incomplete. 

This theory of fatigue holds good in 
regard to muscles as well as metals. 
Prof. Michael Foster pointed out last 
year that the muscles in the leg of a 
frog severed from the body, and caused 
under electrical stimulus to exert them- 
selves in work until thoroughly wearied, 
and no longer able to respond to the 
electrical excitation, will, with rest 
alone, recover their elasticity and be 
able to resume work as before. Prof. 
Foster demonstrated that the weariness 
was in the muscles and not in the nerve. 
The worn tissue could not, of course, 
be restored, but from the fatigue the 
muscles did recover, and it is clear 
that the fatigue which we experience 
in our own bodies must be largely 
fatigue in the technical sense, in addi- 
tion to weariness proper or wornness. 
Rest is therefore required, not only to 
enable waste tissue to be restored by 
fresh material from the blood, and by 
the carrying away of waste material, 
but also to afford opportunity for the 
strained molecules to recover a state 
of rejjose. 

Commission Merchants. 

The Strike Losses. 

IT is estimated the receipts of the railroad 
have been more than one million dollars 
less as a result of the strike than they 
would have been if no strike had taken place. 
No doubt the workingmen of this State 
directly interested in this strike have lost an 
almost equal amount in wages; but who can 
estimate with any degree of accuracy the loss 
that has fallen upon the general public. This 
loss has been particularly severe upon the 
farmers and fruit-growers, and we ask you 
What you are going to do about it ? You can- 
not " strike " back at anybody or anything and 
recover any of the losses, but you can combine 
in a Way to secure for yourself decided advan- 
tages. Why not take such a course. Capital 
combines for its own protection and advan- 
tage; Labor is combining in an attempt to 
enforce its demands, and why should not the 
rural population, the most important and pro- 
ductive class in the country, form combina- 
tions for their advantage. The opportunity 
to ally yourselves with such a movement is 
furnished by the Pacific Coast Home Supply 
Association, which was organized for the 
special purpose of purchasing all kinds of 
supplies at the lowest rates and shipping 
them direct to consumers. Why not use this 
medium for buying cheaply. Their success 
and advancement demonstrates in a most 
practical manner that as one of their patrons 
you would be able to "strike" out some of 
your expenses and " tie up " some of the drains 
on your pocket. 

will learn the,y can be of practical advantage 
to you. 


404&^06 DAVIS ST S.F. 




^ General Commission Merchants, fa 


Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

JOS' Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 




512 to 516 Sacramento St., San Francisco, Cal. 


HLAKE, McFALL & CO Portland, Or. 


Now is the time to ISuild Kvaporators if you 
desire to secure the Highest Price 
for this year's Fruit Crop. 

For description of machine guaranteed for quan- 
tity and quality of work, send for circular to 

T. & W. A. BECK, 
Watsonville, California. 

TREE - W/\Sl4. 

Olive Dip. 

"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pure Potash. 

T. \jyj . jf\CK.sor>i <& CO. 

Sole Agents. - - No. 5 Market Street, 


best varieties, ^ee from 
posts of any kind. I'runus 



D I r\ IVIT^^a Simoni, Bing, Rostra ver 
I » — -/-»1^ 1 ^3 and Murdoch Cherries; 
Klack California Figs; Rice Soft .Shell and 
otiKT Almonds: American Sweet Chestnuts; 
I'ricpartxiriens Walnuts. Hardy mountain irrown 
Orange Trees. Our orang-es have stood 22 degrees 
this winter witliout injury. Dollar Strawberry, 
the best berry for home use or market. Address 
C. M. SILVA & SON, Lincoln, Placer County, 


THE RANCHO AROIITAS.— Prices $35 to 
$125 per acre. This is the best rich sediment soil 
property offered in this State for the money. S. P. 
has station on the ranch, and only few miles from 
Watsonville Sugar Beet Refinery, This is a great 
country for sugar beets. For full particulars apply 

E. C. GODFREY, Crocker Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. 



• Tif*** STAMP FOB CATAUOeOEl -^fcff 

I n I O Dl I tbcBKsr 

(jlAtlTIKS or olhpr uUeDt bU> 
uihI olll <'i»ll; roiilrol tb. mod 
ilrluu> bone at all tlmrk It b th* 


l>rrnii>r U run iil.o be ni.ll an a mlM bit 

XC Sample mailed Sf .00. 
Nickel - - - 2.00. 



Napa Valley Nurseries. 

The Fruit Tree Planting Season being over for this season, attention is called to 


CHRYSANTHEMUMS, the best of th9 best, now ready. Fine young Plants for fall blooming. 
Ageratums, Achyranthus, Cyperus alternifolius, Palms, Fuchsias, Geraniums, Carnations. Fine 
Plants at low figures. 

A great variety of well-grown plants of the most favorite sorts. Send for Catalogue, 
A magnificent stock of fru' c. trees being grown for next season. 



The Pacific Rural Press 

July 21, 1894. 


Schuttlcr's Stool Collar Solid Steel Axle Wagon. 

The Latest 
and Best. 

Built on 



A Round Steel Axle reinforced past all bearings by a Malleable Sleeve on which are Stools for 
the Hounds and Bolster (or sand board). These are firmly^ clipped at both ends, forming a 
perfect truss, thereby insuring much greater strength than any wagon now on the market. 

DEERE IMPLEMENT CO., 305 & 307 Market St., San Francisco. 


JOHN A. LEUDKN. Mauaj.'. ! : K M. LKDUKN, Si cietaiy. OFFICE: 1 16 PHELAN BUILDING. Sun Kraii. im <>. « al. .Inn.- 7. I H93. 

<ieiitlpuieii : — We take the llh«>rty of ealliiitc your h Men t ion to the following test inioiiialH. from soin«> of our leHclini; eaiiiierieK. an<l a iiuuiber of otlierrt %ve eoulcl offer if iieeeHsary. Iiediiles 
beinK auariled the Sllv/er yvieda I at the MeelianieH" Institute iliirinn their exposition of 18!>;i. re^ardin^ our Cilnsr-Stone I'eaeli fitter. If you are interested in Cuttlrig and 
F*Ittlng; Cllng-Stone F*eaches would he ulaii to hear from .you. All eommunit'ations will reeeive our prompt attention. 


San JdSK, ('Ai-.. IX'c. 1891. 
Geutlemon: — In reply to your favor of Uec. 3d, 
it) which you reiiuest an expression of opinion 
from us as to the merits of your ClinK Poach 
I'itti rs. would say that we have operated the 
PitliTs quite extensively for the past two sea- 
sous, and we found thera lo be all that they 
were claimed lo be. and can recommend them 
as heiuf? the most rapid and practical Cling 
Pittiuf; Machines we have ever Icnowu of. 

Yours very truly. K. L. DAWSON. Mauafrer. 

t)AKi.AM>, Cal., April m:i. 
The American Cling-Stone Pitting Co.. San 
Francisco — Gentlemen: I cau cheerfully recom- 
mend lo canners and others having cling stone 
peaches to pit the pilling machine made by 
you. I have used them for the past two seasons and found them lo do the work for which Ihey are in- 
tended far better than any pilters I have heretofore used. I will give you an order for quite a number 
of them this season. R. HICKMOTT. 


., May 1:.', WXi.—Gi 
can say that il does all you ask of it. Very truly 

San Jose. Cai... May 1:.', 1MI3.— Gentlemen :— We used your Cling Peach Pilter this last seasoi 


— ; «» 

•n and 

W. F. BECK & CO., Commission Merchants. 

lia CAi.iKiiHMA St., San Fkanciscu. .Vpril 
12, 1893.— The American Cling-Stone Pitting Co.. 
San Francisco, Cal.— Geiitlemi u : We have used 
youi pitters some three years in our cauiiery ai 
Los Gatos, where they have given perfect satis 
faction. We have tried a great many others 
previous to these, and yours are the oiily oues 
that we have ever s<'en that we are willing to 
"tie" to. Take Ibis opportunity of cheerfully 
recommending them to any one who has occa- 
sion to pit cling stone peaches. We expect to 
use your pitters this year, just how many will 
depend on the number of orders we take for this 
grade of goods. Yours truly. 
I^OS GATOS CAN.MNG C( i . K. M. lit cU. I'rrs 

Oakland. April 29. IKrt. 

The American Cling-Stone Pilling Co.. .San Francisco. Cal.— Gentlemen:— II gives us pleasure lo 
say that we have used your Peach Pitters in our Cannery for the pa»t two years, and they have given 
entire satisfaction. We have .seen no machine that will do the work as well and economically as yours, 
consequently it is an indispensable article to us in our business. You may l(K)k forward to receiving 
our orders for more of .your machines for the coming season. How many we shall need we cannot state 
at this writing; every thing depends uixm the volume of business which we may do in cling ixaches. 

Yours respectfully. OAKLAND PKI-;SKKVING CO., per Nelson. 

Olive Trees. 


Improvef Rotary Grader. 

Send for our Book on Olive Culture. 

Ho\A/Iancl Bros., 



(-^.'i20 MARKET. ST.S.F.-,^ 



Smallest Size, Capacity Five T. nv l)i i. il Prunes per Day. 

p. SEBIRE & SONS, Nurserymen, Ussy, 
Calvados, France. 

Largest stock of KKI IT TKKK STOCKS, such 
as Apple, Pear, Myrotwlan Plum, Mahaleb and 
Mazzard Cherry, Angers Quince, Small Ever- 
greens, Forest Trees, Ornamental Shrubs, Koses, 

C. G. van TUBERGEN, JR., Haarlem, 

CHOICK Dl Tt'll HI I. US and Bulbous Plants. 



Garden and Agricultural. 

Catalogues free. Apply to C. C. ABEL & CO., 
Box 920, New York, or A. H. HARTEVELT, Box 
983, San Jose, Cal. 

For Grading Prunes, both green and dried. Walnuts, Pickles, Oranges. 

Dipping; Baskets and Prune Screens. 

D. D. WASS, 56 First Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


Corragut«d Stvel Htnge«. 

They are Stronger, Handsomer 
and coat no more than the old 
style. For sale by Hardware 
Dealers generally, but If not In 
your vicinity write the Manu- 
facturers. Send for " Biography 
ot a Yankee nlnge,"malled free 




Vol. XLVIII. No. 4. 


V- Y O It K T H V K A K . 

Officp. 'm Market Street. 

In the Alaskan Straits. 

In its illustration of Pacific Coast scenery, the 
Rural has carried its readers pretty much all over 
the regions between Arizona and Montana, and this 
week it makes a new and long jump to Alaska. The 
accompanying picture represents the steamer 
" Queen of the Pacific, ' lying at the wharf in Tread- 
well bay, and the background is the characteristic 
Alaskan scenery — lofty mountain masses, snow- 
crowned, rising abruptly from the sea. It is this 
grandeur of scenery which makes the voyage to 
Alaska a favorite one with summer travelers. From 
Puget sound to Sitka it is upward of a thousand 
miles, and for this whole distance the passage lies 
thi'ough a series 
of inside chan- 
nels — that is, 
through straits 
which lie b e - 
tween the main- 
land and a chain 
of islands a little 
off shore. The 
excur-sion ship 
is protected 
against both the 
winds and the 
waves of the 
<)])en sea and her 
passengers ride 
smoothly over 
wastes, wild but 
calm, amid soft 
and balmy airs. 
The magnificent 
mountains are 
never out o f 
view, affording, 
as the steamer 
slides smoothly 
along, a mov- 
i n g panorama 
matched no- 
where in the 

In the accom- 
panying view we 

have the steamer lying at the Treadwell dock with 
her passengers ashore, the taste of the artist being 
evidently for still life. We could wish that he had 
chosen a time when the decks were crowded, for one 
of the charms of the Alaskan voyage is the spectacle 
afforded by the passengers. The crowd which fills 
the excursion steamer is representative of almost 
every human condition, ranging in social rank from 
the European prince taking in Alaska as part of his 
grand tour down to the dark and squat savage re- 
turning from a season of hop-picking on Puget 
sound to his native wilds. There is the statesman 
takmg a rest, the merchant on his vacation, all 
manner of womanhood young or old, a crowd of col- 
lege boys, a mess of children and occasionally a stray 
young man — though here as elsewhere the man, 
neither too young nor yet too old, is the obvious so- 
cial void. But in spite of the overplus of women 
and the deficiency of men, there are fine times on 
shipboard, and nobody ever makes the trip to Alaska 
without giving it a sacred place in memory and fondly 
hoping to go again. 

The shore^ for the steamer makes numerous stops, 
affords abundant entertainment. The glaciers over 
which the excursionists always take a run, the sight 
of iceburgs dropping from them into the sea, the 
Indian villages with their novelty of wretched life 

and their grotesque savage ornamentation, the cu- 
rious remnants of Russian architecture — all these 
things are charming to the sight — though sometimes 
a little offensive to the smell — and in conjunction with 
the tranquility and the grandeur of the trip, long 
survive not ak)ne in the memory, but in the imagina- 
tion of the voyager. 

The trip from San Francisco to Sitka and return 
takes about one month, costs about $200, and for one 
who has the time and money to spare, we know of 
no more delightful way to spend them. 

Californian Architecture Again. 

A MEETING of the grape-growers and wine-makers 
of the southern tier of counties, held last Saturday 
at Los Angeles, appointed a committee to consider 


the advisability of tying up to the Syndicate project. 
A little later the committee reported in favor of a 
somewhat modified schedule as follows: Prices to 
growers per ton — First year, $9; second year, $10.50; 
third, fourth and fifth years, $14. Wine (sweet wine 
price) — First year, 25 cents per gallon; second year, 
30 cents per gallon; third, fourth and fifth years, .35 
cents per gallon. The saccharine strength is to be 
22 degrees, with a deduction of 50 cents per ton for 
each degree below 22. The grapes are to be ac- 
cepted by the Syndicate when ripe. This proposi- 
tion is a very notable departure from the Syndicate 
proposition as detailed on another page of this ])aper. 

Mr. Jos. Hunt of Santa Rosa, just returned from a 
trip East, tells the Democrat that the market is 
flooded with poor grades of canned and dried fruits. 
He " cites a case at Chicago where 200 tons of dried 
prunes were sent last spring and are still in cold 
storage with no present demand or market. In 
order to sell, cheap packing-houses in California have 
been putting up inferior grades of fruit. The East- 
em people are willing to buy superior goods at fair 
prices, and for known brands of good canned fruits 
there is a good market and a fair demand. In this 
connection there is an interesting reference in the 
Bulletin of the State Fruit Exchange on another page. 

On pages 5(), 58 and 59 of this paper may be found 
a series of three pictures which, in addition to the 
interest inherent in themselves, are interesting as 
illustrating the suggestions made in last week's 
Rural relative to a late fashion in Californian archi- 
tecture. The first of the series is a pictm-e of the 
Monterey county house at the late Midwinter Fail-, 
built in imitation of the early Spanish houses. The 
walls are of adobe and the roof is of tiles?. An ex- 
tension of the roof downward forms a wide-covered 
veranda. In larger buildings this extension of the 
roof was supported by arcades, which gave the 
space without the house and beneath the roof the 

character of a 
cloister. It was 
a style W(>11 suit- 
ed to the ma- 
terials lit hand 
and to the cli- 
mate; and our 
modern archi- 
tects are finding 
in it sugg(^stions 
for a charactfM-- 
istic Califoi'niun 
arch i t e c t u r e . 
The buildings of 
Stanford U n i - 
versity reflect 
this type; the 
California State 
building at the 
Columbian Ex- 
position was in 
the same fash- 
ion; and every 
1 a !• g e public 
building of re- 
C(>nt t'onsli-uc- 
t ion contains 
some hint at 
least of the rii])- 
idly forming 
taste in accord- 
ance with S]-an- 
ish lines. A very 

simple and pretty instance of it may be found in the 
new gymnasium at Belmont School illustrated by ex- 
terior and interior views on pages 58 and 59. This 
building, so far as our taste goes, leaves nothing to 
be desired either in the points of beauty of design or 
of adaptation to the purposes of its construction. 
And in addition to these merits, it has the special 
character of being as distinctly and typically Cali- 
fornian as the " Colonial " house is typical of New 
England or the Plantation house of the region south 
of Mason and Dixon's line. This fact cannot fail to 
be of value in promoting a wholesome State pride. 

Incidentally, the interior view shows sonu^ of the 
methods of physical training in a modern boys' school, 
of which Mr. Reid's establishment is one of the best 
in the whole country. This training, in spite of the 
fun made at its expense, is no small part of the ad- 
vantage of our modern school system. It gives a 
boy good carriage and manner, increases his physical 
stamina, and incidentally, since there is no manlier 
training than athletic competition in moderation, it 
aids in the development of the moral qualities or 
courage and hardihood. Wellington is said to have 
declared that Waterloo was won on the cricket-field 
at Eton. Who can tell but the future victories of 
the Republic are being won in the gymnasiums at 
Belmont and elsewhere? 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


.\ii.220 MaHft SI.; Klerulor. Xo. IJ h'ruiil St,.Saii Franci 


All subscribers payiiKT S:i In atlvanue will ri'celve 15 niCpnlliK' (one 
year an(l 13 weeks) credit. For fl in advance, lu montlis. I'c.r *I In 
.advance, live niontlis. 


1 IVtek. J Month. .5 .V./ii/Jw. / Vear. 

Per Line (apale) » .2.i « ..50 » I.2(J $4.00 

Half-Inch (1 square) 1.00 2..iO t..oO 22-00 

One Inch 1.50 5.00 IH.OO 42.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or readius notices, 
legal advertisements, notices appearing in extraordinary tyiw. or in 
particular parts of the paper, at special rales. Four Insertions are 
rated in a month. 

Keglstered at S. T. Postofflce as second-class mail mattec. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Anv subscriber sending an inquiry on any subject to the KUBAL 
Phess, with a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
columns of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 


E. J. WICKSON Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, July 28, 1894. 


ILLUSTRATIONS.— Excursion Steamer in Alaskan Waters. 49. 
Scenes on the Line of the Rillito Canal t'ompany. !)5. Monterey 
County Huildiug at the Midwinter Fair, hit. Modern Adaptation 
of Kiirly Californian Architecture— Gymnasium at Belmont 
School. .W. Interior View of (ivmnasium at Uelmout School. .W. 

EDITORIALS.— In the Alaskan Straits; Californian Architecture 
Again; Miscellaneous, 49. The Week, 50. From an Independent 
Standpoint, .il. Reader and Editor. 52. 

HORTICULTURE.— Currant Growing on the Pacific Coast, 52. Fruit 
and .Nil Is as Food and Urink. Xi. 

FRUIT I'RESERVATION. — Suf,'gested Improvements in Prune 
Handlint,'. :iX 

THE DAIRY — Testing and Churning: Dairy Notes, .VI. 
THE IRRIGATOR.— A Great Enterprise in Arizona; Economical 
Irrigation, .t5. 

THE POULTRY YARD.— Turkey Growing; Suggestions for Mr. 
Wright, X. 

CEREAL CROPS.— Must Hn^adstuffs Come to Stock-Feed Prices? 

CORRESPONDENCE —Mr. Edward F. Adams on the Strike, 57. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— The Golden Mean; The Mariner and the 
Boy; ('\irious Filets; Fashion Notes, 58. Hints to Housekeepers; 
Ro'tlLsi-hild's Maxims; Smiles, .^)9. 

THE VOUXd FOLKS.— The Traveling Calf; A Little Gentleman; 
He Was Right ; Items, 29. 

MISCELLAN EOUS.— A Slice of Cheese, 60. Fruit Exchange Bulle- 
tin; Weather and Crops, 62. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. — Random Thoughts; Secretary's 
Column, (il. 




Stump Puller- California Stump Puller Co 64 

Water Tanks— W. E. Hampton 64 

The Week. 

Wedttier nn<l 

where most of 

The e.xcess of temperature comes 
iigahi this week just where it will 
do most good — in the interior, 
the fruit is casting its fragrance on 
the hot, dry air. In the coast fruit region.s there 
have been morning fogs and a slight deficiency of 
heat, but the coast fruit drying is hardly at its height 
yet and the mornings may clear when that time 
comes. Meantime the overcast skies are very kind 
to the pastures and the hop yards and the vegetable 
fields. On the whole, the weather during the week 
has been about as good all around as it could be, and 
that is about all there is to say of it. The harvest is 
l)roce('ding on lines indicated before: the outcome is 
a little farther from a failure than was anticipated, 
and the wretched value afHicts the grower more than 
the size of the crop. Hay is abundant, and even this 
crop is selling for less than was thought possiljlc. 
Fruit is going eastward with a rush. We can give 
the eastern people the best peaches and grapes they 
ever saw this year. 

tile interest. The two interests, after canvassing 
Ihe wliole ground, agreed upon the following sched- 
ule, to govern for five years, and it stands as the 
basis of the proposed engagem(>nt: 

Hi ifniff ItmifftLnNiiii 



i X s - s 

S S £ § 

P-2 g 

-~ o 



j J* 2 

g § s s 


■ E 



1 s s § s 

g O 
• 3 ^ 





3 a 

■ 9 





S S i S 

g ? i % 



X 5"' a 

1 s g s s 



4 E 

O Cf* 

? 1 f 1 



ce "t. — 

2. 2. — 2. 

ox X X 

3 SO 
a— 3 

ac X » * 

s: — 1 



H 3 
s: C. 


1 ? ■' ? 

O *^ 
3 S 





: ^ 2 2 2 

1 J X X X 

5.2 a 

CC 3* 

X ti' X 
1 X X X V 

a z 


mediately to save it from utter destruction. Several 
causes have combined to produce this condition, but 
it is due chiefly to fierce comi)etition among the 
dealers, operating on one hand to cut the prices of 
California wines in the general markets, and on the 
other hand to reduce the jn-ices paid to growers. 
Under the influence of this demoralizing eoinpetition 
the business has reached a ])oint where there is no 
])rolit in it cither for grower or dealer. The present 
plan is a united etlort on the part of the two interests 
—a })ull altogether to drag the business out of the 
slough uito which it lias fallen. The importance of 
this effort will be undei'stood when it is remembered 
that the investment in the wine-producing business 
in California approximates $60,000,000, and that at 
least two-thirds of this must be a dead loss sliould 
the conditions of last year continue. Without some 
sort of combined effort— and the way proposed seems 
the only practicable way — this year's crop of wine 
grapes will not yield more than the cost of liai-- 

Col. Ilersey on 
Ihe Situation. 

The Proposed Viti 
roltural Compact. 

A "grape grower who has not kept 
pace with the movement for or- 
ganization of the viticultural in- 
terest" asks the Rural to 'explain the matter 
from its foundation." To an.swer this request will 
involve the threshing over of straw already pretty 
well worked in these columns, and we can only do it 
in brief fashion: On June 1st of this year the State 
Viticultural Commission called a meeting of vine 
growers to consider ways and means of bettering the 
condition of the wine industry of California. At this 
meeting there was an attendance of about forty per- 
sons, representing all the leading wine-making local- 
ities, and the result was the nomination of a com- 
mittee of seven — P. T. Rison of Sonoma. F. Bar- 
ringer of Napa, John Swett of Contra Costa. L. A. 
West of San Joaquin and Fresno, E. C. Bichowsky of 
Los Angeles. Win. Wehner of Santa Clara and C. J. 
Wetmore of Alameda — to devise means and plans and 
with powei- to act. After considering and re- 
jecting many propositions, this committee finally hit 
upon the plan of all the growers selling at an 
agreed price to a combination of dealers, the idea 
being to insure the producing interest a fair price by 
insuring the mercantile interest against competition. 
Under this plan the combination among the pro- 
ducers was to take the form of a common pledge to 
sell for a term of five years at a fi.xed schedule of 
prices to a "Syndicate" representing the mercan- 

Sound wines now in cellar at 10 cents per gallon, except those made | 
from varieties above desifrn.'ited b.v a which are to be valued b,v ex- 
pert arliltratlon and taken at that rale. The winee Of ISSW or older to | 
be removed before September l.'ith. l.HiM. , 

All prapes to be sound and ti> have at leaH( 'i'l ijer cent sngrar. and to 
be deliv-u'ed at (he wiueri*-s uf Ihe ])ureli; in Ihe eount.v. Any 
deheieuey in svi^'.-d- will be dt-dueied as fi,>ll(i\\ M: 

Fifty cidls i)iT ton less than sehedide in iec- lor each deifree of auenr | 
below tl <lf;freeH ( Ii;illint-') and down to 29 di-fri-<-e» (Balling). 

One dollar per Ion for every degree of sutfar less I ban iO degrees 

All wines to be di-llvered at a rallwa.v terminal point. 

Payments to be made as follows: One-third tmmediatel.v after re- , 

celpt of iroiiils. o third by three months acceptance, and one-third ■ 

by six uioiitli.s aeei-i>tanee. 

All wines tocunliiiii at least 11 percent iiU-ohol (by voluiuel. 

All future wines to be ;iceepted on or before December :tlsl of each 
.vear. ami to be removed by the tirsl day of March following. Should ) 
an.v wines remain lu Ihe hands of the seller after March 1st. the pur- , 
cliitser will pay the owner of such wines one-duarter of a cent per ! 
gallon int)re foe every inoiith after M;ii'eh 1st such wine Is stored. 

All paek.-ijres for slilpiiH-iil to b«- riirulsJied by the s<-ller and to be 
returned promptly by the purchaser, well rinsed and sulphured. ^ 

These prices and conditions are much better than 
those which have prevailed of late, and although not 
large, are admitted to be quite sufficient to put tlie 
industry again on its feet. As to the personnel of 
the syndicate, there is some question. Mr. Herman 
Bendel, the wholesale grocer and a large handler of 
California wines, is the chic^f mover, and it is under- 
stood that Mr. Carjn' is also a leading spirit. These 
gentlemen offer personal assurances that the .syndi- 
cate, or proposed purchasing organization, will be 
resj)onsible and strong enough financially to carry I 
out all engagements. The reservation of the names 
has been construed unfavorably by many growers, 
but it is explained as a business necessity, designed 
to hold the syndicate open until the last possible 
moment, with the hope of getting in some houses that 
are slow to act. It is naturally wished to attract to 
it every possible element of strength, although it is 
claimeiJ that as now organized it is amply able to 
perform any pledge made in its behalf. This jiropo- 
sition has been before the growers for a month, and 
the four counties of Sonoma, Napa. Santa Clara and 
Alameda have been canvassed for definite pledges 
from the growers. The result is that 7.") ])cr cent of 
them have signed an agreement which binds them j 
to an option on their products by the syndicate 
for the period of five years at the contract 
jirice. A few hold off from general objections 
to any or all such engagements, and a few 
others because the per.sonnel of the syndicate is 
withheld. It is believed that a further canvass will 
bring the combination of growers in the four counties 
nam(>d up to include 90 per cent of the whole. No 
other districts have as yet been systematically ap- 
pealed to. but the volume of volunteer subscriptions 
indicates plainly that the proposition is favorably 
received. Speaking of the matter Tuesday to the 
editor of the Rural Mr. Wetmore said that there 
was little doubt that the scheme would be accepted; 
and that the crop of the present season would be 
marketed under its provisicnis. The truth is that j 
the viticultural interest of California has reached a 
state where something is necessary to be done im- 

Col. i'hilo Heresy, president of the 
Santa Clara 'County Fruit Ex- 
change and one of the best posted 
fruit men in the State, was interviewed on Monday 
at San Jose respecting the season s outlook and is re- 
])orted to have assumed as follows : 

Outside of this valley, the apricot crop is all prepared for 
market and iu nian.v hn-alities .sold. The price received so 
far in out.sido localities is from 7 to 7' cents a pound. The 
fruit is not as lai-ffe as usual, but it d'ries thin and is very 
bright and is well cured. This quantity of apricots, which 
should be classed by us as No. S, constitutes the larger propor- 
tion of the crop. I may say that as yet there have been no 
apricots cured in this valley, nor have we made any contracts 
for the di.sixisition of any fruit to Kastern timis. It is not our 
policy here to sell fruit until it is almost ready for market, and 
^as yet there is none ready. We have made a great many con- 
tracts with growers who will dispose of their fruit through our 
hands. I think it will be impossible to buy apricots for less than 
9 cents, and the exchange will not sell now for less than 10 cents 
a pound. People are im-lined to believe that prices will range 
from 7;-2 to Vi cents per (jound. are for the various 
grades, which are prime, standard, choice and fancy. On the 
coast the apricot crop will amount to about l.">,tKHMH)0 pounds, 
and Santa Clara valley will be credited with ."),(H)(),0(M) on the 
output. The peach crop will be g(X)d, but as yet no at- 
tempt is being made to quote prii-e.s, and iu this "valley no 
prices will be quoted for several weeks. The crop of prunes 
this season will be about tio jkh- cent, of what it was last year, 
as much of the fruit droppetl off during the early part of the 
year. Offers are being made by buyers of .">' cents per pound 
for choice, and tl' ^ cents to S cents for fancy. It is expected 
that the State will produce ;i5,000,(KK) pounds of prunes this 
year. Of this amount it is estimated that Santa Clara county 
will produce 2o,(KH),00(). An industry which is akin to that (jf 
fruit is the raising of nuts. r.^ast year we handled some al- 
monds and walnuts and before many years San Jose will be 
quite a shipping place for them. 

With reference to the operation.s of the Santa Clara 
Exchange, Col. Hersey said that next year it would 
probably extend its operations to include the hand- 
ling of fresh fruit. 

From Mr. Alexander Craw, quar- 

More t acts .Vl>oiit ' ^ 

antine officer of the State Board of 

the I.HdybirilM. ti n. i u • ... 

Horticulture, who has just re- 
turned from a trip through the southern counties, 
we gain some new particulars respecting the work 
of the Itlilzohiiix initrttfiH in the orchards of Mr. El- 
wood Cooper at Santa Barbara and elsewhere. The 
original colony of these insects reached Mr. Cooper 
in May. 1892. and numbered, all told, ten pairs. They 
were liberated in a grove of olive trees afflictt^d with 
scale, and have cleaned it out entirely. Last fall 
Mr. Craw collected some five or six hundred colonies 
and distributed them; and again last week he col- 
lected between three and four hundred col- 
onies and sent them in response to appli- 
cations made to the State Board. Another col- 
lection will be made in August, to be sent to 
applicants who have not yet been supplied or to 
those who have not been able to make a success of 
the first trial. In this connection Mr. Craw re- 
marked that it frequently happens that orchardists 
who have received colonies fail to find their progeny 
because they don't know how to look for them. A 
case of this sort happened last week in tiie orchard 
of Mr. Howland at Pomona. He reported on the 
11th inst. that there were none of the Rhi/.obii on his 
trees. On the 12th inst. Mr. Craw, accompanied by 
Commissioner Collins of San Bernardino and the local 
commissioner, found them in large numbers. Mr. 
Rowland s failiu-e was because he didn't know where 
to search. Mr. Craw's observation leads him to re- 
commend the liberation of colonies on olive tribes, 
leaving them to extend their range in a natural way 
to other sorts of trees. He finds that colonies so 
started thrive much better than those started on 
citras trees. In Santa Clara Clara county he finds 
.several colonies doing excellent work on the brown 
apricot scale. On the whole, he has no question of 
the value of the insect in its effects ujx)n black scale, 
black smut and the brown apricot seale. .Vlread}- in 
Mr. Cooper's orchards they are saving an annual out- 
lay of between three and five thousantf dollars, be- 
sides an infinitely greater loss in preservation of the 
vitality of the trees and in their better fruitfulness. 
Mr. Craw thinks this insect may be depended upon 
to clean every orchard in the State of the black 
.scale. All that it needs is time. 

July 28, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


From an Independent Standpoint. 

There has developed a most extraordinary situation 
at Washington in connection with the pending 
tariff measures. The Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives stand each in an attitude of defiant oppo- 
sition to the other. The President sides with the 
FTouse and has given out a letter condemning the 
art ion of tlie Senate. Leading Democratic members 
of the latter body are emphatic in resentment, and 
are denouncing the letter on the floor of the Senate 
as offensive in its implied censure of the makers 
of the amended tariff bill, and as an outrageous 
ini'ddling by the President in the business of 
tlie legislative department of government. Thus 
matters stand as we write on Wednesday. 
A t the risk of being tedious we shall review, briefly 
as ijossible, the history of the pending tariff propo- 
sitions, for the significance of the present grave 
(]Liarrel cannot be fully comprehended imless all the 
facts related to it are in plain sight. The last Demo- 
cratic National Con venti(m in its platform denounced 
the existing tariff' law as the "culminating atrocity 
of class legislation,'" gave approval to recent Demo- 
cratic effort to modify it "in the direction of free 
raw materials,'' and promised "its repeal as one of 
beneficent results " to follow "the action of the 
people in entrusting power to the Democratic 
])arty." The Presidential campaign of 1892 was 
fought chiefly upon this issue; and when the smoke 
cleared away it was found that the people had indeed 
" entrusted power to the Democratic party." Of a 
total of 444 votes in the Electoral College Mr. Cleve- 
land received 277, a plurality of 132 over his Repub- 
lican and Populist competitors. In the House of 
Representatives the Democrats numbered 233 out of 
a total membership of 332. In the Senate the Demo- 
crats had 44 votes out of 85, with the co-operative 
su])port of four so-call(>d ]ii<lependents. With the 
(Jovernment thus Democratic in all its organic de. 
1-ai-tments, the work of destroying the Mclvinley 
liiriff law and of substituting a .system after the 
l>emoeratic model was begun. 

It was not a simple task for there was involved in 
it the necessity of cutting off certain large revenues 
and at the same time of providiiig a national income 
of half a billion dollars per year. It is the law of the 
Constitution that revenue measures shall have their 
origin in the House of Representatives and to the 
Ways and Means Committee.of that body (Hon. John 
L. Wilson, Chairman), the work was entrusted. As 
our readers know there was a long period of incuba- 
tion with the final announcement of a measure, " im- 
perfect in many respects," as Mr. Wilson confessed, 
but in substantial accord with the principle of '" free 
raw matei-ials," as proclaimed in the Chicago plat- 
form. If, in its tenderness for certain local interests 
in powerful Democratic States it departed somewhat 
from strict Democratic character, it still clung to the 
principle of free trade in raw materials and thus had 
a certain right to call itself Democratic legislation. 
Associated and identified with this tarift' bill, de- 
signed to compensate for its curtailment of the tariff 
revenues, was a provision for the taxation of personal 
and corporate incomes in excess of four thousand 
dollars. On this measure there was a fierce debate of 
many weeks led by Chairman Wilson in bjhalf of the 
Democrats and ex-Spcaker Reed on behalf of the Re- 
publicans. It was a case, however, not so much of 
argument as of arithmatic, for a majority of 99 is not 
to be conjured down even by such thunders as come 
at the call of the potent ex-speaker. Mr. Wilson put 
his bill through in its complete integrity of pi'inciple 
respecting raw materials; and thus it went up to 
the Senate. 

Now the Senate is very different from the House, | 
both in constitution and temper. The members of 
the latter body come largely from interior parts, and 
are less acquainted with large affairs; that is, they 
are not so intimately connected with the interests of 
manufacture which center in the great cities as are 
the members of the Senate. Moreov(>r, they know 
that the judgment of the House is not final, and arc; 
sometimes weak enough to vote wrong for the sake 
of peace and party consistency, in the comforting ' 
faith that the Senate will reverse the verdict. In ; 
the case of the Wilson tariff bill the Senate did re- 
verse the verdict of the House — and with a ven- 

geance. After knocking it about for four months in 
and out of caucus and of committee, in committee of 
the whole, and finally in straight senatorial session, 
it was passed; but tcitli sf.e lunuhcd <iti<J fortij-fonv 
amcH(Im<-nts. Whatever correspondence it had origi- 
nally to the promises of the Democratic jilatform 
was lost in this great shuttle. The motive of this 
multitude of changes lay in the wish of each Demo- 
cratic Senator to protect the interests of his own 
vState mena:'ed by the bill as it came from the House. 
The Senators from Louisiana declared that they 
would not support a bill which did not provide pro- 
tection for the sugar industry; the Senators from 
Alabama would not support a bill which promised 
destruction to the iron interests; the Senators from 
Tennessee would not support a bill unless it protected 
certain local interests there; and so change followed 
change; and when the process ended, the measure 
was a mere patchwork of compromises, faithful to 
no principle either of philosophy or of politics. Bat 
the fabric had been so wrought that it received every 
Democratic vote save that of Senator Hill, the great 
Cleveland-hater from New York, who denounced it 
as undemocratic in general, and outrageous in its 
sp(>cial imposition of an incorna tax. 

The long juggl -rv of thii measure in the Senate 
has V)een attended by many discreditable circum- 
stances, and by one very shameful scandal. Among 
the larger devices proposed for increasing the rev- 
enue to com])ensate for losses through tariff' reductions, 
was the restoration of the tax on sugar abolished 
by the McKinley legislation — a proposition obvi- 
ously related to the interests of the sugar-refining 
industry, which is organized in the biggest of all 
combines — the Sugar Trust. While the sugar clause 
was under consideration in the Democratic caucus 
(a period covering several weeks), the price of Sugar 
Trust shares was in a state of excited fluctuation in 
the New York Stock Exchange, now rising rapidly, 
now as rapidly falling; and the charge is publicly 
mad(> that these fluctuations follow(>d private infor- 
mation of caucus doings supplied by c(»rtain Senators 
in consideration of advantages gained or promised 
through speculation. W^hatever the truth may be, 
it is certain that some members of tlie Senate did 
speculate in Sugar Trust shares and that the ma- 
nipulators of the New York market did contrive to 
learn of certain caucus acts before the obligation of 
secrecy concerning them had been removed. These 
facts have become deeply impressed upon the public 
mind, with consequences of such disgust for the 
methods and morals of the U. S. Senate as will, there 
is reason to fear, permanently degrade that body in 
the eye of public respect. 

When a measure originating in one bi-anch of Con- 
gress is modified by amendment in the other, the 
usual course is its reference to a conference com- 
mittee made up of members of both houses who at- 
tempt to reconcile the f)oints of difference by the 
process of mutual concession. The Wilson tariff bill 
as amended by the Senate in six hundred and forty- 
four particulars — so changed as to have no likeness 
to its original self either in principle or Form — was 
thus referred; but though three weeks was devoted 
to earnest (>ffort toward compromise, it came to 
nothing. Neither side would yield and each had to 
re])ort the fact of no agreement. Mr. Wilson (chair- 
man of the committee which originally framed the 
bill and also of the House committee of conference) 
reported to the House on last Thursday that there 
seemed little chance of the two legislative branches 
coming together, and moved " that the House further 
insist upon its disagreement to the Senate amend- 
ments and ask for a further conference." In sup- 
port of this motion he reviewed the bill as it was 
passed by the House. It was, he said, framed upon 
Democratic lines, and, in spite of obvious imperfec- 
tions, had been accepted by the people of the coun- 
try as a fair and substantial performance of the 
pledges by which the Democratic ijarty came into 
power at the beginning of the present administra- 
tion. It sought, he declared, in levying taxes to 
consider chiefly and primarily the wants of the public 
treasury and not the profits and schemes of great 
private interests. The bill, as modified by the Sen- 
ate, he denounced as a radical departure from Demo- 
cratic jjrinciples. With reference to its sugar 
schedules, he said that, whether rightly or wrongly, 

the Senate proposition had been accepted by the 
press and by the public as unduly favorable to the 
great Sugar Trust. " If it be true — and I have my- 
self seen some confirmations in the press — if it be 
true that the American Sugar Trust has grown so 
strong and powerful that it says no tariff' bill can be 
IJassed in the American Congress in which its in- 
terests are not adequately guarded — if, I say, that 
be true. I hope this House will never consent to ad- 
journment.' In this spirit he proceeded, declaring 
that free sugar was a necessity under the promises 
of the Democratic party. It was evident, he de- 
clared, that the Senate members of the joint com- 
mittee did not come to the conference in free and 
untrammeled spirit but bound by conditions which 
practically gave them no latitude of compromise. 
The whole tone of his remarks was in apposition to 
a back-down on the part of the House. 

At the conclusion of his speech Mr. Wilson sent to 
the clerk's desk, to be read, a letter which he had 
received from President Cleveland three weeks be- 
fore, and just as the business of confei'ence between 
the two houses began. I have, he said, this morning 
obtained the President's consent to make it public. 
In this letter Mr. Cleveland urges Mr. Wilson to 
stand firm for the original House bill, and to consent 
to no compromise which will put in question " party 
honest and good faith'' or depart from a " sturdy 
adherence to Democratic principles. These I believe 
are absolutely necessary conditions to the continua- 
tion of Democratic existence." Continuing he says: 

To reconcile differences in the detail.s (comprised within the 
fixed and well-defined lines of principle will not be the .sole 
task of the conference, but il seems to me its members will 
also have in charge the question whether Democratic princi- 
ples themselves are to be saved or abandoned. There is no 
excuse for mistaking or misapprehendins the feelinjirs and the 
temper of the rank and file of the Democracy. They are down- 
cast under the assertion that their party failed in ability to 
manage the Government, and they are apprehi-nsive that ef- 
forts to bring about tarift reform may fail ; but they are mui'h 
more downcast and apprehensive in their fears that Demo- 
cratic principles may be surrendered. 

* ii: * * * * * 

Every true Democrat and every situ^ere tariff reformer 
knows that this bill in ils prcsciil form and as it will be sub- 
mitted to the conference lulls lai- short of the consummation 
for which we have so long labored : for which we have suffered 
defeat without discouragement; which in its anticipation gave 
us a rallying cry in our day of triumph, and which in its prom- 
ise of ai'compli.shment is so interwoven with Democratic 
pledges and Democratic successes that our abandonment of 
the cause or the principles upon which it rests means party 
perfidy and party dishonor. 

One topic will be submitted to the conference which em- 
bodies Democratic principles .so directly that it cannot be com- 
promised. VVe have in our platforms and in every way possible 
declared in favor of the free importation of raw materials. 
We have again and again promised that this should be ac- 
corded to our people and our manufacturcu's as .soon as the 
Democratic party was invested with the jwwer to determine 
the tariff policy of the country. The party has now that power. 
We are as certain as we have ever been of the benefit that 
would acci'ue to the country from the inauguration of this 
polii^y, and nothing has occurred to I'elease us from our obliga- 
tion to secui'e this advantage to our people. It must be ad- 
mitted that no tariff measure can accord with Democratic 
principles and promises, or bear the genuine Democratic badge, 
that does not provide for free raw materials. 

How can we face the people after indulging in such out- 
rageous dis<-riminations and \-iolations of principle; Jt is 
quite apparent that this question of free raw material does 
not admit of adjustment on any middle grounds, since its sub- 
jection to any rate of tariff taxation, great or small, is alike 
violative of Democratic principles and Democrat ic good faith. 

In these t ircunistances it may well excite our wonder that 
Democrats are willing to depart from this, the most Demo- 
cratic of all tariff principles, and that the inconsistent absurd- 
ity of such proposed departure should be emphasized by the 
suggestion that the wools of the farmer be put on th(! free list 
and the proteclicm of la iff taxation be placed around the iron 
ore and the coal of corporations and capitalists. 

From these pregnant generalities, the President 

touches upon the sugar issue. Deprecating the 

necessity for it, admitting that in the light of recent 

events it is "a delicate subject," he declares that in 

yielding to compromise on this point, the party " will 

be in no danger of running counter to Democratic 

principles." " With all there is at stake," he says, 

" there must be in the treatment of this article .some 

ground upon which we are all willing to stand, where 

toleration and conciliation may be allowed to s )lve 

the problem without demanding the entire surrender 

of fixed conscientious convictions." He concludes 

with another reference to the imperfections of the 

origmal Wilson bill, declaring his personal objections 

to its income tax pi'ovision, but expressing his ap- ■ 

proval of it, as a whole, as a measure in line with 

Democratic principles. 

There is but one interpretation of this letter. The 
Pi-esident is willing to accept and approve the Wilson 
bill as it left the House, in spite of his personal objec- 
tions to its income-tax feature; he is willing to yield 
to the objectionable proposition to reimpose the 
sugar tax, but he is positively opposed to the bill, as 
it has been amended in the Senate. He con- 


The Pacific Rural Press, 

July 28, 1894. 

siders this reconstructed measure an abandonment 
of Democratic principles, as a denial of party prom- 
ises and a forerunner of party disintegration. All 
this he says plainly at a time and in a way to clear 
himself, personally, of blame if in spite of all consid- 
erations nothiufj should be accomplished. The effect 
u]>oii Congress has been electrical. The House has 
been still'ened in its attitude at resistance and the 
Senate has been angered to a degree beyond pre- 
cedent. Senators Jones, Harris, Gorman and 
otheis on the Democratic side have in the most 
emphatic and bitter fashion reproached the Presi- 
dent on the fioor of the Senate for unwarranted 
interference with the business of legislation and 
for what they deem an insult to themselves. In the 
course of this hot talk it has come out that most 
of the changes in the House bill made by the Senate 
were after conferences in which the President was 
fully informed and apparently consenting. He is 
thus charged by Gorman and Harris with bad faith 
in detail, as well as with the general fault of med- 
dling. Other Democratic Senators have yet to re- 
lieve their minds, and as resentment runs high 
there is likely to be more personalities of a very 
bitter sort. The humor of the situation is in the 
position of Senator Hill, who, in two very adroit 
speeches defending the action of the President — 
which coincides happily with his own vote against 
the measure as amended in the Senate — has con- 
trived to emphasize his bitter hatred and contempt 
for him. 

All this has, of course, vastly widened the breach 
between the two departments of Congress, and it 
looks to us as if the whole scheme of tariff revision 
were in danger of falling into the chasm. From the 
beginning we have held and declared the judgment 
that the i)resent Congress would do nothing respect- 
ing the tariff. This dead-lock is entirely in line with 
the view we have often expressed that in the present 
state of the country tariff revolution is a folly too 
stupendous even for the blindness and the stupidity 
of partisan legislation. 

We believe the measure will fail as it ought to fail, 
and its failure will be due, not to the wisdom of Con- 
gress, but to the heavy pressure of public sentiment 
which in these times of stress recalls Lincoln's ad- 
vice not to swap horses while crossing a stream. 
The lesson of this last effort — as of all recent efforts 
— at tariff legislation, is that the question is too big 
for adjustment by party methods ; that it should be 
referred to a non-partisan commission of scientific 
and practical men ; that it should be treated as a 
question of economics and not of party politics. It 
is, perhaps, too much to hope for such a consumma- 
tion until further loss and further stress shall have 
made the present method of tariff legislation intol- 

The strike dies hard. In spite of collapse at Pull- 
man and Chicago, of the complete surrender at Sac- 
ramento, of numberless desertions from their own 
rank, and of the fact that all trains are running on 
time, the A. R. U. of Oakland persistently refuses to 
knoc;k under. This attitude is due to the policy of 
the Southern Pacific Company in declining to re-hire 
anybody who will not renounce membership or affili- 
ation with the American Railway Union. The posi- 
tion of the Company is now a very strong one. It 
finds itself able, with the new men taken on during 
the strike and with such of the strikers as have re- 
turned to work, to operate its trains and shops, and 
is therefore, entirely independent of those who still 
hold out. In to their offers to return to 
work provided there shall be no discrimination 
against them on account of recent occurrences, Supt. 
Fillmore has declined to treat with them as a body. 
He declares that no man who retains membership j 
in the A. R. U. and that nobody known to have taken 
part in any violence against the interests of the ! 
Company will be employed upon any terms. As to j 
men not coming within these sweeping conditions, 
the company will give work in its own discretion and ! 
at its own convenience. In other words, in the view ; 
of the company, there is no strike. They regard all j 
those standing out as having left their service and! 
will re-employ them only as time and occasion may '• 
require. This situation leaves many idle for the 
present, with the leaders of disorder permanently 
blacklisted, and has not served to soothe the pas- 
sions at strike centers. About Sacramento and Oak- 
land there are scores of proscribed men deeply em- j 
bittered, and it is thought to be unsafe to operate 
trains save under military protection. Both U. S. 
and State forces are still on general duty, and will 
probably be retained for some titnc to come. 

Reader and Editor. 


Ei,K Ckeek, Gi.enx Co., Cal., July 10, IH'.M. 
Pi HLisjiEK Ki KAi. Pkess, San Francisco — Dcnr Sir: I am an 
old subscriber to the Ki kal, but since you have taken the 
wrong side of the strike as I view it, I do not wish to continue 
it longer. My reasons will be found in a communication to 
the Examiner written by the all-round critic and kicker, Mr. 
Ambrose Bieive. Send your aciount to date and oblige yours 
respectfully, H. B. Jri,iAS. 

the EorroK in reply. 

San Fkanoisco. July 'M, IH'M. 

Mr. H. B. Jri.iAN— .1/)/ Dear Sir: Your note of the 10th 
inst. is at hand, and in obedience to its instruction, your name 
has been dropped from our list of subscribers. 

Since you have been at the pains to give reasons for thus 
terminating a connection long existent between us, I feel it 
right to review these reasons and to call to your notice some 
considerations logically related to tlieni which, possibly, have 
not occurred to you. You ai-e turning an old friend out of your 
house because, as you view it, it has tsiken the wrong side of 
a public question concerning which men equally patriotic 
and honest may fairly differ. You are spurning a 
familiar counsellor - whose integrity I think you will not 
question— because it has given, in terms entirely civil and re- 
spectful, opinions which happen not to coincl(li> with your own. 
Now, if the Ri rai. had .sought to mislead you with false state- 
ments as to facts, if it had attempted \o corrupt your judg- 
ment by willful and dishonest sophistries, if it had urged its 
own views with vulgar intemperance or insolence, if 
it had proved deticient in any way and so to 
you, then it seems to me you would be right in showing it the 
door. But, to reject it for no other fault than the respectful 
statement of an honest opinion seems to nie an injustice in 
itself and an offence against a principle of the highest value in 
its relationship to the institution of journalism. 

Should your jxisition in this matter become the accepted and 
usual standard of criticism as applied to public journals, it 
would inevitably work such debasement of the as 
would make it an evil against which soc-iety, for its own 
preservation, would have tt) rise in revolt. Under such a 
system it would be neces.sary for the public writer to give 
not his real convictions but what in his judgment would be 
agreeable to the opinions and prejudices of his readers. His 
concern would then be not to be rinht but to be <i]ii>rnrr<l. The 
abjectness of such an attitude is unKjieakable. No decent 
man could accept the service ol a system so degraded : and 
journalism would thus be abandoned to the sycophant and the 
toady. Under it the editor would beiome a student not of prin- 
ciples but of small expedients: and in its relation to public 
sentiment his office would be that of the weather-co<-k to the 
wind. From the unmanly study of debasing ways to gain 
public favor by juggling with the commodity of opinion, 
he would speedily descend to application of the same 
principle to statements of fact, so the reader would 
s(X)n have not opinions alone but news reports as well cooked 
,specially to his order. I do not, 1 think, overdraw the picture. | 
Already we have, as the product of just such criticism as that | 
of your letter, exponents of this low theory of journalism : and 
they are the contempt and loathing of all decent and spirited 
men. Mr. Ambrose Bierce, whose opinions ynu commend and 
for whose genius I join you in profound admiration, is himself 
a prophet of protest against this abomination. Let me ask if 
you would willingly limit the spread of the judgments and 
arguments which you approve by confining the reading of his 
utterances to those who happen already to believe as he does; 
This is the logical consequence of your position. 

A public Press do.ninated as you would have it must lose 
every attribute of < haracter and resixM-t and sink to the piti- 
ful level of craven cowardice. What civilization would lose 
through such a lapse I will not attempt to point out, but will 
simply refer you to times and conditions when an independent 
Press was not existent. I can scarcely expect you to be en- 
chanted with the study, but its les.son will, 1 trust, not be 
lost upon you. 

Opposed to your theory, which would, as I view it, make the 
Press a cringing, contemptible and dangerous thing, stands 
another theory which would make it sincere, courageous and 
vastly useful. To be all these it must tind in its field of circu- 
lation respect for these higher qualities in combination with 
such liberality of mind as will grant to the editor the privilege 
of candor without prejudice. It is the effort of myself and my 
associates to make the Pa(;ific Ri rai, Press, in .so far as it may 
be given to consideration of public questions, a journal of this 
better .sort. I am, from week to week, writing of public affairs 
"From ax Ixdei'enhent Standi-oixt," without regard to 
considerations of )iartisan or class advantage. It is my effort 
to seek out the facts of larger public events, to give them 
plainly and fairly, and to point out what I conceive to be their 
real significance, with especial reference to the rights and 
wrongs of things. Making no secret of my own opinions, I 
aim to be respectful always to the opinions of other.s, and it is 
my sincere effort to give fairly both sides of every public con- 
troversy. This is, I take it, the only course for one who values 
journalism for its higher opportunities, who declines to regard 
it as a mere political trade, and who respects the intelligence 
and dignity of his readers. That I bring to its labors many 
imperfections of knowledge and judgment I freely admit ; and 
that it is so is my dail.v regret. But, if wanting in these re- 
spects, I may, at least, be laborious, candid and without fear. 
For support I trust to the liberal-mindedness of rural Califor- 
nia, and I find it amply sufficient. There are, as my 
daily mail proves, multitudes of good people willing to 
pardon the limitations and even the errors of one 
who strives to serve them in good heart and good <«inscience. 
It is rare, indeed, that I am reminded that there are those so 
wanting in the spirit of liberality as to insist that the news- 
paper which the.v read shall never say anything contrary to 
their own \'iews. 

If I seem to make much of a trifling matter it is— I think 
.vou will believe me — not from any small motive of advantage, 
but because there is a principle in it — because I feel not so 
much my interest as the integrity of my calling to be 
assailed. For, if your principle be advanced to its logical re- 
sult it would destroy freedom of opinion and cf speech — for 
yourself or anybody else ; and just .so far as your action in this 
matter would limit honest expression, so far would you turn 
back the hands on Time's dial, and recall the days when 
thought was stifled in its utterance. Uesi)ectfuUy, 


Kditor Pacikr- Ruhai, Pkkss, 


Currant Growing on the Pacific Coast. 

Although currants may be successfully grown in 
many parts of California, they are not widely profit- 
able as a commercial fruit. The area of currants 
grown for the market does not increase — in fact it is 
probably less than it was ten years ago. It is so 
easy to produce in excess of the demand that plant- 
ers have reduced their acreage. Even as it is, the 
San P'rancisco market price usually droi)s during 
the height of the currant season to a price too low 
for profit to the grower. As a fruit for home use or 
for sale in near-by local markets the currant is 
always worthy of attention. 

The currant fails, usually, in the hottest, driest in- 
terior situations, but even in unfavorable )ilaces one 
can succeed measurably well by growing tiie luishes 
under the cover of fruit trees and maintaining 
moisture enough in the soil to supply both the bushes 
and the trees. The currant is exacting about a con- 
stant moisture supply and protection from fierce dry 
heat. If this is borne in mind and the conditions 
ensured by shade, by irrigation and by mulching or 
continuous surface cultivation, the currant will prob- 
ably yield satisfaction in many places where it is 
now regarded as a failure. 

There is one point about California currant 
growing which has been noticed from the earliest 
years, and that is that varieties which are of lesser 
value elsewhere become our most trustworthy sorts. 
The Cherry currant was condemned at the East be- 
fore it achieved its great triumph in California. 
Fay's Prolific has. if we mistake not. proven of 
greater value in California than elsewhere. On the 
other hand, we grow but few of the sorts which are 
most highly esteemed elsewhere. In view of tliis 
fact, the following statement of the behavior of varie- 
ties in Washington, as given by M. C. Latta before 
the Whatcom Horticultural Soc-iety. is of interest : 

Of the .several varieties, such as th^ Fay's Prolitic, iteil 
Dutch, Cherry, White Dutch, White Graix', Victoria Red. 
etc., after several years of trial and obsi rvat ion here in What - 
com we have found Fay's Prolific an ent ire failure, its enor- 
mous crops of blossoms in every instani <■ failing to set and 
mature fruit, and from reading and noti g Its successes ami 
failures throughout the broad extent of lur land, I am of the 
opinion that from continual txxjining It ha< receiveii a reputa- 
tion altogether undeserved as to its being a desirable variety 
in all iMirts of the country. The Cherry never fails to pro- 
duce crops of very fine large berries, but is a very shy bearer, 
which fault becomes more objectionable as tlii^ bush gi-ows 
older. The Red Dutch is an enormously prolific variety, but 
its berries are rather small : but uikih tin- whole, if we could 
by careful selection and cultivation succeed in increasing the 
size of the berries somewhat, there probably would be no 
better kind as far as now known for general and profitable 
cultivation. For a late variety the Victoria Red is perhaiis 
the best, especially of the older kinds. As a white variety I 
find the White Grape a very jleslrahle and prolific kind, and 
from their present knowledge would prefer It to any other. 
The white currant Is not fouiul a native in any part of the 
world, but is a cultivated variety of the red. For general 
and profitable cultivation we would confine ourselves to neither 
of the above in fa<'t some of them. If tolerated at all in the 
fruit garden, would be only as varieties. 

Mr. I.,atta's plan of j)ropagating and training the 
currant in sound according to our experience. 
quote as follows; 

In order to obtain the most satisfactory and pmfitable re- 
turns we take cuttings for propjigation from bushes that pi-o- 
duce the largest amount of good-sized berries, marking them 
at the time of picking the fruit for that puqiose, and our larg- 
est yields are Invariably obtaineil In this way. In some in- 
stances picking K! pounds of fruit from a single stoi-k, a'* 
trained in tree form, while under the same conditions it would 
take an average of three or four of vhe Cherry variety to yield 
an equal amount. While the current will bear as much or 
more neglect than any other of the edible fruits, yet none of 
them responds so generously to high and thorough i-ultivation, 
nor pays a greater pen-entage on care and labor. The plant is 
a gross feeder and will assimilate readily any of the coarser of 
the barnyard or other manures; it is easily |)i-opiigated from 
cuttings of about eight im-hes in length, of the new wood 
taken from the bush at any time from the falling of the leaves 
in late summer until the buds are fairly out in the spring: we 
take cult Ings 111 the fall and heel them In the ground during 
the winter, <-overing them lightly with muli-h or rough littei'. 
and plant them out as early as the ground can be ptY)perly 
worked in the spring: if heeled in in the fall, during the win 
ter the callus for the development of the roots is formed at 
the base of the cutting, and they make a much better gi'owth 
the following season than If taken from the bush and planted 
out in the spring. 

In planting out . uttings we rub off all buds excepting the 
two nearest the top we place them in the ground with the 
top bud about on a U '.'el with the surface, and tramp or press 
the .soil ver.v firmly 1. round them; if these methods are care- 
fully ob.served there will be no difficulty In getting a large 
proportion of the cut; ings to grow. 

Mr. Latta approves growing currants in bush form 
rather than as standards. He does not state all the 
reasons for growing several stems. Perhaps they 
do not have the stem borer at the north. In Califor- 
nia the advantage of having several fruiting stems 
is very apparent when borers get into one or more 
of them. If the borer gets into the trunk of a 
standard the bush is ruined until new shoots come 
from below. It is not so with bushes. Wh«n the 
injured stems are I'ut out the bush usually has 
enough left to pursue its growth and fruiting. As 
to training and yield Mr. Latta writes as follow^: 

Our method of training has been the single stot'k or ti-ee 
form, and while this is neat and attractive, in garden cultivu- 

July 28, 1894. THc Paclf ic Rural Press. 

tion for the largest returns of yield and profit I would train a 
stool of three or four stalks instead of one. In the fruit gar- 
den, for *he best convenience in cultivation, gathering, han- 
dling, etc., I would plant the stools three feet apart in rows 
six feet from each other, thus making 2420 stools to the acre. 
From the above we may be able to make a fairly approximate 
estimate of the aigount and value of an acre of this 
fruit; at a conservative estimate each stool the second year 
from the planting of a one-year-old stock would produce an 
average of three pounds, and the fourth year when in full 
bearing would average seven pounds of fruit. These are con- 
servative estimates, and under liberal fertilizing and high 
cultivation they would yield much more ; but taking these 
estimates we would have at the end of the fourth year about 
17,000 p(junds of fruit as the product of one acre, and placing 
the market value at five cents per pound we would have $850. 

These figures are of course sometimes realized, 
both in weight of crop and price, but very seldom is 
the outcome anything like his figures. Probably 
if the growler can average one-quarter as much he 
cannot complain. 

Fruit and Nuts as Food and Drink. 

There is unquestionably a growing disposition 
among civilized people to constitute fruit and fruit 
products a larger factor in diet than heretofore. 
There is, in fact, an association of frugivors under- 
taking a propaganda in promotion of an approxi- 
mately straight fruit diet. How far this extreme 
tenet will command adherence cannot be foretold, 
but unquestionably the movement in its behalf is cal- 
culated to accomplish good both for those who eat 
more largely of fruit as the result of its agitation 
and obviously for those who are in the fruit-pro- 
ducing industry. For both these reasons we are 
pleased to lay before our readers an exposition of 
the new dietetic faith as held by Mr. W. S. Manning, 
an educated Englishman who is now in California in 
the interest of this reform. At the last meeting of 
the State Horticultural Society in this city Mr. Man- 
ning read a jwinted essay in explanation of his 
theory and practice, which we present as follows: 

A Progressive Idea. — Those who produce the 
food supplies of mankind from the soil cannot afi'ord 
to neglect to study occasionally the signs of the 
times as to the trend of the teachings of science, as 
well as of the popular taste in regard to any impend- 
ing and possibly radical change in our diet. We are 
living in transitional times, and in these days when 
preventive hygiene is in all quarters searching out 
the sources and origin of man's many physical ills, 
there will be an increasing tendency to go for that 
form of food which gives the healthiest nourishment 
with the least strain to the digestive system, 
("specially if available without sacrifice of the reason- 
able enjoyment of the pleasures of the table, and the 
more attractive it is so much the quicker will the 
rate of progress be. 

Health is recognized to be very largely a question 
of the conservation of energy, especially in the 
process of assimilating our food, and, of course, in 
the avoidance of those other habits that are con- 
trary to natural laws. Disease is looked upon as 
merely an avoidable penalty for some wrong done 
to our bodies by transgression of law, and it becomes 
of infinite importance to learn wherein we are most 
liable to transgress. The thorough comprehension 
of law is therefore the supreme human attainment — 
especially in chemistry, physiology and anatomy — if 
we wish for accurate knowledge as to our right 

The Dictum of Science. — Science, since the days 
of Cuvier and Linne, declared unquestionably that 
man is of the frugivorous order as an animal, and 
they use neither grain nor meat naturally; that 
starch foods, like bread, only become blood by being 
first transformed into glucose (or fruit sugar), such 
as the fully ripe fruit supplies ready made in the 
purest form and without strain on the system. It 
holds that the lower bowel of our intestinal canal is 
the chief digestive apparatus of starches, and this 
entails a constant and needless drain and drag on 
the system; that blood once formed gives the same 
force as muscular power, whether it be blood derived 
from meat or fruit or bread, but that with grain or 
bread we also get an excess of lime and salt that set 
up often very serious diseased conditions, like rheu- 
matism and premature death. 

The milk cure, the grape cure, and the lean meat 
and hot water diet of Dr. Salisbury, have been each 
famous and effective in restoring health to tens of 
thousands — and they all agree in being non-starch 
systems of diet. 

Local Experiment. — At the San Bernarduio In- 
sane Asylum the medical superintendent claims that 
a diet of milk and prunes is the best for his patients, 
as it gives the best results. Other noted physicians 
in that city have confessed to me that a non-starch 
diet is always their prescription in disease. Prom 
Pomona, Eiverside, Los Angeles. Santa Barbara and 
Stockton the same testimony from prominent physi- 
cians has been volunteered to me — that they warn 
their patients unifonnly against starch foods. 

If it be bad in disease, can starch be good in 
health ? As we allow the straw and the smoke to 
show us the way of the wind, should not the frail and 

delicate be the best guides to the healthiest foods for 
the sound and strong ? 

The world is governed and guided gradually by 
facts and science as well as by mere sentiment, but 
the food reformer has hitherto been guided by senti- 
ment or intuition alone. His intuitions have led him 
to abandon, as a rule, all fish, flesh and fowl, and he 
has been satisfied with the arguments, humane and 
aesthetic, that if we abstain from food that once had 
life we are on tlie straight road for our ideal or per- 
fect diet. Food is, however, a severely scientific 
question and no permanent solution of it will be 
arrived at without the guidance of the exponents of 
those natural laws that relate to our physical wel- 
fare. If we are living in a progressive world, there- 
fore, in regard to diet, we can only make headway 
by the guidance of the scientists, and by practical 
experience, and by carefully watching the experi- 
ments of others. 

The experiments of natural food friends (some 4000 
or 5000 in Europe and probably fully as many in 
America) in a dietary that excludes bread and other 
starch foods, as suggested by Dr. Densmore, all 
prove that we can much benefit our constitutions 
and conserve our nerve energy by the mere substitu- 
tution of fully ripe fruits for cereal and other seed or 
starch foods, even if we continue that other un- 
natural habit of flesh eating, which is recommended 
for a time. 

Mr. Gladstone, addressing his neighbors and farm- 
ing friends at his county agricultural meetings, has 
always urged them to go on planting fruit trees, 
because the markets will open out to receive all that 
is supplied. It is only needful to produce the best 
of each respective sort and make the markets as 
nearly as possible tempt the palate equally the year 
round, with grapes, apples, pears and oranges in 
the winter, and the consumption of fruit will go on 
increasing by leaps and bounds for both food and 
drink, as the schoolmaster of the scientist is more 
heeded as to the design of nature regarding our 
physical welfare If it is once realized that we can 
conserve our vitality and stamina and insure increas- 
ing health and strength by simply attending to the 
easiest digested diet, and to other laws of hygiene, 
then all who can command the requisite self-restraint 
and will-power will not much longer continue on 
that "go as you please" road as to our regime 
which has mainly brought about the present uni- 
versal reign of doctors, druggists and dentists. 

Those travelers who have seen South Sea Islanders, 
Arabs and colored folks of West Indies, whose 
ancestors have lived mainly on fruits, testify to their 
stalwart forms and usually uniform good health. 

Aim of the Natural Food Society. — And what is 
it, after all, that the Natural Food Society to-day de- 
signs to bring about ? Just simply to substitute for 
those least enjoyable and most insipid of all foods in 
their natural stage the grain and seeds of others that 
are the most gratifying and luscious of all to the 
natural palate. Instead of that class which entaU 
the most toiling and moiling to produce and cultivate 
and prepare and render palatable, to substitute that 
which is the least trouble of any to cultivate and 
needs no preparation whatever. For those that are 
the hardest to get into blood and are most risky and 
difficult of all to assimilate, to substitute those that 
are the easiest of all to absorb — containing all the 
elements for making up all our frame in right propor- 
tions, with abmidance of heat and force material in 
nuts, olives and the sugar of fruits. Yes, we should 
begin to see now that, while ample exercise, fresh 
air, strict temperance, backed up by a good consti- 
tution, together with absolutely /jk«; food, are need- 
ful to attain the soundest health and longest life, 
there is something else equally indispensable that has 
not hitherto been insisted upon or realized, except in 
case of illness, even by the most prudent and cautious 
physician, and that is that the food must be of the 
kind specially suited and best adapted to the or- 
ganism. This both experience and science unite in 
affirming can be got best from raw, fully ripe fruit 
and nuts; for, although each may at times be found 
to disagree with those using cooked foods of meat or 
meal, when taken upon a stomach freed for a few 
weeks from the strain and incubus of starchy dishes, 
they relieve nature so much that she thus cures the 
most obstinate and chronic stomach troubles. The 
oil of nuts, when emulsified with saliva, becomes as 
easily absorbed by the intestinal canal as the sugar 
or glucose of the fruits, and they both are the most 
pure and perfect of the carbon or heat and force- 
giving elements that form four-fifths of a complete 

Drink Not Needed. — Man, like the rabbit or the 
sheep, need not be at all a drinking animal any more 
than he requires to be a cooking animal when he has 
by gradual experience proved that he enjoys better 
health and strength, as well as a really more con- 
stant and unfailing delight in a well selected fruit 
diet, with its 80 to flO per cent of distilled water, 
than by any of the concoctions of the cook or con- 
fectioner, with the brewer or distiller thrown in. 
Thus as the palate becomes purified from its craving 
for condiments, rich and pungent flavorings, moder- 
ations and temperance are more easy to those v. ho 
find that table excesses are the chief bane of their 
livQp; even excess in a fruit diet can be indulged in 
comparatively without risk. 


Suggested Improvements in Prune Handling. 

The prune mdustry on the Pacific coast extends 
from San Diego to Victoria. The acreage of bearing 
trees is now very large and there are also an im- 
mense number of young trees not yet old enough to 
bear. The Pacific coast of the United States can 
easily grow enough prunes to supply the world. 
Prices are sure to range very low and economy of 
curing and handling the crop must be practiced to 
the fullest extent. 

The prune trees on Aloha farm, near Mt. Diablo, 
are just coming into bearing, and Mr. A. L. Bancroft 
of San Francisco and Contra Costa has for the past 
year or more been studying over the problem of the 
best and most advanced methods of handling the 
fruit. The question of whether to cut the skins with 
lye or perforate them mechanically has had much 
thought and attention bestowed upon it. Water is 
not abundant with him. The conclusion that he has 
finally arrived at is that prunes, with the exception 
of those which are grown where the aphis and scale 
are bad and the fruit coated with what some call 
honey dew from that cause, will in the near future be 
perforated and not dipped. He has secured the 
opinions of many experts on this question, which 
may be presented at another time. With this per- 
foration practice as the foundation he has made 
some developments which he believes will effect a 
material saving in handling the crops of both large 
and small growers. 

The first step is the invention of a machine (for 
which he has applied for a patent) which he calls the 
" Pacific Prune Perforator." This, with the outfit 


and plans of working, will at a trifling expense 
screen out the leaves, twigs and other foreign mat- 
ter which is likely to be taken up when gathering 
the crop, perforate the prunes, grade them into a suf- 
ficient number of sizes for drying purposes and shoot 
each size down to a different tray, when they will, 
with but little attention, distribute themselves 
evenly over the trays ready to be loaded onto a car 
and run out to the dry groimd. 

Cleaning, Perforating and Grading. — The per- 
forator stands on an incline and consists of a cylinder 
with a heavy wire frame. The one represented is 
twenty inches in diameter and ten feet long, divided 
into five sections of two feet each. The first section 
is the screen or cleaner. The second and third are 
perforators. Inside the frame is inserted a lining 
having twenty square feet of pricking surface and 
containing in the two sections more than 40,000 short, 
sharp, pricking points. In the remaining two sec- 
tions the meshes of the wire are the proper size for 
grading the fresh fruit into two sizes, a third and 
larger size running out through the end of the 

The hopper at the upper end will hold fully two 
forty-pound boxes of fruit. By emptying the fruit 
into the hopper at the rate of two boxes a minute, 
and turning the cylinder at the rate of about forty- 
five revolutions a minute, it will take care of the 
fruit in good shape. The speed of the perforator 
can be increased by raising the upper end of it still 
higher and thus making the slope steeper. At this 
rate twenty-four tons a day of ten hours each will 
pass thi'ough the perforator. The perforator has not 
been run long enough yet to fully test how long one 
man can turn it continuously, but it is thought that 
by changing work with the other men on the ground 
the cylinder can be kept turning all day comfortably 
with one-man power. If necessary the men can 
double up at the crank for a part or all of the time. 

The usefulness of this perforator may not be con- 
fined to French prunes. Besides them, all other 
prunes and plums, cherries and other stone fruit 
which may be dried without being pitted, will need 
to be perforated. Experience alone will show what 
can be pi'ofitably done in this direction. 

The Arrangements FOR Perforating and Spread- 
ing ON Trays. — In handling prunes with the per- 
forator, two disconnected platforms four feet high 
are used. They are placed so as to form a T, as 
shown in the plan herewith. The perforator is placed 
upon one of them. A team from the orchard with a 
load of prunes drives up near one end of the other 
platform and unloads. It then pulls up about a 
wagon length and takes on a load of empty boxes and 
returns to the orchard. The full boxes are taken 
from one end of the platform, emptied into the hop- 
per of the perforator, and the empties are then 
placed on the other end of the platform ready for the 
fruit wagon going to the orchard. The prunes, 


July 28, 1894. 

after having been run through- the perforator, as 

they leave tho machino are fully five ft-et above the 
groimd. This gives ample fall to run them on to the 
trays below, a few feet away. These two ])latforms 
should be movable, when one can be put on to]) of 
the other and the Whole outfit moved if desired. As 

Ori/ Ground Car /racA 

Carj move 

the trays are filled they are placed on a car but five 
or six steps distant, when they can be run to the dry 
ground, the full trays unloaded, a load of empty ones 
taken on and continue around to the prune ground 

Trav 3-8 

Trav 3-8 

Tra\ 3 •{ 

Plan of Ground 
(or op^rahni; 




4 [eel hi^li 


again and. trays deposited in the space on the oppo- 
site side of the pei-foratoi- i-eady for use again. 

As they are needed, they are placed on a roller 
frame, which ii5 a frame about 30 feet long, and a 
continuous string of them pushed down about a five 

per cent grade to the farther end. They pass down 
the inclme »«</< (• the platform and under the end of 
the chute, receiving the jjrunes from the perforator 
as the traj's are moved slowly along under the 
chutes. For a part of the distance the rollers are 
attached to the end of upright steel springs in such 
a way that the trays can be given a (juick shake 
sideways as they move along, which will disti-ibute 
the friiit evenly over the trays with but very little 
moving into ])lace by hand. 

This completes the circle of both car and team 
work in prune drying. The work of the dry ground 
is believed to be reduced to the lowest practicable 
])oint. This seems certainly a great improvement 
upon any i)lan hei'etofore followed. 

If the plan iluix work as anticipated by Mr. Ban- 
croft, the advantages secured seem to him to be the 
following; No expense for lye; no fire required up- 
on the dry ground ; no water used except to clean 
th»' perforator; lime saved in starting up at the 
commencement of the season; greater facility and 
jjromptness in handling the crop: the outfit is port- 
able and can he moved a hmidred yards or a tjuarter 
of a mile away in half an houi-; the perforator grades 
the ])runes fresh without additional cost the drying 
is much more uniform than when dipped in lye; there 
will be no waste of prunes in making bloaters and no 
loss of time in picking over the trays and throwing 
them out; it will be useful on other fruits besides 
prunes; the aid in sjjreading the fruit on the trays 
alone would nearly, if not quite, justify all the ex- 
pense incurred and the exti a labor recjuired. 


The most advanced way of moving fruit about a big 

TRANrtR Car 

Z^e TrarJc t/pcn Mp /rame cf 
///e car ifiny //ir jrrmr hetyJi/ 
OS /he cne unr^fr i/s tu/ietr/i . 

ground is by means of a narrow-gauge car track and 
small platform cars. We give a j)lan of an ideal ar- 
laiigemciit. It is upon a railroad, the fruit depot 

being 'hgTit alongside of it, with the dry-ground 
track running up an incline into the building. 
; In order to avoid turn-tables, short turns and 
switches, none of which have any friends among 
fruit-driers, transfer cars are used. The .short 
straight track parallel to the railroad, as shown in 
the plan, is the transfer track. It is about a four- 
foot gauge. If a four-inch scantling is uaed for a 
rail, which is what is generally used, and the transfer 
car is built with an iron frame and drojjped down be- 
tween the wheels, the track mi the transfer car can 
be brought to the exact level with the rail Hiuhr the 
wheels of the same car ujwn which it rides, and, by 
cutting away the rail for the flange of the wheel to 
pass, the field car can be smoothly and readily run 
on to the transfer car without sinking the track be- 
low the surface of the ground. The field track is 
about a two foot or two and a half foot gauge. The 
narrow cars are loaded with full trays at the cutting 
shed, and, with their load, rim upon the transfer cars, 
when both cars are moved along the transfer track 
until the sulphur hoases are reached, when the top 
car is run off and into one of them, where the fruit 
remains upon the car until sufficiently bleached. 
Next it is i-un out and on to the transfer car again, 
and moved along farther until the main field track is 
reached, when it is run off on the opposite side and 
down to the dry ground, unloaded, and the trays 
spread out. The car is loaded with empty trays and 
run still farther on around the long curve into the 
cutting shed, where full trays are substituted for 
empty ones, and the car proceeds again to the sul- 
phur houses and on its way around the circuit. 


Testing and Churning. 

Probably not all our dairy readers yet understand 
fully the relations between the Babcock test for the 
fat contents of the milk and the operation of the 
churn which gives the butter yield. All may not see 
the need of knowing the fat contents, except as dis- 
closed by the churn. The two standards of the value 
of milk are, of course, distinct, and each has its 
important function in dairy economy. We are sure 
that a discussion of this very point which E. H. Far- 
rington of the Illinois Experiment Station prepares 
for the Anu-riain AgrlrnUiirist will aid many in obtain- 
ing a clearer conception of the relations between the 
test and the churn. 

Nearly every dairyman who understands the Bab- 
cock milk test knows that he should recover by the 
churn more butter than there was butter fat in the 
milk started with. Why? Because butter contains 
water, salt and curd, and butter fat does not. The 
Babcock test shows simply the per cent of fat in 
milk, and nothing else. The churn may or may not 
separate all the butter fat from the cream, and 
mixed with the butter there is an amount of water 
and curd which is not the same quantity in every 
churning. If two or more men should test the same 
lot of milk by the Babcock method, they would each 
get the same result if the test was correctly made, 
but if this lot of milk was divided into two or more 
equal portions, and each man was at liberty to cream 
and churn the same weight of milk, each one would 
probably obtain a different weight of butter, al- 
though they had the same amount of fat in the milk 
they started with. This would be true, even if the 
same method of separating the cream and the same 
chuT'n were used in every case. It is almost impossi- 
ble to make butter with the same amount of water 
and curd therein every time. 

The best methods of skimming milk will give in 
the cream nearly all the butter fat contained, and 
the best methods of churning cream will leave only a 
trace of fat in the buttermilk, so that nearly all the 
fat of the original milk ought to be recovered in the 
butter. In addition to the fat, the butter holds wa- 
ter and curd; consequently the best i)ractice of 
creaming and churning ought to furnish more butter 
from a given cjuantity of milk than the test showed 
butter fat. This difference, however, will always be 
a more or less variable quantity. It has been found 
in dairy and creamery practice that this ''excess of 
the churn over the test " amounts to about 12 per 
cent in good practice, but it may vary from an 
amount less than the amount found by the test to 
about 18 per cent more. The loss or increase of the 
amount of butter obtained by the chxmi, over the 
butter fat found by the Babcock test, depends on the 
skill of the dairyman. The only factor that ap- 
parently causes this difference between the '"test and 
the churn," or the butter fat and butter, is the 
method of handling the milk and cream. Man, and 
not the cow, seems to be responsible for the gain or 
loss, by the churn, of the butter contained in the 
cow's milk. 

The best practice in creaming and churning milk 
will give more butter by the chum than butter fat by 
the test, but there are many butter-makers who get 
less, and one valuable use of this test is the means it 
gives the butler-maker of locating the loss. This, 
can be done by testing tho bkim and buttermilk. 

The loss of butter in the second of the two trials 
shown below was in the buttermilk. The cause of 
this loss was the temperature of churning and the 
sweetness of the cream when it was churned. These 
complete accounts kept of the milk from the time it 
left the cow until the butter and buttennilk were 
weighed, furnish evidence to show the practical ac- 
curacy of the Babcock test. By weighing and test- 
ing the milk, skim milk, buttermilk and butter, the 
butter fat found in the last three should be, theoret- 
ically, just equal to that found in the milk from which 
they were derived. If the method of testing any of 
the milks was inaccurate, it is evident the two sides 
of the account would not balance. The figures from 
two trials show the following: 

First Trial— Pounds of Fat. Second Trliil— Pounds of Fat. 

;«« pounds milk —18.6 4.M pounds milk —19.5 

28,3 •■ skim milk - .S6I " skim milk — 1.44 

7fi buttermilk - mv 'h.h " hultermilk — 4.0n 

ai butter —M.H\ 17.5 " butter =13.(B 

18.8 IB.-i- 

19..5 19.27 

In these two accounts, the difference, which is .03 
pound in the first and .23 pound fat in the second 
trial, is the amount of fat that is lost by the neces- 
sary manipulations in skimming and churning. It is 
called the mechanical loss. A daily account like this 
was kept with the milk of each breed at the World's 
Fair dairy test. The writer has a record of 312 of 
these balance sheets. The average weight of fat un- 
accounted for daily was in the records of the Jersey 
milk 0.043; Guernsey 0.054; and Shorthorn 0.052 per 
cent of the milk produced per day in the 90-day test. 

The memorandum of these churnings shows two 
things: First, that the Babcock test is a very ac- 
curate method of estimating butter fat. Second, 
that cream can be, and probably often is, so handled 
that the churn yields butter all the way from one- 
tenth less to about one-eighth more than the test 
shows butter fat. 

Dairy Notes. 

Referring again to ripening cream, to which we 
have alluded recently, we cite the Eastern use of 
brine. Farm (ind Hume says that to " brine cream " 
a pint of fair strength brine is added to each gallon 
of cream when taken off, well mixed up and kept 
cool. When enough cream has been obtained, it is 
rip(a^ed by employing heat at least ten degrees above 
the churning temperature. Developing lactic acid, 
according to Dr. W. W. Cook, is not to sour cream 
in the sense we employ the word sour. The brine 
has held fermentation in the cream from forming, 
and when warmed up to about 72 or 75 degrees there 
is a sudden breaking up of the milk sugar into lactic 
acid by the quick infu.sion of life into the germs al- 
ready in the milk, and the fine aromatic flavor so 
desirable in butter is secured, and the cream by the 
action of the brine has not taken (m age, and when 
ripened the whole mass is made homogeneous, and 
all come together. Then the water added acts both 
as a .solvent of the casein and albuminous matter. 
The salt adds density to them, and increases the spe- 
cific gravity, so that when the cream " breaks," if 
more brine is added at this point a cleaner separa- 
tion takes place. In the winter it is about impossi- 
ble to churn all of the fats out of the cream, and if 
any agent is used that will act as a solvent of the 
sugar, albumen and casein, it aids in more perfect 
churning and secures better results. 

To teach a calf to drink let it get up an appetite 
by fasting from 15 to 24 hours. Back the calf in a 
corner, raise its head and with one hand keep its 
mouth open. With the other dip some fresh, warm 
milk in its mouth until it receives a taste. Then 
gently press its head down with its nose in the milk, 
and it will immediately go to sucking and drinking. 
All that is necessary is to keep its head down and 
nose in the milk, and it will do the rest. Give it a 
little breathing spell at intervals by allowing it to 
raise its head. 

Do not use a scrub bull because he is cheap, for he 
will not be cheap in the end, but get a pure-bred 
bull with all the dairy qualities, and one that goes 
back on gotxl dairy stock. The bull, being pure-bred, 
will transmit his good qualities. Of course, there 
are exceptions to this rule, but not often when pure- 
bred bulls are used on native cows. If you have 
heifer calves raise them and you will find that they 
make the most profitable dairy cows that you can 
get. After you have started thus profitably, then 
feed and care for them. Experiment with them un- 
til you know just how much feed each cow will pay 
for. It is not necessary to buy highly concentrated 
feed in all cases, but raise your own feed on the 

It is highly necessary for the fanner to study well 
the breeding of the dairy cows, and keep in mind to 
improve his herd both in quantity and quality. 
Strict attention must be given both to care and feed- 
ing; any cow, good as she may be, is worthless with- 
out the proper feed and care. Feed more, care more 
and study your busiues.s more, and see if dairy farm 
ing will not pay more this year than it did last. 

July 2x, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


A Great Enterprise in Arizona. 

The economical conduct of water for long distances 
in such a way as to reduce seepage and evaporation 
to a minimum is one of the triumphs of recent irri- 
gation engineering. The losses of water in ordinary 
canals led first to cementing the canals or ditches 
and finally to the use of pipe lines, which make it 
possible to extend the irrigated area farther from 
the source of water supply and to realize more from 
the water than by any earlier system of . c(^»d.Jiit. 

river and emptying into it at ii lower level. H. VV. 
Passig, of Columbus, Ohio, is the secretary of the 
corporation. The company is deservedly making a 
.success of the enterprise, and if any one deserves 
credit for making two blades of grass grow where 
but one grew before, an enterprise is then worthy of 
commendation that makes a fertile fi(>ld of wliat was 
a sterile desert. 

Some one has figured out that the ai'ea of land 
cultivated by irrigation is greatly in excess of that 
cultivated by natural rainfall. In India 25, 000, 000 
acres are made fruitful by irrigation. In Egypt 
there are about 0,000,000 acres, and in Europe about 
5,000,000. The United States has about 4,000,000 
acres of irrigated lands, and vastly more that is irri- 
gable. This irrigated area is constantly increasing- 
There is, however, another feature ig-;the.4r.i?<sni£t)li*>i nowhere move rapidly than in Arizona, 
entei-prise, and that lies in forming the ., •, ■ _ ^ ' j -y-.r. ■■ 
pipe line into an inverted siphon, by 
which the water is carried from a canal 
across the low-lying Ised of a river and 
made to discharge at a point at a dis- 
tance from the other bank, as stated. 

Tlie accompanying illustrations, re- 
produced through the courtesy of the 
Amcikiin Mail (iml Exixn t Jonninl, are 
of the workings of the Rillito Canal 
Company, the fij-st of its kind in Ari- 
zona. The company originally began 
with a ditch on the Fort TjowcU reser- 
vation, commencing about three miles 
east of its western boundary, finally 
developing it into a system for carry- 
ing water across the Rillito river to a 
fertile mesa of several thousand acres 
south of the river and near Tucson. To 
do this they had to take the water of 
the canal from one bank of the Rillito 
river to the other. They did it by 
using an invei-ted siphon of California 
redwood, beveled, banded and buried 
under tlie river bed, at right angles 
with the channel. It is 450 feet long; 
four feet five inches in diameter. It is 
built in a liydraulic gi-ade of one in 514, 
and at tlie lowest point of curvature it 
has a gate valve and pipe for flushing, 
in case of sediment or sand getting in. 
At the eastern end is a large forbay 
entei-ing the siphon, provided with a 
suitable sand-box and gate opening 
hito a spillway cut diagonally to the 

Economical Irrigation. 

The gasoline engine, pump and other irrigating 
apparatus that Lewis Wright has set up on his 
ranch, north of town and adjoining the Nortli 
Pomona motor railroad on the east, is watched with 
interest by many persons in this valley, who have 
long studied how they could raise water on their 
land for irrigating purposes. Mr. Wright has his 
apparatus nearly finished. He believes that lie can 
raise from his surface wells a stream of water equal 
to twenty-seven inches for about (>leven cents an 
hour. Some machinists say that he will be able to 
work his pumps for twenty or thirty hours for seven 
and eight cents an hour, That's pretty cheaj) irri- 
gating, and Mr. Wright's plan will be imitated by 
many if Ije has success. — Poniona Progi-ess. 






The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 28, 1894. 


Turkey Growing. 

Mr. C. P. Sutton gives Farm and Home an essay 
on turkey growing, which not only shows a keen 
insight into turkey nature, but also suggests very 
rational ways for handling if on a commercial basis. 
Our turkey-growers will find his writing very inter- 
esting. He says that to insure fertile eggs mating 
must occur ten days before laying. A peculiar call, 
well known to the turkey raiser, announces that the 
hen is hunting a nest, and now comes the tug of war, 
for nine out of ten will persist in laying just where 
they should not, either in the woods, a mile away, or 
along a stream or swamp. When the turkeys have 
mated, fix a number of nests by carrying an armful 
of leaves to clumps of bushes, selecting the site with 
a view to setting the hen — never where they will be 
in danger of foxes, muskrats or other animals, and 
when Mrs. Hen starts to seek a nest to deposit her 
first egg, keep watch of her and make her lay at 
least near where you wish her to. If she has stolen 
a march on you and got a nestful of eggs, shut her 
up at night and do not liberate her until the next 
afternoon. When she wants to lay she will probably 
go straight to her nest. When following her follow 
without being seen, for a hen turkey takes the lead 
for being sly and watchful. If she outwits you, in 
four weeks from the time you saw her last, if you 
have young turks, take one in your hand and go near 
to where you saw her last, and the chirp of the 
turkey you have will bring an answering call from 
the hen. 

Confinement for Turkeys is a Failure. — You 
can keep turkeys in any field that has a fence they 
cannot crawl through, by taking a piece of shingle 
two inches wide and over each wing hollow out 
grooves. Take a piece of strong cotton cloth an inch 
wide, and pass around the wing through the large 
feathers in the joint next the body and around the 
grooves and tie securely, but not too tight, thus 
fastening the shingle across the back and wings. 
We never use this except when the hen is turned out 
with her young turks. Turkey eggs should be kept 
in a dry, cool place, and turned every day. As soon 
as the first hen wants to sit, set her and a common 
hen at the same time, the turkey on 18 or 20 eggs 
and the hen on 9 to 11. Then, if they hatch over 18, 
as they should do, place their coops near together 
and they will run together all the season. If the}' 
hatch less, give them all to the turkey. Turkey eggs 
hatch best on the ground or low down on a nest pre- 
pared by putting in plenty of moist earth. Do not 
make the nest deep and hollowing or set the largest 
hens until they lay the second time, as they are more 
apt to break the eggs. 

Dampen the eggs under common hens frequently 
with tepid water. You will get little chance at 
those under the tui'key, as they are very close sitters, 
and the less they are interfered with the better. If 
you wish to move the turkey from where she has 
laid, take a large slat coop or dish crate, turn it 
upside down, make a nest at one end and move the 
hen at evening, and by morning she will be recon- 
ciled to her new quarters. After the first week let 
her off every two or three days, or they can be left 
on the four weeks by keeping fresh food and water 
and the dust bath accessible. 

In the Wild State. — The tom kills all the young 
turks he can find in the wild state, hence the desire 
of the hen for seclusion. It is best for the same 
person to attend the turkeys during the breeding 
season, doing everything up as quickly as possible. 
In about 28 days the little turks will begin to hatch. 
Do not disturb them the first day. The first feed 
should be hard-boiled egg crumbled fine or stale 
i)read or crackers, slightly moistened with water, 
and squeeze dry as possible. After the first two 
weeks, add rolled oats, oatmeal and cracked wheat, 
all dry, and clabbered milk scalded and drained in a 
colander. Add chopped onion, oi- better, green tops 
to the bread or clabbered milk twice a week. Twice 
a week give a tablespoon of condition powders to 
two quarts of feed. Never feed but little of any- 
thing at a tim(> and mix up fresh each time, as 
turkeys when young are small, delicate eaters. We 
never feed cornmoal unless baked and treated like 
the stale bread. When the turks get their first feed 
they are removed to a large coop or pen of rails 
away from other poultry and not close to the house 
or barns. The toe used for a mark sliould be clipped 
and treated with carbolized grease; the top of 
the head is also greased, and under and top of the 
wings is dusted with insect powder. 

The hen, also, should be again treated thoroughly 
for lice, the turkey's greatest enemy. If the turkeys 
are dying, look for lice. You can scarcely see the 
large gray ones that burrow deep in the top of the 
head, and you may look a six-weeks-old turkey all 
over and not find a louse, when, if you will examine 
the deep creases on top of the wing, you will find it 
swarming with big gray pests. The little turks 
need clean water, bonenieal, gravel and the dust 
bath. If you have no chopper, buy weekly some 
stale beef, cut up and see how greedily the little 
turks devour it. Give a few drops of Douglas 
mixture twice a week in the drinking water or in 

sweet milk. If the turks show signs of diarrhea, 
give a few drops of spiced syrup of rhubarb and 
powdered chalk with their soft food or in milk. The 
coop is moved in two weeks, always to dry, clean 
quarters and away from animal pests. If the weather 
is pleasant, when the turks are a month old turn the 
hen out. Three times a day is often enough to feed 
them now. Always be sure they are in their coop 
at night and do not let them out until the dew is off, 
or if it is stormy. The turkey hen will only go a 
short distance when turks are young, and will stop 
wherever a storm overtakes her and hover her young, 
while a common hen tries to see liow much ground 
she can cover in a day and runs for shelter when it 
rains. We have never lost a turkey from gapes or 
roup and never a small one from cholera. 

After the turks are half grown, if they have good 
forage, feed twice a day, always being sure they are 
at home at night and counted. If the gobbler shows 
a bad disposition and kills young turks or chickens, 
dispose of him as soon as practicable. We have had 
hens lay a second time when turks were a month old 
and the tom assumed the care of her first flock. 
Feed your turks for growth until November 1st, 
when those to be fattened should be separated from 
breeding stock and feed plenty of corn meal. The 
last week it is well to coop them up. 

The Best Results in Marketing Turkeys. — The 
best prices are obtained by taking an order book and 
going to private houses and taking orders, noting 
size and sex wished, as some prefer a hen, .some a 
tom. Do not try to sell your turkeys all in one 
week if you have many. To kill turkeys, drive two 
posts in the ground 10 feet apai-t and have the posts 

little, and from which I offer Mr. E. A. Wright a 
suggestion in answer to his third query in your last 

First: I suspect that he is feeding his young 
chicks as our mothers used to do; /. r., on soft feed. 
Second; I infer that his present stock is Brown 
Leghorn (he fails to name the breed), which feathers 
very rapidly at from three to eight weeks old. and is 
a great strain upon the constitution of the growing 

I avoid feeding )/""».'7 chicks any soft food; broken 
rice or cracked wheat for the first week, cracked 
wheat for the second week, and thereafter whole 
wheat. As a tonic for rapid-feathering chicks, the 
Douglas mixture is the standard, although I employ 
sulphate of iron (copperas), pure and simple, with 
excellent results. Try these. Bro. Wright, and for 
the "gapes," look out sharp for the lilllf red miles, 
and exterminate them. Dalmatian insect powder is 
good, as also the fumes of burning sulphur; but with 
the latter care must be taken to not suffocate the 
chicks. F. Butler. 

Forestville, Sonoma Co., Cal. 


Must Breadstuffs Come to Stock-Feed Prices ? 

Speed the time when, according to the Wood-Davis 
School of Statisticians, the United States will need 
all the breadstuff's it can produce to satisfy its 
own appetites. This will give to growers the obvi- 
ous advantage of home markets, and it becomes all 




about 8 feet high. On top nail a scantling. _ To the 
scantling or pole tie a tarred cord with a slip-noose 
at lower end. Catch your turkey and slip its legs 
through the noose and let it hang head downward. 
Catch the head in your left hand and with a sharp 
knife in right hand open the turkey's mouth and run 
the knife blade down the throat, cutting toward top 
of the head on both sides of the throat. Let hang 
until perfectly bled. This done deftly and tjuickly 
is the neatest and most humane method of killing. 
You can hang three or four up at once and they 
will not bruise themselves flopping about. Find out 
whether your market demands the head on or not. 

Whether you pick dry or scald, plump them by 
dipping first in clear, scalding water, and then in 
cold. Wipe the inside carefully with a clean cloth. 
Cut as neat a vent as possible and pull the crop out 
through that, never cutting over the crop. Be sure 
the windpipe is removed, and for private families, 
who usually wish the head removed, bring the skin 
up over the top of the neck and tie neatly with white 
cord. The turkeys should have no feed the night 
before killing. 

Be sure and infuse new blood in your flock each 
year, either by changing tom or hens, or get a dozen 
eggs to raise your own " new blood.'' 

The secrets of turkey raising are freedom from 
lice, clean, dry feed, and. dry. clean quarters, and do 
not try and convert them to your habits, but try and 
conform to theirs. 

Suggestions for Mr. Wright. 

To THE Editor:— I am neither ''a prophet nor the 
son of a prophet, " nor do I claim to be an expert in 
poultry raisingr, but experience has taught me a 

the more devoutly to be hoped for when we find 
British publicists claiming that the capacity of the 
beast must be the measure of the value of man's 
cereal food. It is rather a startling proposition, and 
it is not strange that the London Guardian, in whose 
columns we find the views urged, should give them 
the heading, " Hard Facts of Farming.'' We .should 
say they are hard facts, and the only way to soften 
them for our own people will be to build up our own 
markets and cut loose entirely from a continent 
which can only pay stock-feed prices for choice 
cereals. But that argues for a national policy differ- 
ent from that which we are supposed to be xmder — 
although where we are actually at in public affairs is 
the greatest puzzle of the time. 

But we did not intend to argue didactically from 
the jjeculiarly interesting claim which we find in the 
Guardian, but rather to give it to our readers in all 
its depressing gloominess, as follows: 

The down-drop in the value of wheat still continues, 
and for some weeks past it has beaten the record of 
any previous year in modern history. Nor can we 
any longer glean hope from American statistics, 
which show that their surplus is slowly melting 
away; for now we are face to face with a spare 9,- 
000,000 quarters lately harvested in La Plata, and an 
equal surplus awaiting shipment at Odessa. Both 
countries can do nothing but sell, and as they sell 
against each other, it is impossible to .say to what 
point the rivalry may bi'ing us. It has brought Ar- 
gentine wheat down to 19s a quarter during the last 
week, the lowest figure ever touched for foreign 
grain. It is no comfort to the British farmer to 

July 28, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


know that there is a fresh financial crisis in that 
country involving bankruptcies amounting to several 
millions sterling, which the authorities attribute, 
among other causes, to "low prices of produce." 
The produce is there and must be turned into cash, 
all the more compulsory if bankruptcy walks behind 
the grower. Other grains share the fall. Good 
feeding barley comes to us from Syria and Persia at 
12s a quarter, an undisguised blessing to our stock- 
keepers, but a malediction to our home growers of 
all but the finest malting qualities. Potatoes from 
Germany have been all winter landed at the eastern 
ports at 30s a ton, and thus our farmers in Lincoln- 
.shire, Yorkshire and Scotland, who used to get 50s 
to 90s a ton on their farms, have this year had only 
25s. Here also the stock-keeper alone finds his ad- 
vantage. So with every other article of consump- 
tion. Even with wheat we have now reached a price 
at which it ranks only as cattle food; for though the 
imperial average is still 24s a quarter and maize is 
18s, yet when we deduct the cost of sending the 
wheat from the farm to market or mill, and add to 
maize the cost of bringing it from seaport and sta- 
tion to the fai"m, we find that it is cheaper to feed 
cattle with wheat than to buy maize with which to 
feed them. An immense quantity, in fact, has been 
thus used both here and in America. Wheat, barley 
and maize are at this moment for value in feeding 
the cheapest food there is, cheaper than hay, cheaper 
even than straw in most places. The practical re- 
sult is that while in all previous methods the grains 
and roots which form the staple food for man bi-ought 
as such a special price, ranging from 50 to 100 per 
cent more than their value as food for animals, every- 
thing is now brought down to this one uniform level. 
There are, indeed, some temporary exceptions to the 
rule. The disasters of last season have given an ab- 
normal rise to the price of hay and straw. But this 
is so evidently accidental, and of so little benefit to 
those who are suff'ering from a scarcity of these 
crops, that it does not affect the general proposition. 
Again, oats and malting barley are now, and may 
continue for a few years to be, worth more than 
feeding value, because there is a special demand for 
(jualities of English growth. Yet these are only local 
advantages, dependent in part on seasons and limited 
to certain soils and rotations. Thus they cannot be 
reckoned as of such importance as matei'ially to 
affect the profits of the farm. For practical pur- 
poses over England, therefore, the feeding value of 
cattle has become the measure of profit to be made 
from all our crops. It does not follow that every 
farmer must use them for feeding; but it means that 
li<^ will make no more than that value by selling them. 

We have thus arrived at what may be fairly re- 
garded, as least for the present, as bottom rates for 
all articles of English growth. Measured by their 
value in feediiig stock, they will hold that value so 
long as the price of meat remains unchanged. Un- 
doubtedly this may also fall below its present stan- 
dard. The competition of the world may turn from 
the growth of crops to their conversion into meat. 
The extension of the system of refrigeration facili- 
tates the process in its application to countries too 
distant to permit of the transmission of living ani- 
mals. Improvement in quality is being gradually 
effected by the exportation from our own islands of 

the best stocks for breeding. All these factors must 
make us anticipate that there will be year by year 
an increase in the supply of foreign meat of a quahty 
which will compete on not unequal terms with that 
of our own feeders. But, on the other hand, the 
consumption increases, not only in this country, but 
abroad, in a more rapid rate than that of graia. 
Wages are rising all over the world, and a part of 
the increase goes in every household in the purchase 
of a bit of meat. The cheajjest method of produc- 
tion, that of i^asturage on prairie land, has a limit 
placed on it by the growth of ciyihzation and the ex- 
tension of settlements. When grain is resorted to 
for feeding, 12 pounds of it are consumed in provid- 
ing one poimd of meat. In the cost of transport and 
of refrigeration, we have always a protective duty 
which can hardly fall below twopence a pound. Im- 
provement in quality of meat, which is essential to 
enable it to compete with our own, is a gradual and 
somewhat expensive process, involving not merely 
purchase of valuable stocks, but more costly systems 
of rearing and feeding. Taking all these considera- 
tions into view, it may reasonably be expected that 
any material drop in the price of meat will be of slow 
progress, and that therefore we may regard it for 
the present as a fairly steady commodity. Hence, 
measuring grain and fodder by their value for pro- 
duction of meat, we get a standard which may serve 
to inform us what prices may be anticipated, and by 
consequence what species of crops it will be most 
profitable to grow. 


rir. Edward F. Adams on the Strike. 

To THE Editor: — Referring to the strike question, 
the facts of the case as I understand them are as fol- 

1. The Pullman Company disagreed with the 
mechanics in its shops and they struck. 

I have no idea which side had the right; nor did I 
ever hear or read any clear, impartial statement of 
the grounds of the trouble. I suppose nobody on 
this coast ever knew which side ought to have public 

If we are to assume that the company was neces- 
sarily wrong because it has money, or because it is a 
corporation; or that the strikers were necessarily 
wrong because they are poor, or because they are not 
a corporation, of course, that settles it; but I will 
not assume either of those things. If I am to sympa- 
thize I must first judge, and before I can judge I must 
know the facts. 

2. The Pullman mechanics applied to the Ameri- 
can Railway Union to refuse to handle Pullman cars, 
and the union consented. 

If the Southern Pacific Company had then dropped 
Pulbnan cars from its trains, compelled men, women 
and children who wished to travel to sit up all night 
to do so, and settled with the Pullman Co. laterlor 
any damage for breach of contract, it would have 
saved a great deal of present money for themselves 
and others. 

But they would have conceded a principle which 

would compel them next month, if I should have 
trouble with my pickers, and an organization of rail- 
road employees take up their case, to refuse to haul 
my fruit until I had satisfied my men; or if that be 
an unlikely case, if we who organized ourselves as 
fruit growers should refuse to ship fruit at less than 
a certain price, denounce all who continued to ship 
as " scabs,'' and demand that their fruit should not 
be handled, how would outsiders H'ke that'? This 
case is not only possible, but extremely likely to oc- 
cur, should the principle of this strike be conceded. 
It is precisely analogous to the present case of rail- 
road men taking up the cause of the Pullman me- 
chanics. It is a principle which puts any man in 
business at the mercy of an irresponsible organiza- 

That the S. P. Company refused to take this cheap 
and easy course entitles them to the thanks of every 
man who believes that the rule of law is better than 
the rule of a mob. No matter what this company 
has formerly done, it has this time been one of the 
solid bulwarks of civilization. 

It ought also to be stated — what aU know but 
which most newspapers are too cowardly to print — 
that the only reason why trains have not run without 
serious interruption, is because those who were able 
and willing to run them believed, with reason, that 
they would be murdered if they did. 

I don't discuss the right or wrong of this, but 
merely state it as an example of our civilization. 
Everybody knows it to be true. Some may like that 
state of society. I don't. 

As to the remedy, it is simple and sure. In case 
of strikes, legally ascertain and print the exact facts 
bearing on the question, with the claims of each side. 
Whenever the tacts are known public opinion will 
speedily compel an equitable settlement. Both sides 
had better wait a few days to effect this than to en- 
gage in riot and murder. 

It is useless for strikers to deny the responsibility 
for murders committed in their behalf. They rely 
on the fear of murder to prevent business from pro- 
ceeding, and when any murderer is caught their sym- 
pathies in his behalf are evident. There is no doubt 
whatever that the leaders of the Sacramento strikers 
could find all the assassins of the Yolo bridge if they 
wished to. 

Presuming that some who always dig in the mud 
to seek nasty motives will say, ' ' Here is another man 
with a railroad collar, " perhaps I may as well say 
that I never received a personal favor from a rail- 
road company in my life that I remember; that my 
only personal dealing with the S. P. Co. on my own 
account grew out of a trifling act of injustice which 
they refused to remedy; that I am gradually coming 
to favor the acquisition of railroads by the nation — 
although, from the standpoint of the people and the 
employes, the objections are most weighty; that I 
believe the peaceful strike to be a legitimate and 
necessary weapon of organized labor, and that I 
heartily despise the man who takes a striker's place 
when the strike is just. 

But I desire to live under the rule of law and not 
under a reign of terror. There is no tyranny like 
the tyranny of a mob. 

Edward F. Adams. 

Wrights, July 23, 1894. 

Alexander & Hammon, 

RIO BONITO NURSERIES, Biggs, Butte Co., Gal. 



The most Complete Assortment of General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacific Coast. 

1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894=95 in Stock. 

Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Guaranteed to be healthy and free from 
cale or other pests. 

Send for Calalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander & Hammon, 

BIg;g;s, Butte C::ountv> Ceil. 

Made and Sold 
under the fol- 
lowing Letters 
Patent : 

No. 197,137.. ..Nov. l.S, 1877 
No. 210,4,^8.. ..Dec. .3, 1878 
No. 306,667.. ..Oct. 14, 1884 
No. 403.019.. ..Ma.v 7, 1889 


Agricultural Machinery. 

The purpose of this notice is to inform both farmers and merchants, who 
use or sell Horse Forks, that they must not purchase Horse Forks that In- 
fringe the above Patents; and to call their attention to the fact that certain 
horse forks, manufactured by F. E. Myers & Bro., Ashland, O., and imported 
and sold by the Deere Implement Company, of San Francisco, are direct in- 
fringements of the above patents, the manufacturers of the infringing forks 
having admitted in court that their forks were an infringement of the above 
patents, and are now paying royalty for manufacturing and selling them; and 
they have agreed not to sell any west of the Rocky mountains. 

All parties selling or using these infringing Iforse Forks will be promptly 


Sixth Street, San F'l-ancisco, Oetl. 

flS"Write for Catalogue No. I."), devoted to Pumping Machinery and Steam Engines. ""SJa 



HOOKER & CO., 16=18 Drumm Street, San Francisco. 


s^^jsu to FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS, Fresno, Cal. 


Hydraulic, IrrigatioD and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc., all sizes. 


Iron cut, punched and formed, for making pipe on ground where required. All kinds of Tools sup- 
plied for making Pipe. Estimates given when required. Are prepared for coating all slies of Pipes 
with a composition of Coal Tar and Aspbaltum. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 28, 1894. 


The Golden Mean. 

(Metrical translation or Ode X. Itooli U. ' The 
Odes of Horace "! 

The man who sails far out to sea, 

Licinius, nor dreams of jrales. 
Is not more wise than he who hu^s 

The rocky shore with close reefed sails. 

But he is free from anxious cares, 
Who safely loves the golden mean : 

Who wisely' shuns invidious wealth. 
And in no lofty halls is seen. 

The stately pine by windy blasts 
Is often felled : the niifrhty tower 

Falls with a greater crash, and .love 
Strikes highest mounts with thund'ring 

The mind well trained, by hardest toil. 

Successful, fears no other fate. 
Though Jove may bring tlie winters back. 

He will in turn their force abate. 

If then your lot is hard to bear. 
Know thus it will not always be: 

AiX)llo with his lute at times 
Awakes the muse ; his bow doth he 

Not always bend. Bo bold and brave 
To bear ill luck : and yet your sail 

Spread not unwisely far at sea. 
To each too favorable gale. 

—A. B. B. in the Colorado Magazine. 

The riariner and the Boy. 

'• 1 sort of think," observed Tonmiie, 
as he settled down in the stern seat of 
the old boat and watc-hed the mariner 
cleaning his pipe — "I sort of think. 
Captain Jack, that cannibals are more 
interesting than jjirates." 

"An" a good reason for it, loo," re- 
turned Jack. "For why? Because, 
says I. Because pirates they'll rob ye, 
but they won't eat ye; whereas canni- 
biles they robs ye like pirates, an' "11 
eat ye besides, like cannibiles. Ye get 
more for your money with cannibiles 
than ye does with pirat(>s. wherefore, 
bein' a boy as ye are. why shouldn't ye 
like cannibiles better than i)irates ? " 

" I wish you hadn't told me all you 
know about cannibals. " said Tommie. 

"I never said nothin' o' the kind," 
said Jack. "I ain't told ye half what 
I knows about cannibiles. 1 'ain't told 
ye how T oncet eat a cannibile. nor has 
I told ye how oncet a cannibile began 
to eat me, an' give me up as not suited 
to his teeth, much less his orgins of 

' No. I don't think you ever told me 
that, Captain, " said Tommie. "How 
was it 'i" " 

"This way,'' replied Jack, lighting 
his pipe, and making himself comfort- 
able in the bow. " 'Twas in '78. You 
don't remember '78, an' I don't blame 
ye. because ye wasn't born then; but 
there were a year o' that number, an' 
it was a year full o' perile for me. I 
was the supercargo of the clipper 
Peter J. o' Columbus. O., an' with my 
dear old fric>nd Capt. Spatts I set sail 
in January with a hold full o' light 
wagons an' steel rails for Jamaica. 
The steel rails was fur a railroad, an' 
the light wagons was sent along fur to 
be gave to tin; gov'ment for permission 
to lay the railroad. Ye can't buy gov'- 
ments with money, because gov'ments 
makes all the money they wants with a 
printin' ])ress. but light wagons fetches 
their inflooence, seein' as how light 
wagons is things they can't make, nor 
they can't buy, because money printed 
on i)rintin' presses don't go with fellers 
that makes light wagons. 

' ' We got akjiig fi rst i-ate until we 
reached the Gulf o' Mexico, an" then 
there came up a storm that blowed an" 
blowed an' blowed, until we lost our 
bearin's, an' sixteen o' the crow stole 
the life-boats an' deserted. That left 
me an' the Ca])tain to run the boat, 
which warn't enough by no means, an' 
we give ourselves up for lost. 

" 'Were done for. Jack.' says the 
Cap'n, wipin" the tears from his eyes. 

" ' That's so, I guess,' says T. ' An' 
I wisht I'd kep" my word to my 
brother, an*^ never went to sea again 
till they run ti'olley lines 'twixt where 
you're goin' to an" the place from 
which you start from. If we was only 
on a trolley line we could pull ourselves 
back to Columbus, Ohio. 

" 'An' seein' as how wo ain't on no 
such line," says he— 

"'Wecan"t pull ourselves ashore," 

says I, interruptin', fur his voice was 
beginning to shake an' his lips to 
tremble, so I thought I ought to spare 
him the labor o" finishin' out his sen- 

" 'Jack.' .says he,' 'I'm goin' to jump 
overboard, an' let you lose the ship. 
It "ud never do for me, a full-fledged 
Cap"n, to lose his ship, but in a super- 
cargo it ain"t no disgrace, (iood by. 
You'll find the playin'-cards in my 
chest, so if you gets lonesome you can 
play sollytear. ' 

"I tried to stop 'im, but he was set 
in his ways, the cap'n was, an' over he 
went, and "there was me left to drift 
around with the steel rails an' the light 
wagons. T had to laugh when I 
There was a fine 
hold, an' wagons 
enough to start a livery stable — an' all 
worth what to me Nothin'. Many's 
a time since that I've wisht 1 owned a 
railroad or a wagon, but then they 
wasn't worth a shuck. 

"Well, it was lonesome enough after 
the Cajj'n went, an" for days an' days 
as I drifted alx)ut on that ere deserted 
ship I felt like as though I wisht I'd 
foUered the Cap'n. but that was impos- 
sible owin' to my cork leg." 

"Your what'?'" asked Tommie, in 

' My cork leg. " replied Capt. Jack. 
"I wore a cork leg, an' it would ha' 
kep' me afloat, an' as I says to myself, 
floatin' around the ocean on a ship, with 
])lenty to eat, is a bottei- an' a pleasant- 

thought about it. 
railroad in the 

out o' the upper half o' the same mem- 
ber. When the tribe seed me doin' 
that an' never wince, the most on 'em 
fled, but the king stands his gi'ound. 

'■ 'We'll boil this,' he says; 'an' if 
she's tender I'll eat the rest o' ye. but 
if she ain't, I'll send ye back to where 
ye come from. ' 

"An' then, o' course, Tommie, my life 
were saved. They boiled that piece o' 
my cork leg a week, an' it didn't get 
no tenderer, an' the king, after tryin' 
it at half a dozen meals, gives me up as 
a hard case, an' puts me out to sea in a 
boat, sayin' as how tough characters 
like me wasn't wanted on his island. 
Two days later I were picked uj) by the 
brig Harry Wilkins. plyin' between Rio 
an' Barcelona, thereby a-t^idin' that 

"Well, that mix fine."" said Tommie. 
"But, Jack, I never knew you wore a 
cork leg." 

"I don't no more," returned Jack. 
" I gave up wearin' a false leg twenty 
year ago, an" took to my own again. 
On general principles real legs are 
better"n false ones, though for canni- 
biles give me cork. " 

And before Tommie could question 
him further the ancient mariner had 
departed. — Harper s Young People. 

Curious Facts. 

Fashion Notes. 

It is estimated that at least $50,()0(t,- 
(tOO of the Government s paper money 
supposed to be in circulation has been 


or death than floatin" around the ocean 
on a cork leg. An" then came the 

"I was sittin" in the cabin havin" a 
game o' muggins with myself, when all 
on a sudden the ship gave a lurch an" a 
bang, an' the first thing I knew I was 
strugglin' in the water with the ace o" 
spades in one hand and a seegar in the 
other. The steel rails went to the bot- 
tom with a roar, an" the light wagons 
was bobbin' round in the waves, lookin' 
for all the world like a fash'nable driv- 
in' i^ard in a flood. Absurd as they 
looks, however, them wagons saved my 
life, for jest as I was a-sinkin' for the 
last time up comes a three-seated buck- 
board underneath of me, an' a big wave 
comin' along at a two-forty gait, croat- 
in' havoc among the cannibiles dancin' 
on the beach, runnin" over three on 'em 
an" the pole completely transfigurin' 
the king's uncle by a-runnin' clean 
through his stummick. 

"■ When the king sees me he smacks 
his lips, for doin' nothin' like I was do- 
ing for a week T was fattenin" fast, an" 
says, 'Here's a free lundi as ix a free 

"'You're wrong there, your Royal 
highness,' says I. ' I'm a banquet, an' 
nothin' less. Try that an' see:' sayin' 
which, careless as ye please, I takes a 
knife an' cuts off the foot o' my cork 
leg. You'd orter seen his eyes! Bulge 
ain't no fittin' word for what thev did. 
Howsomever. he nibbles a bit on the 

" 'Kinder dry an" rubbery,' says he, 
tryin" to chi'w it. 

"'Mebbe you d like some o' the 
second joint,' says I. cuttin" a chunk 

lost or destroyed. By the sinking of a 
vessel on the Atlantic coast some years 
ago *1. 000,0(10 in greenbacks was lost. 

A medical man. who has kept a 
nightl}' record of his pulse for five 
years, saj's that every year it falls 
tiirough the spring until about mid- 
summer, and then rises through the 
autumn to November or December. 
Then comes a second fall and rise, 
cuhninating in February. 

An eminently practical (ierman sci- 
entist is said to have applied a mild 
current of electricity to a swarm of 
bees, quickly causing them to fall to 
the ground in a stupefied condition. 
The bees could be safely handled while 
in this condition, and if the electric 
current were not too strong, no injury 
was done to them. 

A Norwegian invention for the pro- 
duction from skini-milk of a new ma- 
terial, which has been called lactite or 
mild ivory, has just taken practical 
shape, and a factory for its production 
is about to start operations in Iceland. 
This new material bears a close re- 
semblance to real ivory, and, in addi- 
tion, can be made in black or any color 

The largest and most wonderful 
spring of fresh water in the world is 
on the G ulf c oast of Florida, in Her- 
nando county. The Wekochee river, a 
stream larg(> enough to float a small 
steamer, is made entirely of water 
spouted from this gigantic natural well, 
which is ninety feet in diameter and 
about sevent}' or eighty feet deep. 
The water is said to be remarkably 

Silk waists have, in all shades and 
colors, never before been so particu- 
larly successful as this year. What 
wonder when the delicate fabrics are 
converted in such an ingenious way 
into exquisitely lovely waists, vests, 
gowns and various other articles of 
attire. The most conspicuous among 
the silks being worn are the extremely 
small checks; they seem to have taken 
the place of the shot silks which last 
year were so mut'h in vogue. These 
checks are in numerous shades of pink, 
blue, gray, mauve and many other 
colors. Now, though many prefer a 
tailor-made gown to any other style of 
costume, it is almost impossible to 
wear a coat and skirt on the very 
warmest days, so that it is wise to 
have a few of these pretty, .soft silk 
vests and a waist or two, then you 
may leave the coat ott' and still have a 
charming dress, cool, comfortable and 
smart. For evening wear and thi- 
theater they are decidedly in fait, 
hardly anything else being worn. They 
arc usually worn with a skirt of some 
dark material, as the contrast is ex- 
ceedingly (>ttective. Some of the silks 
have a light flower pattern over them, 
and these do not reqiiire a great deal 
of trimming. The i)lain ones are usually 
ornamented with quantities of soft 
lace, others are trimmed with ecru in- 
sertion; in fact, there are a hundred- 
and-one ways of arranging these deli- 
cate materials. 

Silks are .so cheap this summer that 
there is no reason why every woman 
should not have at least two or three. 
Indeed, the cheap ones are hardly more 
expensive than the best ginghams and 
chambrays. Of course there is every 
kind and every price, but very pretty 
ones are to be had for very little 
money, and in summer more expensive 
silks are not such a necessity as in 
winter, foi- they are really much 
warmer and more cumbersome. 

Surahs are not much worn, the India 
silks and th(> tattetas and the China 
varieties being more the favorites. 
The old-fashioned patterns and even 
the old-fashioned silks themselves are 
the most stylish, and very quaint and 
odd are some of the designs. These 
same silks are trimmed with lace, satin 
and velvet ribbon, and are made in 
every conceivable design. 

Some fancy having the waist of dif- 
ferent material from the skirt, one or 
two of the light weaves of velvet waists 
being worn with these summer silks. 
It is nothing but a passing fancy, for 
velvet is not a gotxl material for sum- 
mer wear in this country, and while 
there have been many attempts to in- 
troduce it, they have always failed, 
and people have gone back to satin or 
some other material in great haste. 
This statement may be somewhat modi- 
fied, for velvet waists are somethnes 
worn with dinner dresses in the sum- 
mer made up with these very same 
silk skirts. 

The fashion of sleeves in diflerent 
material from the gown is an excellent 
one for any woman whose purse is not 
very long. Many a pretty, .smart 
gown this spring has been freshened 
up by having sleeves added, wiicn to 
match the material it.self would liave 
been quite impossible. Tlu; moire silks 
are much used for this fashion, but the 
fiat has gone forth that moire will not 
be worn after the aiitunm unless it be 
in full costumes, and as trimming it 
will have to be put one side with plush, 
foi% perchance, another .seven years. 
Like plush, moire is absolutely impossi- 
ble when not in fashion. 

Let us strive : First, to attain the 
grace of silence; second, to deem all 
faultfinding that does no good a sin, 
and to resolve, when we are happy our- 
selves, not to poison the atmos])here 
for our neighbors by calling on them 
to remark every jjainful and disagree- 
able feature of their daily life; third, to 
I)ractice the grace and virt ue nf ])raise. 
— Harriet Beedier Stowe. 

One gift well given is as ^ood as a 
thousand; a thousand gifts ill-given are 
hardly better than none. — Dean Stanley. 

July 28, 1894 THc Pacific Rural Press. 59 

Hints to Housekeepers. 

Paint, however old and dry it may 
be, can be removed from carpets or 
draperies by a liberal use of chloroform. 
Saturate the spot, keep it closely cov- 
ered for half an hour, then brush out. 
The liquid destroys the oil in the paint, 
leaving only a powder that usually 
comes out, leaving no stain unless on 
very delicate fabrics. In obstinate 
cases the application may need to be 
repeated several times. It will posi- 
tively remove it if persisted in. 

When you wish to use very dry bread 
for any purpose, soak it in c6\d milk or 
water instead of having them hot. The 
hot fluids seem to take the life out of 
dry bread and render it soggy; the cold 
soaking leaves it flaky. 

The merest dash of cinnamon in a 
cup of chocolate after it is poured is 
said to add a piquant and undistinguish- 
able flavor. 

Ladies wishing a smooth skin made 
without harm can obtain it by pur- 
chasing ten cents worth of tincture of 
benzoin. Dissolve it in a pint of wine, 
and use on the face at night. The face 
should first be washed with pure and 
fine soap, and then rinsed off in clear, 
cold water. The benzoin can be dis- 
solved in water, but wine is preferable. 

Soft and flabby skin gains firmness 
of texture by the use of cold water, to 
which has been added a little common 
salt. Vinegar and spirits of any kind 
used as a wash about twice a week help 
to keep the skin firm. 

To remove moth patches wash them 
with a solution of common bicarbonate 
of soda and water several times during 
the day for two days, or until th(>, 
patches are removed, which will usually 
be in forty-eight hours. After this 
process wash with some nice toilet soap, 
and the skin will be left clean and free 
from patches. Peroxide of hydrogen 
I'ubbed on the face two or threes times a 
day for ten days will also free the skin 
of any discoloration. 

A tablespoonful of lime water to a 
pitcher of milk is very beneficial. 

After knives have been cleaned they 
may be brilliantly polished with char- 
coal powder. 

Rub spoons with salt to remove egg 

Rothschild's Maxims. 

The elder Baron Rothschild had the 
walls of his bank placarded with the 
following maxims ; 

Shun liquors. 

Dare to go forward. 

Never be discouraged. 

Never tell business lies. 

Be polite to everybody. 

Employ your time well. 

Be prompt in evei-ythmg. 

Pay your debts promptly. 

Bear all troubles patiently. 

Do not reckon upon chance. 

Make no useless acquaintances. 

Be brave in the struggle of life. 

Maintain your integrity as a sacred 

Never appear something more than 
you are. 

Take time to consider, and then de- 
cide positively. 

Carefully examine into every detail 
of your business. 

Then work hard and you will be cer- 
tain to succeed in life. 


Tommy: " Wliich is right, stuftin' or 
dressin' ?" Jimmy: "It's a dressin' 
when it's on your plate, and stuffin' 
when you have swallered it." 

A class of pupils being asked to men- 
tion the name of a ship in which the 
Pilgrims came over, a little fellow en- 
thusiastically responded: "I know, 
teacher — Pilginm's Progress." — Ex- 

" I don't know whether I like those 
pictures or not," said the young woman. 

They seem rather indistinct." " But 
you must remember, madam," said the 
wily photographer, "that your face is 
not at all plain." — Sacret Heart Re- 


The Traveling Calf. 

It was a festive little calf 

That left his home behind, 
And went a-traveling to improve 

His somewhat bovine mind. 

He walked into his master's home. 

And took a glance about ; 
But not a thing did he see there 

That he could quite make out. 

And when he felt his appetite 

Beginning for to grow. 
He tried to eat the buds that on 

The papered wall did blow. 

But finding that this diet was 

A disappointment sore, 
He tried to taste the carpet greens 

Upon the parlor floor. 

But these he found were quite as vain ; 

And so it came to pass 
He saw 'twas better far for him 

To go again to grass, 

And leave to other creatures, quite 

Distinct from his own kind, 
The task of traveling to improve 

A somewhat bovine mind. 

— Harper's Young People. 

A Little Gentleman. 

There were always good times in the 
Morrises' back yard on Saturday after- 
noons. It was a big back yard, with 
plenty of sand to dig in, and plenty of 
grass to roll on, and a hard spot to 
play marbles upon, and with plenty of 

which the Uttle Moirris girl had gath- 
ered from the asparagus bushes by the 
back fence. 

But after Sunshine — that was what 
they called the little Morris girl — had 
gathered her peas, and laid her white 
hollyhock cheeses in a tidy row upon 
the fence rail, her head began to have 
a queer buzzing feeling inside and her 
little forehead to pucker into funny 
wrinkles whenever one of the boys 
whistled sharply or a tin pan fell with 
a bang. So presently she told the boys 
that she guessed they'd have to 
"'scuse" her a little while; and she 
ran into the nursery and laid her head 
on mamma's shoulder, and told her she 
thought there was "pretty near too 
much boys in the back yard," and that 
she guessed she would stay in the house 
a little while. 

Mamma didn't seem surprised, be- 
cause she knew Sunshine had a bad 
cold in the head ; but she said she was 
very glad to have her little girl's com- 
pany, and she asked her if she would 
like to take the green box that was in 
the left-hand corner of the top closet 

When she said that, Sunshine forgot 
all about the queer noise in her head, 
and danced and clapped her hands 
almost as noisily as if she had been in 
the back yard. You see, she knew all 
about that green box on the top closet 
shelf, and knew that it was full of love- 
ly picture cai'ds, and all the valentines 
that had come to the Morris children 

cards. So, when they heard Sunshine's 
tap on the window, the oldest Morris 
boy looked up and said " Oh-oh! " and 
went on putting more sticks on the 
fire, and the little Morris boy said, 
" ! that's nothing!" and the 
other boys went on with their play, 
and said nothing, all except one little 
fellow who wore a check gingham blouse 
with big white earthen buttons on it, 
and gray jeans trousers baggy in the 
seat, and too long for knee trousers 
and too short for long trousers, and — 
well, I am sorry to say that the little 
Morris boys, whose clothes always fitted 
and who wore pretty laced blouses of 
"outing flannel," sometimes laughed to 
each other about Tommy Jones's funny 
clothes, and also about his odd way of 
talking, for he said "your'n" and 
"his'n," and, as they said, "didn't 
know anything about grammar." 

Now, this is what little Tommy Jones 
did when he looked up at Sunshine's 
decorated wmdow. He threw down the 
armful of chips which he had brought 
to fix the fire with, and ran clear 
across the back yard to the nursery 
window and smiled all over his grimy 
little face at Sunshine, and called out 
to her: 

"They're awful pretty. Sunshine. 
We're heaps 'bilged to ye for lettin' us 
see 'em. " And, in spite of the fact that 
the boys were calling loudly, " They're 
done — potatoes done ! " he stayed by 
the window two whole minutes, and 
told Sunshine which cards he thought 
were the prettiest ("purtiest," he 
said), and then he ran back as fast as 
he could, to make sure of his share of 
half-cooked potatoes. 

That night, when mamma tucked the 
boys up in bed and talked over the day 
with them, she said: 

" I learned one thing to-day, boys, 
and that is that the boys who wear the 
neatest clothes and use the most per- 
fect grammar are not always the truest 
gentlemen. What do you think ? " 

And the little Morris boys wriggled 
uneasily m bed; and one of them whis- 
pered, with his face muffled in the 

"Was it about Smishine's cards you 
meant? Why, you see, we were so 
busy ■'— 

"Yes, I know; but a gentleman is 
never too busy to be polite. And — yes, 
boys, I was very proud of Tommy 
Jones." — Advance. 

He Was Right. 


shade-trees for hot weather, and open 
space for the sunshine in cold weather. 
And, because everything about it 
seemed just as though it had been 
planned on purpose for boys, you may 
be sure that there were always a num- 
ber of little Smiths or Joneses to share 
it with the three little Morris boys and 
one little Morris girl. 

Then too, these little MoitIs boys 
and the little Morris girl seemed just 
to match the back yard. They had 
Saturday clothes that were not afraid 
of nice, clean dirt, such as was found 
in the Morris back yard ; and they 
were on such good terms with the 
people who lived in the Morris kitchen 
close by that it was not the least 
trouble for them to get all the tin pans 
and spoons and cooky-cutters and 
sifters that they needed for making 
sand pies ; and as for string, — well, 
there never seemed to be any end to 
the string that came out of the Morris 

On this particular Saturday after- 
noon there was such a venj good time 
on hand that all the other good times 
which had gone before seemed small 
when compared with it. 

The Morris boys, with the help of the 
Smiths and Browns and Joneses, had 
made a brick fireplace from the broken 
bricks left when a new chimney was 
built in place of one which the wind 
blew oft' the Morris kitchen ; and as 
Mamma Morris was going to be at 
home and sitting by the nursery win- 
dow that looked down into the back 
yard, she had given them permission 
to make a " really truly " fire in it to 
bake their sand 'pies and 'sawdust pud- 
dings, and boil the "/green peas" 

since, they were old enough for Samt 
Valentine to take any notice of them. 

When she had the precious box in 
her own hands, it seemed too good to 
be true that she was to have this treat 
all to herself and "decorate up" the 
nursery according to her own taste; 
and after she had worked awhile by 
herself, and put a row of valentines on 
the mantel-shelf and stuck cards in all 
the window-sills, she began to wish the 
boys might enjoy the treat with her. 
So she picked out the very prettiest 
valentines and the brightest cards in 
the box and put a row of them along 
the window that overlooked the back 
yard, turning the pictured sides out. 
Then she tapped on the \vindow pane to 
make the boys look up. Now it hap- 
pened that the youngest Morris boy 
had been to the kitchen, and "bor- 
rowed just a few little potatoes " to 
boil over their fire in a tin can; and 
they were s o busy waiting for them to 
be done that they had no time to spare 
for such rainy-day plays as picture 

Teacher (to new pupil) — What is your 
last name, my little man? 

New Pupil — Tommy. 

Teacher — What is your full name? 

New Pupil — Tommy Jones. 

Teacher — Then Jones is your last 

Tommy — No, it isn't. When I was 
born my name was Jones, and they 
didn't give me the other name for a 
month afterward. — Brooklyn Life. 

"How did you like that 
you got acquainted with?" 

little girl 

Little Dot : "I didn't likelier a bit. 
She's just horrid! She talked .so much 
about her dolls that I didn't get a 
chance to talk about my dolls." 

" I want a hair cut,'' said the middle- 
aged man as he dropped into the bai-- 
ber's chair. " Yes, sir," was the an- 
swer, " which one ?" 

Corea has a cave from which a 
wintry wind perpetually blows. The 
force of the wind is such that a strong 
man cannot stand before it. 

Highest of all in Leavening Power. — Latest U. S. Gov't Report 



The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 28, 1894. 

A Slice of Cheese. 

"Why don't you add cheese to your 
bill of fare?" said I to a friend the 
other day. ' " Because it is so un- 
healthy: so indigestible," was the 

What a great mistake; on the con- 
trary the right kind of cheese is a pro- 
moter of digestion, and when eaten 
after a hearty meal is conducive to 
health on that very account. To those 
who find cheese indigestible the trouble 
arises from eating it in an uncured 

The people of England and Conti- 
nental Europe eat largely of cheese, 
but only when it is well cured and of 
good age. The high livers of England 
and even of India after a hearty dinner 
finish with a bit of rich old cheese and 
a cracker, knowing that it assists in 
promoting the healthful and vigorous 
action of the stomach. 

One of the healthiest old ladies that 
I ever knew, and who had long since 
passed the allotted age attributed her 
sound digestive powers to this habit. 
The contrary effect, however, is pro- 
duced by the use of new cheese, which 
is very unwholesome, and instances 
are known when the eating of it has 
suspended the peristaltic motion of the 

If people would provide themselves 
with good cheese and then refuse to 
consume it under three or even six 
months afer being made, we are con- 
vinced they would find almost invari- 
ablj' tliat it would prove an assistance 
to digestion. The grocers all over the 
country are greatly lacking in common- 
sense enterprise in the matter of pro- 
viding their customers with good, well- 
cured cheese. 
All the best made cheese is hard, im- 
palatable and idigestible. When it has 
had time to cure perfectly, and the 
rennet has opportunity to predigest 
and break down the curd, the cheese is 
soft and much more palatable as well 
as digestible. 

Never shall I forget when on a camp- 
ing trip, our provisions being low, we 
stopped at a large dairy and procured 
some freshly made cheese as a change 
to our bill of fare. With the hunger 
born of outdoor life, we ate very heart- 
ily, but before night had cause to la- 
ment the same, for all suffered more or 
less from the unwholesome food, while, 
for my part, for months I could not 
even bear the smell of cheese. 

A good grocer will buy his cheese 
ahead of consumption and provide a 
cool curing-room where it may be cured 
at least throe months before putting it 
on the market. By buying two or 
three new cheeses a week, and develop- 
ing them to a proper digestible stage, 
he can soon quadruple his cheese trade, 
and not only increase the consumption 
of this article in his locality, but his 
profits as well. 

In this connection I will subjoin a few 
excellent recipes for the preparation of 
cheese from what is called the milk 
curd to the more mature article, ask- 
ing my readers to bear in mind that, 
while more palatable, cheese is not so 
wholesome in a cooked form. 

Welsh R.\rebi r,— To make five rare- 
bits take one pound of rich, mild cheese; 
grate and put in a granite saucepan, 
with, say, one wine-glassful of old ale 
to one rarebit. Place over the fire and 
etir until melted. Have slices of toast 
ready for each rarebit (crusts trim- 
med); put a slice on each plate and pour 
over enough rarebit to cover. 

Golden Buck.— A "Golden Buck" 
is merely the addition of a poached egg, 
which is put carefully on top of each 

Yorkshire Rarebit. — Same as 
"Golden Buck, ' only it has two thin 
slices of broiled bacon on top. 

Cheese Sandwich. —Heat two cups 
milk, and one of grated cheese; add two 
teacups bread crumbs, one-half tea- 
spoonful of mustard, pepper and salt 
to taste; mix it well, then spread 
thickly on thin slices of toasted bread. 

Cheese Salad. — One-half pound 
pickled shrimps, one-fourth pound good 

i old cheese, one tablespoon salad oil, one- 
i half teaspoon cayenne pepper, one tea- 
' spoon salt, one teaspoon white sugar, 
I one teaspoon made mustard, four table 
I spoons of celery or onion vinegar. 

Mince the shrimps and grate the 
' cheese. Work into the latter all the 
! condiments enumerated — the vinegar 
j last. Let stand fifteen minutes before 
! adding the shrimps; then stir all to- 
1 gether well and serve in salad bowl, 
j Devilled Biscuit. — One tablespoon 
I Parmesan cheese, one tablespoon olive 
I oil (or melted butter), one-fifth tea- 
i spoon cayenne pepper, one-half tea- 
1 spoon salt, two tablespoons milk, 
j Mix these ingredients together and 
spread the mixture lightly upon half a 
I dozen soda biscuits and toast over a hot 
fire. Serve immediately. 

Cheese Cakes. — Put two quarts 
clabbered milk to drain in a fine sieve; 
when it measures two cupfuls milk 
curd, take that quantity and add to it 
one cupful of sugar, beaten yolks of 
two eggs, one tablespoonful of brandy, 
one-half teaspoon grated nutmeg and 
one-half cup of cream. Mix smooth 
and put into pate pans lined with rich 
pie crusts and bake ten to fifteen min- 
utes in a quick oven. These are de- 
licious but must be eaten fresh. 

Kate C. Hubbard. 

RUDY'S PILE SUPPOSITORY is guaranteed to 
cure Piles and Constipation, or money refunded. 
Fifty Cents Per Box. Send stamp for Cfircular and 
Free Sample, to MAKTIN RUDY, Lancaster, Pa. 
For sale by all first-class druggists. 

The Strike Losses. 

IT in estimated the receipts of the railroad 
have been more than one mlUion dollars 
lesH as a result of the strike than they 
would liave been if no strllie had taken place. 
No doubt the workingmen of this State 
directly Interested In this strike have lost an 
almost equal amount In wages; but who can 
estimate with any degree of accuracy the loss 
that has fallen upon the general public. This 
loss has been particularly severe upon the 
farmers and fruit-growers, and we ask you 
What you are going to do about it ? You can- 
not "Strike" back at anybody or anything and 
recover any of the losses, but you can combine 
in a way to secure for yourself decided advan- 
tages. Why not take such a course. Capital 
combines for Its own protection and advan- 
tage; Labor is combining In an attempt to 
enforce Its demands, and why should not the 
rural population, the most important and pro- 
ductive class in the country, form combina- 
tions for their advantage. The opportunity 
to ally yourselves with such a movement is 
furnished by the Pacific Coast Home Supply 
Association, which was organized for the 
special purpose of purchasing all kinds of 
supplies at the lowest rates and shipping 
them direct to consumers. Why not use this 
medium for buying cheaply. Their success 
and advancement demonstrates in a most 
practical manner that as one of their patrons 
you woulil be able to **Btrlke'* out some of 
your expenses and ■■ tie up" some of the drains 
on your pocket. 

will learn they can be of practical advantagre 
to you. 

^ „«3W g^>l P atent 



TREE - \A//\SH. 

01l\/e> Dip. 

"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pure Potash. 

T- \A/. JACK-SON <Sz CO. 
Sole Agents. - No. 6 Havket StiMt, 


Improved Rotary Grader. 

MADE IN THREE SIZES Smallest Size, Capacity Five Tons Dried Prunes per Unj 

For Grading Prunes, both green and dried, Walnuts, Pickles, Oranges. 

Dipping; Baskets and Prune Screens. 

D. D. WASS, 56 First Street, San Franeisco, Cal. 

CUNNINGHAm'S <^^!s^ 

Prune Dipping Machine. 


A machine for scalding in hot lye water and rinsing in fresh water, Plums, Prunes and Grapes, of all 
kinds. Made for hand or power use. 

CUNNINQHAM'S PRUNE SPREADER is one of the bcsl labor-saving machines ever brought before 
the fruit-growers and driers. 

We also make and deal in a general line of fruit-driers' supplies, consisting of Dipper Caldrons, nip- 
ping Baskets, Furnace Irons. Fruit Cars, Floor Trucks, etc. Send for Circulars. 

L. Ctjriningham, 

446 West Santa Clara Street 



Gilman's Patent Tule Tree Protector. 


Cheapest, best and only one to protect trees and vines from frost, sun 
burn, rabbits, squirrels, borers and other tree pests. 

For testimonials from parties who are using them send for descriptive 


Sole /Wan uf a ot u re r of F*atent Tule. Cowers, 

4*^0 Ninth Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


♦ ♦ -f 




PARAFFINE PAINT CO., 116 Battery St., 


E. G. JUDAH, Agent, 221 South Broadway, Los Angeles. 

R/\ISI1N \A/R/\F»S, S\A/E/\X F»/\F»ER, 


WAX OR PARAFFINE PAPER, »s well as a lar^e variety of other P apers for the wrapping and 
packing of Green and Dried Fruits and Raisins. 

Clav street. 


5. P. Taylor Paper Co. 

San F^mnctsco. Cm.t^ 

July 28. 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


Patrons of Husbandry. 

Random Thoughts. 

By A. P. RoACHB, W. M. S. G. of California. 

Our flag still waves in every State, 
lu spite of vrrongs and cowardly hate. 

The founder of the order of Patrons 
of Husbandry (better known as the 
(J range.) will meet for a last grand re- 
union at the great Williams Grove 
picnic in August. Although five of the 
immortal seven are yet living, the frosts 
of many winters have wrought their 
tapestry in furrowed brows and 
whitened locks, while dimmed eyes and 
Forms bending earthward sadly ad- 
monish us that their lofty councils and 
sacred presence will be ours to enjoy 
but a little while longer. How every 
])atron in the land, how every lover of 
his race, how every defender of justice, 
every lover of freedom, every friend of 
humanity should honor these pioneers 
of enlightenment and make them feel 
that there are sometimes exceptions to 
t he rule that Men must die to be ap- 
preciated." Let all laborers and maids, 
luisbandmen and matrons vie with each 
other in flooding with congratulations 
these founders of deathless principles 
which, ever new and living, shall wing 
their flight athwart the records of our 
progress, and stamp them as the bene- 
I'actors of humanity when time shall 
sound its bugle call for the reunion of 
lieroes and patriots. Let us not only 
revere their memories, but have their 
faces to look upon. While seated in 
t he place of honor at the great Inter- 
state pincic, let their pictures be taken 
singly and in groups, hundreds and 
thousands of them; let these be placed 
in the hands of Hon. Brother and Sis- 
ter Rhone and sold at one dollar each. 
Let this be applied to the building of the 
Temple of Ceres — a better name for 
which would be Humanity's Friend. 
Let it be beautiful and of the most last- 
ing nature, and thus let those immortal 
men supplement their honor of found- 
ing the grange by the additional honor 
of founding the first home agriculture 
over had — a living monument to per- 
petuate their memory, their zeal and 
devotion till time shall be no more. 

National Grange Master Brigham 
has asked, and every patron should be 
willing to lend his aid and best efforts 
in having the anti-option bill passed by 
the Senate, as it has already done in 
the House by a large majority. The 
enactment of this bill (for which the 
grange has long and ably contended) 
into a law would effectually estop the 
j)ernicious system of gambling in farm 
products, which is as debasing and im- 
moral as it is unfair and unnecessary. 
Write to your Senators, patrons, and 
urge them to promptly pass this meas- 
ure, which is clearly in the interest of 
l)rogress and decency. Master Brig- 
ham also uses these thoughtful words: 
■ ■ There is a time and place for all 
things that are right. Fight for your 
party principles zealously in the politi- 
cal campaign, but in the grange cam- 
paign fight for grange principles onl}'. 
We must avoid the ' reef ' upon which 
other farm organizations have met 
shipwreck." The master's reference, 
of course, is to page H2 of the Digest, 
which reads as follows: "Political 
circulars dated at the grange, or in 
any way bearing the impress of the 
order, such as using official letter- ! 
heads, envelopes, or in any way create i 
the impression that the order is politi- 
cal or lends itself to partisan political j 
action, is a violation of the fundamental 
laws of the order, and should be in all 
instances disapproved." This is the 
true compass whose magnetic arm 
ever points upward and forward, by 
which every grange and individual 
member can steer their political ship, 
not forgetting that our Declaration of 
Purposes declares that "it is right 
for every member to do all in his power 
legTtimately to influence for good the 
action of any political party to which 
he belongs. It is his duty to do all he 
can to put down bribery, trickery and 
corruption, to see that none but faith- 
ful, competent, honest men. who will 
unflinchingly stand by our interests. 

are nominated for all positions of 

The fraternal visit of Pescadero to 
Watsonville Grange promises to be an 
"extraordinary occasion," such an oc- 
casion only having once before occurred, 
nearly twenty years ago, when Bolinas 
Grange in all her glory, one hundred 
and fifty strong, gave us a pleasant 
call. Addresses of welcome, ice-cream, 
harvest feast and literary programme 
are already on the tapis, and much en- 
joyment is anticipated. This is no 
small undertaking on the part of Pes- 
cadero Grange, which is distant over 
sixty miles from Watsonville, forty 
miles of which must be driven by team. 
Let us have more of these visits be- 
tween granges: they always result in 
good, and well repay the effort and in- 
convenience incident to preparation, 
and when any grange but twenty or 
thirty miles from its neighbor thinks 
the distance an insurmoimtable diffi- 
culty, let them remember Pescadero 
and her sixty long miles. 

Secretary's Column. 

How's This! 

We offer One Hundred Dolhirs reward for any 
case of Catarrh that cannot be cured by Hall's 
Catarrh Cure. 

F. J. CHENEY & CO.. Toledo. O. 

We the undersigned have known F. J. Cheney for 
the last l."! years, and believe him perfectly hon- 
orable in all busines transactions and Hnancially 
able to carry out any obligation made by their firm. 

West & T'raux, Wholesale Druggists, Toledo, O. 

Walding, Kinnan & Marvin. Wholesale Drug- 
gists, Toledo. O. 

Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken internally, acting 
directly upon the blood and mucous surface of the 
system. Teslimouials' sent free. Price 75c. per 
bottle. Sold by all Druggists. 

This office up to date acknowledges 
the reports of only 15 granges for the 
quarter ending June 30, 1894. As our 
mail has not been received regularly, 
we have had but little news fi'om sub- 
ordinate granges this month. 

It is hoped from now on to hear oc- 
casionally through the several secre- 
taries what you are doing in grange 
work. Give us a few items and this 
column will willingly publish them. 
Whatever interests your particular 
grange will be of interest to the mem- 
bers throughout the State. 

Bro. Brigham, worthy master of the 
National Grange, says that the reports 
from nearly all sections of the country 
are very encouraging. Extensive prep- 
arations are being made for a vigorous 
summer campaign. 

Speakers who confine their remarks 
to the legitimate work of our order, 
and avoid partisan questions, are doing 
very effective work. We must avoid 
the reef of partisan politics. 

Santa Rosa Grange reports having 
an interesting evening session on the 

Petaluma Grange has just lately in- 
structed a class of six in the four de- 

The Granger's Interstate Picnic, Ex- 
hibition and 21st Annual Meeting, will 
be held at Williams Grove, Cumberland 
Co., Pa. For further particulars ad- 
dress R. H. Thomas, secretary Penn- 
sylvania State Grange, Mechanicsburg, 

All officers of State Grange will 
please bear in mind that their annual 
reports ought to be in the hands of the 
secretary of State Grange by Septem- 
ber 1st so as to get the work well in 
hand for the next meeting of State 

Don't forget that the next meeting 
of State Grange is to be held in the 
city of Stockton, San Joaquin Co., Cal. , 

Address all commmiications for State ; 
Grange to Don Mills, Santa Rosa, Cal. 


How can a wi?c fcni-e stand without posts? 
Wo will .send free to any address, a pliolo en- 
(jravlng of a long section of our Park fence, 
confining live deer and elk, and not a sign 
of a post to be seen. Everybody knows that 
the Page lias been "out of siglil" of all com- 
petitors for years, but did not realize tliat it 
could pose as a "postless" fence. 

Send for proof. 









Ay er's Pills Ncw Dried Apiicots 

"My husband was subject to severe 
attacks of neuralgia which caused him 
great pain and suffering. The pains 
were principally about his eyes, and he 
often had to remain in a darkened room, 
not being able to stand the light. Ayer's 
Pills being recommended, he tried them, 
using one before each meal. They very 
soon afforded relief, followed by perma- 
nent cure. I am a strong believer in the 
efficacy of Ayer's Pills, and would not 
be without them for ten times their 
cost."— Mrs. M. E. Debat, Liberty, Tex. 

"I have used Ayer's Pills in my family 
for forty years, and regard them as the 
Very best.— Uncle Maktin Hancock, 
Lake City, Fla. 


Received Highest Awards 
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steel Web Picket Lawn Fence; Steel Gates. Steel 
Posts ami Steel Rails ; Tree. Flower anil Tomato 
Guards; Steel Wire Fence Board, etc. Catalogue free. 

DeEALB FENCE CO., 33 HighSt.,OeKalb,IU. 








^ — 

Also Steel Web Picket Fence and Steel Wire 
Kence Board. Write for circulars. 
DeKALB FENCE CO., 33 High St.. OeKalb, III. 

Jno. Woodlock, 26 Beale St., 

San Francisco, Cai^., 
gexkkat, a(ikxts for pacific slopk. 

Davis' Cream Separator Chum, power 
hot water and feed cooker combined. 
Agents wanted. Send for circular. All 
sizes Hand Cream Separators. 
Davis & Kankln B. & M. Co. Chicago. 

Look at This! 

400 yards of white- 
washings may be 
done in one 
hour by 


WbitewashiDg Machine 


Tree Sprayer. 

Machines at prices 
from »3 to 950. 

Send for circulars of 
Spraying Apparatus, 
Garden and . Lawn 
Sprinklers. Hose, fete. 

\Vm. Wainwrlght, 

14 Hayes Street, S. F. 

Contracts taken for 
larfre jobs of Whitc- 
washiDR and Tree 

If you have a parcel to offer, submit samples to us. 
We are the principal handlers. 

The Oriental Gas Engine 

cause it combines 
simplicity of con- 
struction with power 
and economy of space. 
It can be run with 
natural or manufac- 
tured gas or gasoline 
at a cost of 2f) to 25 
cents per horse power 
per day. 

It can be used for 
pumping purposes, as 
well as for all pur- 
poses where a perfect 
engine is required, 
with the advantage 
of lessening the risk 
of explosions. No 
licensed engineer at 
a high salary needed 
to operate it. 

Send for circulars 
and prices if a good 
safe engine is what 
you need. 

The Oriental Launch is Perfection. 

Inventor and Manufacturer, 
lOTt ISeale Street San Francisco. 




Capital I'aid Ilp 1811,000,000 

Reserve Fund and Undivided ProHts, 130,000 
Dividends Paid to Stockholders.... 833,000 


A. D. LOGAN President. 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER. . . .Cashier and Manager. 
B^RANK Mcmullen secretary. 

General Banking. Deposits Received. Gold and 
.Silver. Bills of Exch.ange Bouirht and Sold. Loans 
on Wheat and Country Produce a Speolalf.v. 

Janiiar.v 1. 18'.I4. A. MONTPELLIER. Manager. 

★ C. H. EVANS & CO., ★ 

(Successors to THOMSON & EVANS.) 

110 & 113 BKAI.K STREET, S. F. 


steam Pumps. 5team Engines. 

. . AH Kimln of MAOHINEnr. . . 

[;ToeT [ WtLL WIftCHINERYworks. 

\ 11 k nil Is ot tooN. foi-1 line lor I hedi-iller b.v usinfif our 
.Adiiin:"Ulnm proc('f.s; lakeacor,-, IVrfected Efunoin. 

Artesian Puniptni; Knrs to w-.rk bv sream, Air, et«. 
l et iia help V '«. THE AMEIMOAN WELLWUBK8, 
Aurora, III ; <'blc'i)Ko, III.; Uullus, Tex. 

oi\/ide:ino inotice. 


German Savings and Loan Society, 


For the half-year ending Juno .SO, 1894, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of five (5) per cent per 
annum on Term Deposits, and four and one-sixth 
(4 1-6) per cent per annum on Ordinary Deposits, 
payable on and after MONDAY, July 2, 1894. 

CI EG, TOURNY, Secrotury 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 28, 1894. 


Fruit Exchange Bulletin. 

A London Miracle. 

San Francisco, July 25, 1894. 

WHEAT— The market lacks strength. At the 
same time, business is dull and prospects are not 
favorable for any very pronounced movement. 
Growers are not forcing'sales, while enough stock 
is oderiug to permit exporters to till their light 
wants with comparative ease. Quotable at 87Hc ^ 
ell for Standard quality, with «0c tor something 
fancy. Milling is steady, with rather linn holding 
of a choice article, quotable at a range of 81 @ 
$1 0-H * ctl. 

BARLEY— Feed qualities claim most of the at- 
tention which is being given to the market, and 
that does not amount toagreatdealatthe moment. 
Trade keeps of slow order and it looks as if it 
would be a difflcult task to stir up anything like an 
active and spirited movement. Still it is rather 
early In the season, and more activity it probable 
some time in the future. Offerings of new Brewing 
are far from being heavy, though all requirements 
so far have been readily satisfied. No representa- 
tive business in Chevalier as vet, but some dealers 
quote the market at il 20 (g *1 25 for standard 

OATS— There is a pretty good sprinkling of new 
crop to be now seen among the offerings, and no 
discrimination is made as regards prices. Trade 
shows no improvement, and dealers have further 
lowered quotations in order to see if such action 
would stimulate business. We quote as follows: 
Milling, $1 15® 1 25: Surprise, »130@1 35: fancy 
feed, $I20#1 25; good to choice, $1 10@117'4: poor 
to fair, 95c(a;l 05; Black, nominal: Red, nominal: 
Gray. $1 05@1 15 ^ ctl. 

CORN— Stocks are moderate, but there is no in- 
quiry of consequence. Quotable at $1 1"H to 1 20 
for large Yellow, $1 ») to $1 32'/J for small Yellow 
and $1 -10^ 1 45 for White. 

FEED— Manhattan Horse Food (Red Ball Brand) 
in lU)-lb cabinets, $8; Manhattan Egg Food, 100-lb 
bags, $11 50. 

OILCAKE MEAL— Quotable at $35 * ton from 
the mill; jobbing, $37.50. 

BRAN— Quotable at $15@$16 ^ ton. 

HAY— Free arrivals have kept the market in 
easy shape, and it looks as if the advantage of the 
situation would be on the side of buyers for some 
lime to come. Wire-bound Hay sells at $1 per ton 
less than rope-bound Hay. Following are the 
wholesale city prices for rope-bound Hay : 
Wheat $9fe»12; Wheat and Oat, $8^11: Wild 
Oat, «8@1G; Alfalfa, $7rg.$9; Barley, $8<&,$9 50; 
Clover, $8@ 10 50: compressed, $9@11: Stock, $6(g)7 
'fi ton. 

STRAW— Quotable at 50@60c ^ bale. 

HOPS— No trade. Prices nominal at 9®12c ft. 

POTATOES— Supplies continue free, while trade 
is active. We quote: Early Rose 20^.52c in sacks 
and 30c to 40c '«* ctl in boxes: Whites, 25@40c in 
sacks and 30o to 50c in boxes; Sweets, 2®3c ¥ lb- 

ONIONS— Steady in price, with good demand. 
Quotable at 25^i;35c ctl for Red, and 60@70c for 

BEANS -The outlook for business is considered 
good. Reds are a little higher, while Pinks are 
not quite so firm. We quote: Bayos, $2 25@2 35; 
Butter. $1 SKI to $2 for small and $2@2 20 for large : 
l^nk, $1 70rail 75: Red. $2 2lt(" 2 25; Lima, $3 fiO to 
$3 76: Pea, $2 65(<iJ2 75; Small White, $2 50 to 
$2 75; Large White, $2 50@i$2 65 ^ ctl. 

VEGETABLES — The several seasonable de- 
scriptions continue to be well represented. Trade 
is active and there is good movement both local 
and outward. We quote as follows : Green Okra, 
65cfis$l box; Egg plant, 65c^!$l ^ lK)x; Cucum- 
bers, 50fg>fi0c for bay : String Beans, $I(qil 25 per 
sack; Siunmer Squash. 25(S,40c per box; Green 
Corn, 50@75c 25 ^ sack for common and 15@.l7'jC 
^ dozen tor bay ; Berlieley Corn. 65(&>"5c per box ; 
Marrowfat Squash, $10 li* ton; Hubbard Squash, 
— ^i, — ''t ton: Green Peppers, 25^.50c ¥ box for 
Chile and 25(3 eSc ¥ box for Bell: Tomatoes, 40fn 
aic box; River Tomatoes, $1 2.5fn 1 75 fibox; 
Turnips, 75c ctl; Beets, 75c Tj* sack; Parsnips, 
$1 25 ctl; Carrots, 35@40c; Cabbage, 60@75c; Gar- 
lic. l'/4fe2c i« ft; Caulltlower, 60® 70c |» dozen; Dry 
Peppers, 17'/,®20c 1^ ft; Dry Okra, — c * tb. 

FRESH FRUIT — Watermelons are coming 
along more freely and selling lower. Cherries are 
very dull. Apricots and peaches are very plenti- 
ful. Grapes are showing greater variety. Figs 
are scarce. We quote: White Nectarines, 10(g .Site 
^* box; Red Nectarines, 40(ajijOc box: Crabapples, 
25@40c W> box; Grapes, 25(3.50c ^ box; Malaga 
Grapes, 85c(ni$l ?i box; Muscat, 85crn,$l ; Peaches, 
25(&>35c "f* box and 20@30c 'i* bskt; Black Figs, 
36®50c ¥ box for l-layers and (JOc(S.$l for 2-layers 
^ box; White Figs, Mayer, 35(g:4()c; 2-layers, StXa, 
7.5c; Cherries. Royal Ann, 15(§,2.5c ^ drawer; Ap- 
ricots, 2ijfg4()c 'fi box, 25®30c bskt, and 5i®lc 
ft in bulk; Plums, Vi^U'iC I* lb; Apples, 25®7.5c 
%4 box, and 1.5®25c ^» bskt; Pears, conmion, 25(a 
40c 't box and 20Cg,25c ¥ bskt; Bartlett Pears, 
35(8 6(Jc %( box; Cantaloupes, $1 50®3 ^ crate; 
Watermelons, $10® 12 hundred. 

BERRIES— In good supply at easy rates. We 
quote: Raspberries, $2 50®3 50 f» chest; Strawber- 
ries, $2 50(a:4 f, chest for Sharpless and $6@7 for 
Longworths; Blackberries, $175@.2 25 It* chest. 

CITRUS FRUIT— We quote: Mexican Limes, 
$3 50*5,4 box; California Lemons,$l 50®2 for com- 
mon; Bananas, $1 50®2 50 ^ bunch; Pineapples, 
$2@4 ^ dozen. 

DRIED FRUIT— New Apricots and Apples are 
coming forward, while receipts of new Peaches 
are soon expected. The crop of Apricots this sea- 
son promises to be unusually large. Half a dozen 
cars of fancy Moorpark Apricots are reported sold 
at 8c for Eastern shipment. We quote: Apples, 5o 
for quartered, 5c for sliced, and 8(g.9c for 
evaporated ; Pears, 6@8c ¥ lb for bleached halves 
and2@4cfor quarters; bleached Peaches, August- 
September deliver, 6Hc ¥ ft; sun-dried Peaches,— 
Cn. — c ft August-July delivery; Apricots, 6H® 
7!4 f, ft spot, and 6!sft 7c for August de- 
livery; Prunes, Sestemher delivery, 4'/4c(A 
4?ic; Plums, 4®5c for pitied and IV^c for unpltted; 
Figs, black, 3@4c for pressed and l'/i@2c for un- 
pressed ; White Nectarines, — ® — c ; Red Nectar- 
ines, — @ — c ^ ft. 

RAISINS— California Layers, 60c®$l; loose 
Muscatels, in boxes, 50@75c; clusters, $1 25®1 50; 
No. 1, loose in sacks, 2H@3c 'f. lb; No. 2, do, 2ii(S, 
2'/4c; dried Grapes, lM@l%c ^ lb. 

BUTTER— There is a slight improvement in (he 
better class of stock, but common grades remain 
easy in price, being in large offering. We quote: 
Fancy Creamery, 17'-3@18!4c; fancy dairy, 15®17!4c; 
good to choice, 12V4@14c; store lots, II®12c; picked 
roll, new, 17®19c ^ lb. 

E(50B — The market has changed materially 
within a lew days in favor of buyers. We quote: 
California ranch, 16®18c, with exceptional sales 
of selected higher: store lots, ll®l3c ¥ dozen: 
Eastern eggs, nominal. 

POULTRY— Delayed Eastern consignments are 
being received almost daily. Hens are doing u 
little better, ttiough the general market still 
shows dragging character. Wc quote as follows: 
Live Turkeys— (Jobblers, 9(gillc; Hens, dCgllc: 
Roosters. $4(ni4 50 for old, $5(5 7 for young: Broil- 
ers, $1 ;*l(a-Z 25 for small and »'2 Mi'.i 25 for large: 
Fryc;-s, $4(.i1.tO: Hens, $4fu,5 .50; Uucks. $3(n4; 
GiVse, *l(g 1 50 V pair; Pigeons, $1 2.5(«.| 50 'f. dozen. 

Following is Bulletin No. 14 in its 
complete official form : 

San Francisco, Wednesday, July'ioth, 1893. 

Reports continue to confirm the damage to j 
the prune crop noted last week. The prunes i 
not yet fully matured turn red and drop wher- I 
ever the fruit is exposed to the direct rays of I 
the sun. Under more favorable conditions I 
they should continue their growth well into [ 

As this condition is reported from many 
parts of the Sacramento, San Joaquin and to 
some extent in the Napa, Sonoma and Santa 
Clara valleys, it must materially lessen the 
small estimate previously reported. From a 
New York house we learn of offerings of the 
new ci-op of French prunes, four sizes, freight ] 
and duty paid, at ti'4 and 0'; cents, this 
means 5 cents for California prunes of the 
same grade here. | 

How the decided shortage in this year's 
crop, now so apparent, will affei-t the price 
will depend upon the amount of equally good 
quality with ours that can be sent over from 
foreign countries and sold in competition with 
us, as the superiorit.v of our prunes is now 
well established. Oregon and Washington 
will do something toward supplying the de- 
ficiency, but not at reduced pricf^s, as they 
must use artificial heat in drying. From 
Michigan we learn that an unusually severe 
drop is affecting their apple crop, which 
threatens to re(luce the same below half of 
foimer estimates, which, added to the short- 
age of other varieties of fruit, continues to 
increase the demand for our canned and dried 

Several canners have been libera! buyers of 
late at prices varying from $1-5 to ^'ih per ton 
for peaches and apricots, and from *10 to $20 
for plums and pears. While in some localities 
canneries are not running at all, and in others 
only to a limited extent, a few are putting up 
large quantities of standard gtxxis to meet 
the low prices offered : and even with the 
prices for fruit above quoted, it is feared the.v 
will be compelled to sacrifice quality and de- 
grade their brands to meet prices, and thus 
ultimately lessen the consumption for canned 

The increasing deteimination on the jiart of 
growers, particularl.v in the organized dis- 
tricts, and strong pnidiicers generally, to .sell 
their dried fruits in California instead of I'on- 
signing the same to Kastern dealers, is doing 
much to stead.v the market and maintain 
values at something near the cost of prrxiuc- 
tion, and as sofm as it is gencrall.v understocxl 
that no goo<ls will be sent forward until 
bought and piiid for at reasonable prices deal- 
ers will feel warranted in buying. Several 
instances have been reported where advances 
to the extent of 4 to 5 cents per pound have 
been made b.v commi.s.sion men in oi-der tn 
secure the fruit. This is the most fatal kind 
of consignment, as the party making such ad- 
vances soon reaches his limit at the bank and 
must make sales if he can onl.v realize the 
amount advanced. What is needed, where 
growers must have advances, is local ware- 
houses where the fruit can he safely stored, 
warehouse receipts issued and money loaned 
on the same, the owner of the fruit controlling ' 
the sale of the same as is done with grain and ; 
man.v other kinds of merchandise. The amount 
of capital now invested in the fruit business j 
is the best of security if handled locall.v for 
all money needed in the preixiraticn and sale 
of the prioduct; and growers are fast learning 
how to apply it in a way that will enrich 

The market for dried apricots seems to have 
touche(l hediwk at 7 cents for fairly pood 
quality and some goofls are being .sold at that 
figure! We hear of no lots of strictly choice 
having been sold at all. Some offers are being 
made for bleached jieaches at prices ranging 
from oY, to 7'-^ cents here for August and Sep- 
tember shipment. The policy of drying 
ciations and exchanges is to offer no goods for 
sale until they are prepared to deliver, and 
then only at i"ea.sonable prices. And the 
sooner this polic.v can be generall.v adopted 
the better for both growers and dealers. 


B. F. Walton, Pres. 


Weather and Crops. 

Report of Sergt. J. A. Barwick. Director State 
Weather Bureau. 

The average temperature for the week end- 
ing July 23(1 was: For San Francisco, 36; 
Red Bliiff, 84; Sacramento. 75; Fresno, 84; 
Los Angeles, ti8: and San Diego, W. 

As compared with the normal temperature, 
a heat deficienc.v is shown in the coast coun- 
ties and an excess of heat in the interior 
valleys. The deficiency being for San Fran- 
cisco," Los Angeles and San Diego four de- 

The of heat being for Red Bluff three 
degrees, and Sacramento and Fresno one 

Fruit is rapidly ripening and is being dried 
as fast as possible. During the last three 
days of the week the railroad blockade was 
raised, in con.sequence of which great quan- 
tities of fruit has been rushed eastward. 

The grain output is still exceeding expecta- 
tions, except in portions of Lake count.v where 
rust has done considerable damage ; and in por- 
tions of Southern California I he output is even 
less than was anticipated. The sugar beets, 
the hop and the raisin and wine grsipo outlook 
promise an abundant yield, although the first 
crop of raisin grapes in the Fresno district 
will not be near an average, but the second 
crop is expected to be a heavy one and of good 

Tuesday the 17th was the hottest of the 
sca.son, the highest tcnipcrat;ii-e ranging from 
SMttollO, while the lowest during the week 
ranged from 44 to 110. 

Mr. K. J. I'owell Relates His Keiiiark- 
ahle Kxperienre to an -Vdvertlser 
Representative — Tortured by Ma- 
lig;nant Kheumatism From 
Itoyhood— He at Last En- 
capes from .\g:ony. A 
Story Full of Hope 
for Other Suf- 

{From the London {(Jnt.) Atlvertiwr.i 

At 33 Alma Street, South London, lives Mr. 
E. J. Powell, a gentleman who has resided in 
London and vicinity for about six .vears. He 
has been a sufferer since his youth with 
rheumatism in its worst form, but now the 
haggard face and almost crippled form of a 
year ago have given away to an appearance of 
health and vigor. 

Hearing of this, a i'ep<jrter called on Mi'. 
Powell and asked him to relate his experience. 

"The first time I really felt any rheumatic 
trouble,'' said Mr. Powell, "was in 1872. A 
twinge of pain caught me, but passed away in 
an instant. I did not know what it was. 
After that I was attacked at various periods, 
and in lS7(j I began to grow alarmed. In 1878 
I suffered from sciatica in the left leg. 

"For a number of years afterward I con- 
tinued to grow worse and worse. In the 
summer of 1884 I experienced the pain con- 
stantly. It was all day and at all times. I 
took the electric treatment steadily for sev- 
eral weeks, but it did me not the slightest 

"A .vear ago last winter I was seized with a 
pain and for fourteen weeks I never left the 
house. The only way in which I could be 
moved was by being wheeled around in an 
easy chair. What I suffered during that 
Ijericxl no one but myself can ever realize. 
Mr. Marshall, of whose case you have heard, 
is an ai-quaintance of mine, and said he could 
not say whether Pink Pills would cure rheu- 
matism or not. but they were gcxxl for the 
blood an.vway, and at least it would do me no 
harm to tr.v half a dozen boxes. 

"So 1 did : bought six boxes, took four and 
received no benefit that I could recognize : but 
while taking the fifth I noticed that for a 
peri(Kl of three or four da.vs I felt no pain. I 
supposed it was a temtxirary relaxation due to 
natural causes. However, it gave me some 
hope to finish the sixth box. Then I knew I 
was getting better — much better. The pain 
which had been constant became intermittent 
and less severe. M.v friends and famil.v told 
me that I was beginning to l(K>k like another 
man. My face, which had begun to wear a 
drawn expression, common with people who 
are suffering, commenced to show a better 
color. My system was being toned up. In- 
.spired with increased hope, I purchased six 
more boxes from Dr. Mitchell, the druggist, 
and continued to take them, and with each 
box I realized more and more that it was a 
cure. I used up thirteen boxes in all, an(l 
when the thirteen was finished I had not a 
.s.vmptom of pain for three months. 

" Now," continued Mr. Powell, " you have 
my experience." I know what I was: I know 
what I am. J know that from boyhond I have 
been the victim of malignant rheumatism, 
which has been a torture the last few years. 
I know that I have tried every remedy and 
been treated by the best medical skill, but in 
vain: and I know that Pink Pills have suc- 
ceeded where everything else has failed and 
that they have brought ine back health and 
happiness. Therefore 1 ought to be thankful, 
and I am thankful." And Mr. Powell's in- 
tense earnestness of manner could admit of 
no doubt as to his gratitude and sincerity. 
"You may ask Rev. Mr. Mclntyre, of the 
Askin Street Meth(xlist Church, or Rev. G. A. 
Andrews, B. A., pastoi- of the Lambeth cir- 
cuit, whether I was a sick man or not,'' were 
his parting W(n'ds. 

The reporter dropped in on Rev. C. E. 
Mclntyre at the jwrsonage. 82 Askin street. 
"I know Mr. Powell well,'" said the reverend 
gentleman when questioned. "He is an es- 
teemed parishioner of mine and is attending 
the Askin Street Church again.'' "Do you 
remember Mr. Powell's illness a .vear ago 
last winter;" "Yes; he had a very bad at- 
tack of rheumatism which laid him" up for a 
long time. He had to be wheeled about the 
house in a I'hair. Now he appears to be a 
well man. I heard he had been cured by Di'. 
Williams' Pink Pills. Mr. Powell is, in my 
opinion a most conscientious person, and any 
statement he would make would be perfectly 

Mr. B. A. Mitchell, the well-known drug- 
gist, upon whom the reporter next called, 
said: "I know of Mr. Powell's cure and it 
is every word true. I have sold thousands of 
boxes of Pink Pills and knowing that they 
always give satisfaction have no hesitation in 
recommending them as a perfect blof)d builder 
and nerve restorer, curing such diseases as 
rheumatism, neuralgia, partial paralysis, lo- 
comotor ataxia, St. Vitus' dance, nervous 
headache, nervous prostration and the tired 
feeling therefrom, the after effects of la 
grippe, diseases depending on humors in the 
blixKl, such as scrofula, chronic erysipelas, 
etc. Pink Pills give a healthy glow" to pale 
and sallow complexions, and are a .specific for 
the troubles peculiar to the female s.vstem. 

and in men the.v effect a radical cure in all 
cases arising from mental worry, over-work or 
excesses of whatever nature." ' 

These Pills are manufactured by the Dr. 
William's Medicine Com|)any, Schenectady, 
N. Y., and Brockville, Ont.. and are sold only 
in boxes bearing their trade mark and wrap- 
per, at .50 cents per box, or six boxes for $2..tO. 
and are never sold in bulk, or by the dozen or 
hundred, and any dealer who "offer subst i- 
tutes in this forrn is trying to defraud you. 
and should be avoided. 


Belmont School, 

^^^^^«f> .>Iiles .South of Sail FrHn<-iHoo.~^^^^ 

;Brii,i»i.vos heated from aceulral steam plant, and 
bulklliiirH and (.'vounils llirlitcd b.v eleolrlcll.v. 
1 Boys perform their own experiments In well- 

♦ eyulpped clieniloal and plivsloal laboratories. 
I GVMNAWirM !i9x7!l feet, furnished with very beat 
■♦■ apparatus. Including shower baths, under 

I special teacher of iiliyslcal culture 

SciIoi.AitSHiPS for .voung men of fine character 

I and ablUl.v. Aecredltcd at Stanford and at 

♦ Ihe Unlverslt.v of California in all the aub- 
I jeets uf all I he courses and In advanced phy- 

♦ Hies. ehemlBti y and mathematics 

I Kkkeuences required. Views of Belmont School 

♦ and Catalogue si-nt bv applvlnp to W. T. 
I KKII), .v. M. iHarvarril. Head Master. . . 


Kates of Tuition \'ery moderate. 
Bookkeeping. PenmaiiHlilp. Shorthand, Typewrit- 
ing. English Branchea. etc. (Jraduates aided In get- 
ting positions. Send f(.r I'lrenlars. T. \ RcjniN.SON. 


24 I'oBt Street. 

San Franris<-o. 


This CoUeKe Instructs In Shorthand. Type-VVritlnir. 
Bookkeeplnsr. Telegraphy. Penmanship. Urawlnif. 
all the KiiKlish br:incheH. iind ever.vthlnff pertalnlnir 
to buslnesa. for full sl.x iiionlha. We have sixteen 
teachers and pive lndlvldn;il Inalruclion to all our 
pupils. Our school haa Its ^r.'iduates lii ever.v part 
of the State. Send for Circular. C. S. HALEY. Sec. 

Olive Trees. 


.Send for our Book on Olive Culture. 

HoxA/land Bros., 

rtl.VK^NA, l.'AL 

P. SEBIRE & SONS, Nurserymen, Ussy, 
Calvados, France. 

Largest stock of FKI IT TKKK STOCKS, such 
as Apple, Pear. Myrobolan Plum, Mahaleb and 
Mazzard Cherry. Angers Quince. Small Ever- 
greens, Forest Trees, Ornamental Shrubs. Roses, 

C. G. vanTUBERGEN, JR., Haarlem, 

CHOICK DITCH ISl'I.Its and Unllious Plants 



Harden and .Vgricultural. 

Catalogues free. Apply to C. C. ABEL & CO.. 
Box nai. New York, or A. H. HARTEVELT, Box 
98.3, San Jose, Cal. 

■ X. ■ — ^ B — ^^^^^ best varieties, b-ee from 
— \NU pests of any kind. Pruniiit 

R( n i^f-r^c? SliiionI, Kiiie, ICostraver 
LA\rN 1 » aiKl MunloAi Cherries: 
Hlack Calirornia I-Iks: I£iee Soft Shell and 
otiii'r .Vliiifiiids; .Viiit*rieHii sweet <'hestllulN; 
Priepart iiriens Walnut*. Hardy mountain prow n 
Oraiifire Trees. Our oranijes have stood 2'.J dejfrees 
Uils winter without Injury. Dollar Strawberry, 
thebt'st berrv for home use or market. Address 
C. M. SII.VA & S«)N. Mneoln, Placer County, 


Tllii KANCHO AltO.MIT.VS.— Prices to 
*ias per acre. This is the best lich sediment soil 
property offered in this State for the money. S. P. 
has station on the ranch, and ouly few miles from 
Watsonville Sugar Beet Refinery. This is a great 
country for sugar beets. For full particulars apply 

E. C. GOSFRET, Crocker Bldgr-. San Fraiicls(%, Cal. 

July 28, 1894. 


Notable Removal. 

In a private Icttor to the editoi-. Mr. 
D. C. Crummy, manaoingr proprietor 
of the Bean Spray Pump Works, states 
that the company has sold out its in- 
terest in the well pump department, 
and have moved their shops, store- 
rooms, etc., from San Jose to Los 
Gatos. The chief reason for the 
change is that Mr. CruiTimy has other 
interests which keep him at Los Gatos. 
and he prefers to have his business 
near at hand and under his personal 
eye. He expects to do a bigger busi- 
ness this year than ever before, ex- 
perience having demonstrated the value 
of the Bean Spray Pump and increased 
the demand for it. Wherever the 
Rural goes it finds this pump, and 
always when it is given decent treat- 
ment and half a chance, doing first- 
class work. The principle of its con- 
struction is a very simple one, so there 
is less gear subject to wear and break- 
age than in the old-fashioned and elab- 
orate machines. The Bean is made in 
all sizes and at almost all prices by a 
company that puts conscience in its 
work ; and it may be depended upon 
to dp all that Mr. Crummy claims for 
it. Before determining upon spraying 
appliances for next season write and 
get full particulars about the Bean 
pump. Address the Bean Spray Pump 
Co., Los Gatos. Cal. 

Breeders* Directory. 

six lines or less in llil.s tllrector.v at r)llc ]»■>■ line per 

Horses and Cattle. 

K. II. HrHKK, lai; Mai-kel St.. S. K. Al Prize Hol- 
sleiiiH; Grade Milcli Cowh. Fine P1k'». 

H. I*. .>IOHK. Ml. E<ieii. Cal. Importer and Breeder 
of Cl.vdesdale Horses. Hulsteln-Frleslan Cattle and 
Berli'shli'e Pit's. Yoiiiitr stock on hand and for sale. 

.1 KK.SIiV'S— Tlie best A. J.C.C. registered prize lierd 
Is owned b.v Henr.v Pierce. S. V. Aiilmal.s for sale. 

M. I). Iioriv INS. Petaliiina. Registered Sliortliorii 

Cattle, liolli sexes for sale. 

I'KTKK S.V.XK & SON. Lick House, S. F., Cal. Im- 
porters and Bi-eeders. for past 21 .veara. of every 
varieiy of Callle, Horses. Sheep and Hogs. 

.I|i:KSKVS ,V.\I) HOI.STKIXS, from the best Jint- 
terand Milk Stock; also Thoroughbred Hogs and 
Poullr.v. VVilliain Niles & Co., Los Angeles. Cal. 
Breeders and Exporters. Established in 187(1. 


.1. \V. rOHiiKl'S, Santa Cniz. Cal. Three well-bred 
Brown Leghorn cockerels or 2 pullets and 1 cock- 
erel for $5. A handsome lot of Barred Plymouth 
Rocks. I shall breed from 20 pens of P. Rocks this 
coming season. All interested vi.sit my yards or 
correspond. Mammoth Pekin Ducks. Satisfaction 
guaranteed. Reference: People s Bank. 

A. UlISCIIKK. Tracy. Cal. Breeder of S. C. White 
Leghorns and B. P. liocks. Eggs $1. $1.50 per setting. 

WILLIAM NIL lis* CO., Los .Ingeles. Cal. Nearly 
all varieties of Poultry. Dairy Cattle and Hogs. 

.Send for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

Sheep and Qoats. 

J. B. nOVT, Bird s Landing. Cal, Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Cross- 
bred Merino .and Shropshire Sheep, Rams for sale. 
Prices to suit tiie times. Correspondence solicited. 

K. H. CRANE, Petaluma. Cal. Breeder & Importer. 
Southdown Sheep, also Pox Hounds from Missouri. 


F. H. BUKKK, 020 M;irket St.. S, F.- BERKSHIRES, 

,1. P. ASHLEY, Linden. San Joaquin Co.. Cal. 
Breeds Poland-China. Essex and Yorkshire Swine. 

.HONROE MILLKK, Elisio. Ventuia Co.. Cal. 
Breeder of Registered Berkshire Hogs. 

H. J. I'HILPOTT, Nlles. Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Tecumseh and other cli()l<-e strains of 
Registered Poland-China Hogs. 


Best Stock; also D;ilry Strains of .lerseys and Hol- 
steins. Win. Niles & Co., Los Angeles. Est. 1870. 

TYLEIl BEA<:H, San .lose. Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire ;ind Essex Hogs. 

CHAS. A. STOWE. Stockton, Reglsl d Berkshlres. 

In These Dull Times 

You Can Lar(i;el,v Increase 

Vour income by buying an Incu- 
bator ;ind engaging in the chicken 
business. Send stamp for our 
catalogue of Incubators, Wire 
Netting, Blooded Fowls and Poul- 
try Appliances generally, Unucm- 
her the Best. U the Cheapest. PACIFIC 
INCUBATOR CO.. i:il7 Castro St.. 
Oakland. Cal. 

List of U. 5. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey tt Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific <"oast. 


.522,();«).— Tree Transplanter— H. Baldridge, Los 

Angeles, Cal. 
.i2-2,Ha.— Seat— O. L. Barrett, The Dalles, Or. 
.522,102— MOTOR— C. E. Brown, Staytou, Or. 
.521,84,5.— Nut Lock— J. C. Brown, Santa Barbara, 


,522,106,— Bo.xiNG Glove— Carson & Martin, S. F. 
,522.107.— Can Tester- J. B. Clot, S. F. 
,521,78,3.— Condenser— C. S. Cox, Spottiswood, Cal. 
.521,8,52.— Street Sweeper— P. B. Donahoo, S. F. 
,521,853.— Broom Making Machine— P. B. Donahoo. 
S. F. 

.521,785.— Cutting Metal Bars— W. F. Everett, 

Reno, Nev. 
.521, 8SI.— Excavator— H. P. Holland, S. F. 
522.074.— Music Leaf Turner- F. A. Meyer, S. F. 
522,086.— Harrow— Jas. Porteous, Fresno, Cal. 
.522,028.— Purifying Oils— W, B, Price, S. F. 
.522,126.— Horseshoe— J. H., J. R. & W. E. Smith,, Wash. 
,522,171.— Reference File— W. L. Van Harlinger, 

Oakland, Cal. 
521,905.— Extension Table— Young & Mathews, 

Seattle, Wash. 

Commission Merchants. 





Importers & Breeders of Red Polled Cattle. 

We have 200 head of Full Bloods and Crossbreds on 
Devons. Bulls and Heifers for sale. Address 
communication regarding Cattle to MECHAM i 
FRITSCH. Petaluma. Cal. 

522,447— Gage for Manifold Apparatus— L 

Bannan, S. F. 
522,285— Typewriting Machine— C, H. Boynton 

Oakland. Cal. • 
522,4.52— PILOT Bar Lifter— Cotter, Holladay & I 

Duncan, Yuma, A. T. ; 
,522,462— Lamplighter — F, Fergu.sou, Seattle, 


,522,205— Track Cleaner— Harris & Allen, Vale, 

,522,.342— Hospital Bed— A. Helander. Los Angeles, 

,522,260— Process of Extracting Gold, Etc. — 

W. D, .lohnstou. S. F, 
.522,26:1— fJAS Governor— W. O, Ludovici, S, F. 
522,268— Gas Trap— J. McKellar, S. F. 
,522,488— A.maixjamator—E. J, Powell, Sunny South. 


,522,276— A H<; Lamp— A. W, Smith, S, F, 
522.444— Step-ladder— B, A. Wright, San .lacinto, 

Note. -Copies of II. S. and Foreign patents fur- 
nished b.v Dewe.v &. Ct>. In the shortest time possible 
(by mall tor telegraphic order). American and 
Foreign patents obtained, and general patent busi- 
ness for Pacific Coast Inventors transacted with 
perfect security, at reasonable rates, and in the 
shortest possible tinu'. 

404&406 DAVIS ST S.F. 




i§f General Commission Merchants, iff 


Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

a®" Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 


SANTA ROSA. CAL. (Care Santa Rosa National 
Bank.) Importer. Breeder, Exporter. 

S. C \A/hite Leehorns, 
S. C Bro\A/n Leghorns, 
Barred F»lymoiJth Rocks, 
Black yv\lnorcas.~^^ 

Eggs, $3 per \3.-=^ «®-Send for Circular. 

Nrrll**"^"' ^<i"<^re Head. New Red Wonder 
w t L U Winter Fife.K irlyKed Clawson and improved 
Fultz Wheat. MainniotU White Polish and Finland Rye, 
Send 2c. Btamp for Saaiplettand Catalogue of Seed Wheat, 
Trees, Plants. PotatoeB and Seeds f r Fall Planting. 
rSani'l Wilson, Seed Growir, ,,lecbRiilcgville, Pa. 


Importers & Breeders of Shrophire Sheep. 

The flock was Imported or bred direct from im- 
ported stock. The Shrophire excels all mutton 
breeds for a cross on the merino— giving more wool 
and mutton than that from any other breed. Pure 
and Cross-bred Rams and Ewes for sale. 80 head of 
Imported Shrophlres on hand. Direct inquiries re- 
garding Shrophire to MECHAM & HINKLK, 
Petaluma, Cal. 

Compound Engines and Centrifugal Pumps 

For Every Duty and .vuy Capacity. 


625 Sixth Street, San Francisco. 

WHITE FOR I No. 14, devoted to Agricultural Machinery. 
CATALOGUES )■ No. l.'i, devoted to Steam Engines and Pumping Machinery. 


For All Purposes. 


Use for operation only One-Half Pint Kerosene per hour per horse power. 



Write for Illustrated Catalogue. 

PERKINS PUMP AND ENGINE CO., lir Main St., San Francisco 


Pigs of all ages for sale. 


p. O Box 68e. Los Angeles, Cal. 


Feed our Poultry Food and you will have healthy chickens and lots of eggs. 

Genuine only with RED 
BALL brand. 

Recommended by Gold- 
smith, Marvin, Gamble, 
Wells, Fargo & Co., etc., 
etc. It keeps Horses and 
Cattlehealthy. Formiloh 
cows; it increases and 
enriches their milk. 

619 Howard .St., 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Ask your dealer for It. 


The most successfal college oo this coDtinent. For further particalars address the Secretary, 

JOe». UtUUUai. IVl. U. C. v. S., iia37-Si3a» Mtatc .St., CbicaKo. III. 


Hot Water; Ventilation; Moisture; Self- Regulating; 
No Watching; Chickens removed without opening 
machine— *2U. ?4(J, fM. Now is the time to tise 

Wellington's Imi>hovki) Egg Poop. Every grocer 
keeps it. B. P. WELLINGTON. Prop., 426 Waslilng- 
ton Street. San FrancUco. 



com F«/\ IN"V, 

i:ir^ Myrtle Street. Oakland, Cal. 
Seud Stamp for Circular. 


Breeder of American Merino .Sheep Without 
Horns. The onl.v flock In the United States When 
we bought our sheep East 24 .vears ago, .among them 
wasaraiTi without horns. He grew to be a fine large 
sheep, shearing at 2 .vears old. a 12-month's fleece, 
3.') lbs. of long white wool. 

1 have lin-d fi-oni lilm ami his get evn- Hini_e and 
have never maile an out-cros.s antl never used the 
same ram but one year on the same flock. My rams 
at two years old weigh from lUU to 180 lbs., have a 
strong constitution, without wrinkles, and will 
shear on an average about 25 lbs., a 12-month's 
fleece, of long white wool. Rams and Ewes for sale. 
P. O. Address Stony Point, Sonoma Co., Cal. B. 
B. Station, Petaluma. 

Sliort-Horn Bulls! 

For Sale. 


Uatlen Station, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

The oars of the S. F. and San Mateo Electric Road 
pass the place. 

MI6HEST rs- 



'^Jf^ B0OKlNCUBCT10N5CT5j,^ES ac'^ffs 


The numerous iliseases that are usually preva- 
lent among very Young Turkeys may 
be prevented by the use of 


Send for Circular. 

30 North William Street, - - - New York . 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 28, 1894. 


It is well known that a large proportion of our richest and 
most productive land for cereals, and especially our best fruit 
land, must be grubbed and cleared before it can be cultivated. 

Mr. George Harvey, during his lifetime, invented and 
secured by letters patent what is known as the Cai-iforsia PtTLLER. In this connection he also made what are 
known as the "Patent Draft Hooks." 

The California Stump Poller, manufactured by the 
California Stump Puller Co. of San BYancisco, without doubt 
stands at the head of the list of stump-puUlng machinery. 

It is simply a capstan worked by one horse with a wire 
cable llve-eif!his of an inch in diameter, and block, chains, and 
a draft-hook to unite the cable with the chains. To the 
uninitiated it may seem that any capstan, any cable or blocks, 
or any chain would answer this purpose; but it is not so. The 
capstan needs special features of construction to adapt it to 
work of this kind. The cable-block and chains should be as 
light as possible, and have sufficient strength to arrange and 
adjust all of these things in a manner to get the best results 
from them, which is not the work of a day. 

The work of the machine is as effective as its principle is 
simple, and it must commend itself to the favorable consider- 
ation of every farmer. With its use. stumps and trees which 
it would take an experienced and stalwart wood-chopper a half 
a day to remove from the soil, are dragged out by the roots, 
scarcely the smallest fibrous vestige being left in the ground, 
in two or three minutes, and apparently without the expenditure 
of great force. The ease with which these stubborn impedi- 
ments to agricultural development are removed is due to the 
mechanical construction of the machine, which is in a form of 
a capstan. 

In the improved form in which it is now offered to the public, 
is universally admitted to be the most practical, powerful and 
successful machine of the kind in America, and the only ma- 
chine in existence chat can be successfully operated on hill 

The California Stump Puller Co. guarantee this machine, 
under favorable conditions, to save the labor of thirty men, 
besides doing much better work than hand grubbing; and its 
power, which is practically unlimited, can be readily adjusted 
to any range of work, whether light or heavy. 

It works equally well on small grubs, large stumps or standing timber; and from two to five acres, or even more, can he cleared without changing its position. It is also adapted to moving buildings 
building mountain roads, moving heavy boulders, running a pile driver, or anywhere that heavy weights have to be moved, and the safety with which it can be operated in any position is an admirable feature. 

Mr. Charles E. Ogburn of Guerneville, Sonoma county, on whose land the photo was taken while at work, as .shown in the cut on this page, has given the highest testimonial as to its efficiency and adapiii- 
bility as a powerful land clearing machine. 

This practical and efficient stump puller is manufactured and delivered at small cost; as with the capstan, complete with 1 draft-hook; I block; IflO feet of cable: I ^-inch chain, 7 feet long; 1 wrecking 
rope, 1 inch diameter, 11 feet long; 4 hinged bolts used in holding the capstairdown; 1 lead bar to guide the horse; and the price is $185.(J(). This company also makes a specialty of blocks, hooks, chain cable 
and appliances generally used in stump pulling. 

They also carry in stock these machines, and can fill orders promptly. Parties desiring more particular information sluniUI send for descriptive catalogue, or should call in person at their factory, 82 and 
84 Zoe Street, San Francisco. 

The above photo-engraving is made from a photog^raph of the Califurnia Stump I'ulk 
Redwood Stump.« on the farm of C. E. Ogburn, Querneville, Cal. 


JOHN A, LEDDEN, Manager: E. M. T.EDDEN. Secretary. OFFICE: 1 16 PHELAN BUILDING. sj,„ i i„ii< is< o. C al. .Iiine 7. 

Gentlemen:— We take the liberty of calling your attention to the following testiiiionialK. from some of our IcatlinK cannerieR. and a nuiuher of <it>i«rM we coulil offer if ii«M e»Kary. beHlcli 
bcinR awarded the Silver /Vledal at the Meelianlo8* luHtitute daring their expoHition of IHICJ. ri-cardinK our flinR-sriine I't-acli rittcr. If yiiu 
Fitting Cllng-Stone F»eaches would bt- Rlad fo hear from you. All communications will receive our prompt attention. 

iiitcrcslcil in Cutting and 


San Josk, Cal., Dec. :iii, iwil. 
Gentlemen:— In reply to your favor of Dec. 
in which you request an expression of opinion 
from us as to the merits of your (,'ling Peach 
Pilters, would say that we have operated the 
Pitters quite extensively for ihi^ past two sen- 
sons, and we found them to be all that thi'y 
were claimed to be, and can recommend theiii 
iis bt ing the most rapid and practical Cliiif; 
Pitting Machines we have ever known of. 

Yours very truly, E. L. D.WVSOX, Manager. 

Oaklanh, Cal., April a». 18SW. 
The American Cling-Stone Pitting Co.. Sau 
Francisco— Gentlemen: I can cheerfully ^'ecom- 
mend to canners and others having cling stone 
peaches to pit the pitting machine made by 
you. I have used them for the past two seasons and found them to do the work for which they are in- 
tended far better than any pitters I have heretofore used. I will give you an order for quite a ifumber 
of them this season. R. HICKMOTT. 


San Jose. Cal., May 12, 189,3.— Gentlemen :— We used your Cling Peach Pitter this last season and 
can say that It does all you ask of it. Very truly, J. H. FLICKINGER. per H. A. FLICKINGER. 

Commissioii Merchants. 

San Fha.m isi ii. .\pril 

W. F. BECK ft CO., 

I li C'ai.ifijrm A St 
I-.;. 181W.— The American (Ming-Stone Hitliug (■<i.. 
San Francisco <'al. — (ientlemeu: We have used 
voui pitters some three years in our cannery at 
l>os Gatos, where they have given perfect satis- 
faction. We have tried a great many ollji is 
previous to these, and yours are the only ones 
that we have ever seen that we are williuf.' !■ 
"tie" to. Take this opportunity of cheerfulli 
recommending them to any one who has m vu 
sion to pit cling stone peaches. \Vi' I'xpiM t ii. 
use your pitters this year, just how many will 
depend on the uuuiher of orders we take for this 
grade ot giKids. Yours trulv. 

Oakland. April -UK 18SW. 

The American Cling-Stone Pitting Co.. Sau Francisco. Cal.— (ieutlemen :— It gives us pleasure lo 
say thai we have used your Peach Pitters in our Cauuery for the past two years, and 'hey have given 
entire satisfactiou. We have seen no maeliiue that will do the work as well and economically as yours, 
cousequi'utly it is an iuJisiH usable article to us in our business. You may look forward to receiving 
our orders for more of your machines for the coming season. How many we shall need we cannot state 
at this writing: everything depends upon the volume of business which we may do in cling peaches. 

Yours respectfully, OAKLAND PRESERVING CO., per Nelson. 

Non-Shrinking Water Tanks. 


The Best Tank Manufactured. 

EVERY ONE GUARANTEED and cost no more than 
common tanks. 
If your dealer does not keep them buy no other kind. 

Write for illustrated catalogue and prices. 

* W. E. HAMPTON, * 

.Sole Owner of Patent and Manufacturer. 

The Fastest and Best Hay Press 

; I n the World . 


27 Beale Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Store- Your Grain \A/her© Your Best -<^bsbsi»-^ 
^^-flHBzs^Interests \A/!II AI\A/ays be Consulted. 


MONARCH J Rxnoi.Aiv •Ai.ii&SIM 

■'^ TMC ,.oCH ^ 

aO^^ 'STMEBftTstwU. 

MONARCH, Bale 17x20x40, $600 

JUNIOR MONARCH, Bale 22 x 24x47, $500 

THE MONARCH loads 10 tons in an ordinary bo.\ car 
Uses Wire Ties— rope will not hold. 

THE JUNIOR MONARCH loads from 7 toil tons in box 
car. Uses either Wire or Rope Ties. 

The sizes of the bale are given when in the press. Allow 
about 6 inches for expansion for cutting ties. 


(Two Sizes) also for sale. 



Grangers' Business Assoeiation, 


Capacity of Warehouse, 50,000 tons; whart accommodations for the largest vessels afloat. 
Grain received on storage for shipment, and (or sale on consigimient. 


L. C. Morehouse, 

WM. GRAY, General Ag:ent. 

San Leandro, Cal. 




512 to 516 Sacramento St., 5an Francisco, Cal. 


BLAKE, McFALL & CO Portland, Or. 

BECK ♦ FRUIT "evaporator. 

ItiilUl Kvanorators If you 

NfiM is the time t 

desire to secure the lllf^hest l*rlee 
for this year'H Fruit Crop. 
For description of machine guaranteed for quan 
tity and quality of work, send for circular to 

T. & W. A. BECK, 
Watsonville Califobwia 


Vol. XLVIII. No. 5. 



Office. 220 Market Street.' 

The Qas Process for 5cale Insects. 

For those scale insects on citrus fruit trees which 
lire not kept in check by predaceous or parasitic 
foes, the gas treatment is the most satisfactory 
means of warfare. This method in all its details is 
of California origin and it is exceedingly creditable 
to California insight and invention. Many improve- 
ments have been made during the last decade, all 
tending to make the process cheaper, more expedi- 
tious and more effective. Such perfection has now 
been attained that there seems little more to ask 
for, unless nature will take up the matter, as she 
has done already in some cases by bringing to the 
destruction of the pest the foes of its own household. 

A Califoi-niaii who claLins least and yet is entitled 

branches together without damaging them. The tent 
requires no other support than the tree. To keep 
the mouth of the tent expanded, and to facilitate 
moving it from tree to tree, the bell tent has a large 
hoop made of half-inch gas pipe. One foot from the 
bottom of the tent strips of canvas are sewed, and 
through them the gas pipe is passed. In removing 
the tent the hoop is raised, one side is elevated over 
the top of the tree in the direction of the tree to be 
treated, turning the tent outside in. The apex of 
the tent is supported by a pole. The two men 
handling the hoop pass it over the next tree and 
it is ready for gasing. 

For larger trees another arrangement is used, as 
shown on page 71. It has two poles, or uprights, of 
dressed Oregon pine, 2x4 inches and 24 feet high. 

The Tuberculosis Trouble. 

The alarming evil of tuberculosis among milch 
cows is being pressed upon the attention of dairy- 
men supplying milk to towns in a way which occa- 
sions them much worry and anxiety. All honest 
and conscientious milkmen (and we hope no one will 
smile at this association of words) do, of course, 
desire that tuberculosis should be stamped out, even 
if they lose cows. Aside wholly from the desire they 
may have to supply people with clean and wholesome 
food, it is a business i^roposition with them to re- 
move sources of contagion which may d(>stroy even 
what measure of health they may now have among 
then' stock. They see they had better lose a few 
cows now than many cows later on. Those who are 


to much honor in the development of the gas treat- 
ment is Mr. Alexander Craw, who was with the 
remedy at its beginning in the old Wolfskill orchard 
in Los Angeles and who has remained in its improve- 
ment and advancement ever since. In his last public 
announcement, the report of the State Board of 
Horticulture for 18!tl^, which has just appeared, Mr. 
Craw notes recent improvements in the gas treat- 
ment and gives explicit instruction for its use 
according to the latest most successful experience. 

One of the most important improvements is in the 
lent used to encompass the tree and in which the 
hydrocyanic gas is generated. This has been vastly 
simplified, resulting in a great cheapening of the 
outfit and speed in operation. Those who remember 
the illustrations of the old tents in the Rural will 
recognize the superiority of those we show this week 
from engravings used by Mr. Craw in his report. 
The style shown on this page is known as the "bell 
tent," and is employed upon trees under fourteen 
feet in height. Mr. Craw says that with this style 
of tent a crew of four men using sixteen tents fumi- 
gated 224 orange trees 10x12 feet between 5 p. m. and 
5 A. M. The tent used for this size tree is bell shaped, 
sixteen feet high by thirty-two feet in circumference. 
The tent in passing down over the tree brings the 

Across the bottom of the poles are bolted — one on 
each side — two pieces, 1x3 inches and (5 feet long. 
From each end of the crosspieces a brace, 2x4 inches 
and 4 feet long, is fastened to the upright pole. The 
crossbar prevents the pole from falling sideways 
when raising the tent over the tree. A |-inch guy 
rope, 33 feet long, is fastened at the top of each pole 
in front. A 4-inch block is fastened in the rear at 
top, and another block where the braces join the up- 
right; through these is passed a l-inch rope, 70 feet 
long, to raise the tent. The edge of the sheet is 
gathered and a hitch with the rope around it makes 
it fast, so it can be drawn up. This obviates the 
necessity of placing the sheet in a certain position 
and right side up, so it is a great saving of time. 
When all is ready the sheet is dropped on one side of 
the tree; the uprights are raised, one on each side; 
the ropes are adjusted to the edge of the sheet, and 
hoisted; each upright is steadied by a man with the 
guy rope. When raised sufficiently, the men pull on 
the guys, thus bringing the sheet forward and over 
the tree. The uprights are allowed to drop on the 
ground, leaving the tent in position. 

The foregoing is as full description as is necessary 
to enable the reader to understand the design and 
operation of the tents s]>owu in the engravings. 

long-sighted enough to adopt this view of the matter 
are still vexed lest the tests now relied upon to show 
incipient tuberculosis may not be fully understood 
by the parties employed to apply them, and that 
symptoms which may follow the test, and yet be not 
produced by it, may be accepted by tyros as indicat- 
ing tubercular disease, when in fact the symptoms 
may be due to other and not necessarily pathological 
causes. The danger of this is admitted by all who 
intelligently approve the tuberculosis test. It is 
clear that the observations of the sequences of the 
test must be made by thoroughly competent veter- 
inarians, and by none othci'S. 

In one town at least the matter is coming up in 
this form. The board of health proposes to interdict 
the sale of milk in the town by any dairyman who 
does not give written consent to the use of tuber- 
culin on his cows. If the dairyman refuses to consent 
he cannot sell milk ; if he does give consent he has 
no surety that the tuberculin test will be applied by 
a competent man, and not by some one of the throng 
who stand around ready for any piece of municipal 
work that will pay, from the burial of a dead cat to 
the gilding of the cupola of the town hall. If one of 
these geniuses is furnished with an outfit, who can 
tell what cows they will condemn to the boneyard? 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

Aiitriist 4, 1894. 


fee. Xo. 220 Market St.; Elernlor,Xo. 12 A"/ ' -' h'laiieixco. ral 

l.'i months' (one 
tlm. For II in 

All subscribers paylns $S in advance 
year and IS weeks) credit. For $2 In .-i- 
advance, live months. i, i. 


/ Week. 1 Month. ( Moifhx. 1 Year. 

Per Line (awte) J.2[; '.-Ill *4o!! 

Half-Inch (1 square) - W 2.S0 ii.OO 

One Inch 5.00 l.t.UU 

L.-irge advertisements at favorable rates. Special or reading notices, 
legal advertisements, notices appearlnir in extraordinar.v t.vpe. or lii 
particular parts of the paper, at special rates. Four insertions are 
rated In a month. 

Beglstered at S. P. Postoffice as second-class mall matter. 

Our latest forma go to prens Wednesday evening. 

Any subscriber sendlnsr an inquiry on any subject to the ROBAL 
Phess, with a postape stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
rohmins of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 


E. J. WICKSON Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, August 4, 1894. 


I LLUSTRATIONS.— Improved Apparatus for Treating Citrus Trees 
with Hydrocyanic Gas for Killinf; Scale Insects, 6.5 Sheet and 
Pole Apparatus for Treating Citrus Trees with Hydrocyanic Acid 
Gas 71 

HUITORiALS— The Gas Process for Scale Insects: The Tuber- 
culosis Trouble, 65; The Week, 66-6": From an Independent Stand- 

THK''FIKi..D.— The Great Hay Crop of the United States; Flaxseed 
(Jrowins, 68. Rice Growing Without Flooding, 69. 

THF. DAIRY.— Rich Milli is Valuable to the Cheese Maker: Is This 
the " Hlack Pepsin " Fraud .\gaiD ? Dairying and Soil Fertility: 
Better Practice Needed in California: The Coming Dairy Conven- 
tion, 69. 

THE POULTRY Y.\RD.— Rations for Young Chicks: Mr. Penne- 
baker is Too Kind to His Fowls: Newcomer Should Look for 
Vermin. 69. Midsummer in the Poultry Yard, 7(1. 

TR.\CK AND FARM.— How a Horse Ought to Go: Breeding Shet- 
land Ponies : The Future of the Horse: Teaching Colts to Back; 
individual Fxcelleuce Keq\urcd. 711. 

THK IlfRIG.X TOR.— Onion <;rowing With Irrigation in Egypt, 70. 
The Irri^'atioii ("oni-'ress at Denver. 71. 

KNTO.MOLOGIC.VL.— Paris Green on Field Crops; Does Anything 
Eat the K^'ri Spider? 71. 

HORTK r l.TC California Almonds on Their Merits: Pricking 
vs. Dippiii!-' Prunes. 72. 

Till'. HOME CIRCLE.— My Neighbor: Nursery Weather: Without 
;i Ill-ad. 74. Hints to Housekeepers: Ways of Preserving Cur- 
rants. T.'i. 

Till-; VOl'N'G FOI..KS— Johnny's Promise: The Lighthouse Dog: 

lOx iTV 'I'own Has — 7.5. 
I'ATRONS OF HUSBANDRY'.— Random Thoughts. 77. 

.\llS('ELI;ANi;oUS.— Gleanings. 67. Good Words for the "Rural," 
US; Fruit Bulletiu; Weather and Crops, 78. 



Vehicles— Deere Implement Company 

Furniture— California Furniture Company 

'I'he California State Fair 

(Jasoline Engines— Union Gas Engine Co 

.Agricultural Implements— Hooker & Co ♦ 

Prune Machine— J. B. Burrell. Wrights. Cal •. 

\ ehicles— California Wagon and Carriage Co 

h'ruit (irader— G. G. Wicksou & Co 

Uiparia Grape Seed— Rol)t. W. Furnas, Brownville, Neb. 











The Week. 

.. , , Extreme heat and drvness hriiif' 

The lloateil " 

in the season of field and forest 
fires. From both of tliese Ave have 
heen lar^^cly free until this week, when reports of 
l)unuii<;' hillsides befrjn. The most extreme caution 
should now be observed by all who handle fire in 
waste places. Careless use of fire is now an offense 
ayainst the law, so let trespassers beware. Field 
lires have been small and few this year. This micjht 
l)e expected when the reerion most afflicted by fire 
hasn't straw or stubble enoufrh to feed its own jack 
rabbits — so with the temporary loss of prosperity 
we part also with its dangers. The heat which here 
has only brought good fruit-drying weather has been 
of unexami)led d(>gree over the Mississippi valley 
region, and much injury to croi)s is rei)orted. For- 
tunately, however, the spell is broken and the rains 
have come. We prefer a continuation of present 
conditions until November. 

amy Meeting iiort- ^hc July meeting of the State 
Horticultural Society, on Friday 

ieultural Soeiety. r i ^ i ^ n 

of last week, was not very well 
attended, owing no doubt to the fact that most fruit- 
gi-owers find .so much to do at home just now that 
they have no time for anything else. Mr. Harry P, 
Stabler of Sutter county, who was expected to read 
a paper on experience in apricot drying in 189-1, was 
not present. One of the chief topics discussed was 
the relative value of California and imported almonds 
and. as a result, the Society put forth an official 
statement which is printed elsewhere in this paper. 
This statement is well worth the attention of almond 
growers. It demonstrates beyond question that in 
the California almond varieties the weight of kernel 
as coniparc'd with vvciglit of shell is far higher than 
in the imported varieties with which they are sold 
in competition. As yet, the market has not reeog- 
nized this fact, and does not, theri^fore. discriminate 
properly in our favor. The motive of the statement 
now made is to exploit the superiority of our almonds, 
and ultimately to better the price and demand for 
them. The other special topic of discussion was the 
suggested improvement in prune handling set forth 
in last week's Rural, Mr. Bancroft followed it up 
with a pajier in sui)])ort of the perforating process 
(instead of (li])i)ing) in pri'])aring i)i'uni.s for llie dry 

ground. There was a good deal of talk about 

publication of the long projected book of cook- 
ing recipes for dried fruits, but nothing definite was 
done. Mr. Wilcox of Santa Clara made inquiry as to 
the status of the cannery comlnne, wanting to know 
if there was in fact an understanding between them 
as to prices. It was, he said, the opinion of growers 
in his section that there was such an understanding. 
Mr. Rowley, answering, declared that there was no 
such combine and could be none. He was, he said, 
in such relations with the canners as to be able to 
speak positively, and he knew that the canners were 
bidding against each other for fruits. It is, he said, 
impossibl(> to get anyone dozen of them — not to men- 
tion all of them — to agree and stick to any line of 
policy. The subject for next meeting will be "Prune 
varieties and prune drying," suggested by Mr. J. C. 
Shinn, and " Necessity for supporting the State Ex- 
change." suggested by Judge Stabler. The meeting 
will be held at the Board of Horticulture rooms, 220 
Suttei- St.. the last day of August. 

_ ,,, There ai-e many who resent the 

California Quaran- 

exactions of the regulations in use 

tine Laws Copie<l. ■ r-i Te ■ i ■ e 

in California for suppression of 
orchard pests and who claim that in the good 
old days we had no such pesky and bothersome 
limitations upon private liberty. It is true, indeed, 
that formerly there were no such rules; and this 
fact may account for the conditions which now make 
them especially necessary. Other fruit - growing 
coimtries are finding out that it is impossible to 
maintain their orchards without strict laws of quar- 
antine and inspection. On^gon, Washington, British 
Columbia and Idaho are suffering terribly from the 
want of such a system and we are informed that the 
orchardists of each of these States will petition the 
Legislature at its next session to enact the laws as 
they stand in California. Mr. Alexander Craw has 
just received a letter from West Australia informing 
him that the Califoi-nia laws have been adopted by 
the local Parliament without other change than the 
mere substitution of names. facts are signifi- 
cant, not alone of the necessity of strict regulations 
of quarantine and inspection, but of the leadership 
of California in th(> world-wide industry of fruit- 

A Trip Through 
Northern OrchardH 

Mr. Lelong of the State Board of 
Horticulture returned on Tuesday 
from a trip to Marysville, Biggs, 
Rio Bonito and Palermo. His errand was to see the 
methods of work this season in the great orchards, 
particularly with respect to labor-saving devices. 
"I find," he said, "that each season makes a 
notable advance in economical handling of fruit. 
New ways of jiacking, loading, carrying, etc, are 
constantiy being developed, particularly in the larger 
orchards where there is a systematic effort to attain 
the maximum of accomplishment at the minimum of 
cost. Great progress is being made in multitudes 
of ways, and I think I am justified in saying that the 
cost of handling our fruits will eventually be reduced 
vastly as comjiared with the cost at this time. " 
Asked as to the results of his experiments at Rio 
Bonito, especially in the treatment of curl-leaf, Mr, 
Lelong said that there was happily not enough 
curl-leaf this season for the purposes of experiment. 
That i)art of my work, he said, will have to go over 
till another year. It is. of course, the height of the 
shipping season, and the great river orchards are 
I'olling out thousands of dollars' worth of fruit each 
day. The hortieultural display at the Marysville 
fair is pronounced by Mr. Lelong to be really mag- 
nificent, reflecting creditably alike upon the enter- 
prise of the exhibitors and the horticultural re- 
sources of the contiguous country. 

Phelan, Joseph D, Grant, C. De Guignc, Gen. W. H. 
Dimond. J. B. Crockett, Harry Veuve. C. A. Spreck- 
els, William Bai)cock, E. W. Hopkins. Peter .1. 
Donahue. Geo, A. Newhall. W. Mayo Newhall, Jas. 
Brett Stokes. Russell J. Wilson, Maurice Casey, 
James Robinson, (Jilbert Tompkins, Major J. R. 
Rathlx)ne, P. E. Bowles, Dr. (ico. F. Shiels, William 
H. Howard, Webster Jones, W. O B .Macdonough. 
Wilfred B. Chapman, H. E. Huntington. Louis F. 
Monteagle. Fred R. Webster, William S. Tevis. 
Bakersfield; Frank Hicks, Los Angeles; Frank 
Devine, Riverside; Geo. B. Sperry, Stockton; P^dwlii 
F. Smith. Sacramento; M. Theo. Kearney. Fresno. 
The annual Shows of this Association will be cliietly 
for the entertainment of city people, but they have 
a direct relation to rural interests in that. they 
cannot fail to promote a taste for fine horseflesii on who are best able to gratify it. 
This must, of course, help the horse market, at least 
the market for the fancy sorts valued more for pleas- 
ure than utility. Anything that will help pull the 
horse-breeding interest out of the slough of despond 
will be a good thing. 

.fi 1..., 1 There is grave reason to fear that 

The Vitienltnral 

the projected compact of the viti- 

Conipaet ilanf;- , , . 

cultural interest will not go 
inff I'lre. through. The growers have done 
their part by pledging their crops for the required 
period of five years, but the organization of the mer- 
chants into the projected purchasing syndicate does 
not succeed .so well. The period for organi/.aliim 
covered by the agreement signed by the growers ex- 
pires to-day (we write on Wednesday. August 1st) 
and the committee of seven, who have thus far man- 
aged the project, have asked for an extension of ten 
days in the hope of pulling the merchants together 
in the meantime. In a circular letter to the growers, 
they say: 

We expect to bring about a successful issue, altbough it may 
take a few days longer. We hope that you will, like most of 
the others so far reached, grant us the necessary extension of 
a few days. We shall again address you shortly and give yoii 
more information. These linos are intended to keep you in- 
formed that we arc still working, so that you may make no 
other arrangements or be influenc-ed by .some parties who are 
operating against the plan from selfish motives. We would 
also request you to see your neighbors and endeavor to bring 
those in line who have not yet signed, as the stronger the ix>- 
sition — that is, the greater the repi'e.sentation -the more the 
success of this enterprise is assured. 

It is now known that the syndicate project in- 
cludes the well-known firms of B. Dreyfus & Co.. 
C. Schilling & Co.. Kohler Frohling, Kohler it \"an 
Bergen, C, Carpy & Co., Napa Valley Wine Co . 
A. Harazthy & Co. and all members of the San Fran- 
cisco Wine Dealers' Association excejiting Lachinan 
& Jacob! and J. (iuudlach it Co. 

The War Flurry 
ill Wheat. 

A Coining 
Horse Show. 

There has just been organized in 
San Francisco an Association 
whose purpose it is to give each 
year a general Horse Show, similar to the annual 
exhibitions at Chicago, New York and in Europe. 
The Association is made up of rich men and its shows 
will be events of the most swagger " sort — what, 
in these days of social elegance, are designated as 
"society functions." The competition will be 
limited to the fashionable sorts of horses and liberal 
prizes will be offeivd for all kinds of thoroughbreds 
for riding and driving purposes. There is also to be 
a list of special prizes — not yet announced — offered 
by D. O. Mills, (iov. Markham, C. O. Alexander, C. 
P. Huntington, H. J. Crocker, W. S. Hobart, M. H. 
De Young and others. The Association prizes range 
from $100 to $15, and are offered for trotters, i-oad- 
sters, Hackneys. Coaching stallions, carriage horses, 
four-in-hands, tandtMiis, saddle horses, ponies in 
harness and under saddle and for draught horses. 
The sum of these prizes is several thousand dollars. 
The first Show is to be given this fall, and will con- 
tinue through the four days of November 28th. 29th, 
30th and Dec. 1st. The officers of the Horse Show 
Association are : President, Henry J. Crocker; Sec- 
retary. Robt. A. Irving: Directors: William Alvord, 
Col. C. F. Crocker, Louis B. Parrott. John Parrott, 
Hem-y J. Crocker. Timothy Hopkins, James D. 

The war news fi'om Asia has made 
a little flurry in the wheat market 
and there has been a slight ad- 
vance upon the "slump" rates recently quoted. 
There is, however, little hope that we shall profit to 
any considerable extent by the war unless it should— 
and this is not likely— involve the Euro])ean powers. 
The Chinese and Japanese do not consume breadstufls 
to any extent and do not reciuire them for armies in 
the field : and even if the numbers engaged in war- 
fare should reach hundreds of thousands, the 
sui)ply of native food is quite sufficient to answer all 
requirements. The shipments of flour made from 
San Francisco to China— from 30,000 to :^^).m\ bbls. 
per month— goes chiefly to English importers at 
Hongkong, and are by them distributed to the Eng- 
lish," French and Spanish colonies. It is for the 
foreigners in China that flour is shipped, and not for 
the Chinese themselves. The Chinese raise very 
little if any wheat, and consequently the market 
would not be affected through any int(>rference with 
China's wheat product. 

In the Rural of July 14th it was 

Mr. rerl«ins in , , . , . , •. 

suggested that a working exhibit 
of the Perkins fresh fruit preserv- 
ing process be set up in this city, to the end of 
making the public familiar with it and thus getting 
it practically adopted. In this connection. Mr. A. T. 
Perkins of Alameda, the originator of the process, 
was asked to say what he thought of the proposition, 
and we have his reply as follows: 

The proposition in your editorial of July I4th should meet 
with hearty approval. ' In my judgment, however, it is doubt- 
ful if there would be the anticipated Seven years 
of close study and almost continuous experimenting in the in- 
terest of California fruit-growers has made me a little bit of a 
pessimist. An expensive plant illustrating the prwcss, and 
the method of treating compressed air, adapting it to our use, 
with the mechanical improvements to make the car service 
automatic and under complete control, was on exhibition for 
several months. It was approved, admired, i)ronounced won- 
derful-it was a pretty show. The only real interest has been 
manifested bv the railroad companies. Mr. W. A. Bissell, the 
general agent of the Santa Fe, has geven hearty supixirt from 
the first. Mr. W. A. Curtis, assistant general manager of the 
Southern Pacific, has made it jjossible for me to bring the 


position -at least in relation to this service— is correct. It is 
purely a private enterprise. If they were to select even a 
few (ir the iiuiuei'ous railroad improvements and carry the 

August 4, 1894. 

experiments to completion, it would seriously interfere with 
their legitimate business. The capital necessary to place our 
service on the road has been asked from those who were sup- 
posed to be the most interested in the ultimate success of the 
process — so far without avail. We had hoped that a practical 
road test could have been made this season, as we are sure it 
would have resulted in a handsome saving in the shipment of 
next season's ci'op. In any event I have faith to believe the 
time is not far distant when the present expensive method of 
shipment will be changed to a more reasonable one, whose 
only objection seems to be its simplicity. 

Mr. Perkias writes in the tone of one in wliom hope 
has been long deferred — and it is not surprising that 
it is so. He has a process pronounced to be efficient 
and economical, and yet nobody will take enough 
interest ui it even to demonstrate its value by prac- 
lical working trial. At a recent meeting of the 
State Horticultural Society Mr. A. T. Hatch re- 
inai'ked tliat he would be one of twenty to give the 
process a thorough practical test. Are there not 
others who can and will do the same? Cannot the 
newly-organized fruit exchanges do somethmg in the 

. , ^ , The advantages of the Perkins 

Advantages of 

process, as it is proposed to be ap- 
plied in shipping fruits East; are 
many and they are of high value. It allows fruit in- 
tended for distant markets to fully mature before 
being picked, thus improving both its quality and 
weight; it docs away with the necessity for icing, 
which is a larger element of cost; it does away with 
the " dead weight " of refrigeration; it obviates the 
necessity for speed in transit; it absolutely prevents 
decay in transit, and it turns out the fruit at points 
of destination in a condition which vastly extends 
its life as compared with the refrigerator process. 
This last item is one of the strong ])oints of the pro- 
cess, for where refrigerated fruits reach market 
moist and soft and subject to immediate decay, the 
Perkins ])rocess lands them dry and firm and in as 
good condition for keeping as when they left the or- 
cliard. The advantages of the .system thus relate to 
the weight and quality of fruits, to safety and econ- 
omy in their transportation, to their durability and 
attractiveness in market and to the practical re- 
moval of their "perishable" liability which is so 
often the utter destruction of market value. There 
ought, surely, to be enterprise enough to give such 
ill proposition, a])proved by exj)erts and already 
demonstrated experimentally, a full, fair practice 
lest in commercial shipping operations. 


Oai't. H. a. BiiAiN.vui) has been appointed Horticultural 
Commissioner for Santa Clara county. 

L. S. Ei)w.iKi)s, aLosGatos nurseryman, has failed. It is 
understood, however, that his estate will clear itself if a little 
time is allowed. 

The Williams Farmer urges the fruit-growers thereabout to 
begin co-operative organization while the industry is still in 
its infancy. A cannery and a raisin warehouse are among the 
enterprises suggested in this connection. 

It was thought, says the Visalia Delta, that in view of the 
losses through the railroad blockade that Chinese who have 
bought orchard crops would default in the payments and back 
out from their bargains, but they show no disposition to do so. 

A New Sijje-Hill Hauvestek was smashed to pieces re- 
cently on the Putah Canyon ranch of W. J. Cannady near 
Winters. While descending a steep place the machine got 
away from the driver and brought up in a heap in the valley 

The Santa Cruz-Gilroy co-operative fruit drier lias begun 
operations. The railroad company has shown every disposi- 
tion to aid the enterprise, and has made the very reasonable 
rate of $2 per ton on green fruit from Santa Cruz to the new 

CoxfiKEssMA.N' BowEiis informs sheep-growers in his district 
that the Interior Department has denied the appeal for per- 
mission to graze flocks in the national reserves in the Sierra 
Nevada mountains— a request based uix)n the special necessi- 
ties of this dry season. 

The Merced A'.rprcs.s reiwrts that the Crocker estate has 
cleared S;i5 per acre on their alfalfa land on the old Crocker 
ranch. When crops are light and feed scarce alfalfa will pay 
.*.50 or more, and is rapidly becoming the popular thing to plant 
because of the ease of handling and the quick returns re- 

The annual meeting of the State Board of Horticulture will 
occure on the 1.5th inst. — one week from next Wednesday — in 
this city. There will be a good deal of business, including 
preparations for the Horticultural Convention to be held at 
Sacramento in November, and the .sessions will probably con- 
tinue through three or four days. 

The Sacramento iJcc of July 28th says : A person can form 
some idea of the vast amount of fruit going East at the pres- 
ent time, when 60 (-arloads leave here daily, carrying 1,440,000 
ixiunds. Add to this almost as much more from Yolo, Solano, 
Nevada, Placer and El Dorado counties, and you will see that 
all the populous centers can be easily supplied with the present 

Visalia X)ei(a; The Chinese purchase orchards through co- 
operation ; that is, everj' restaurant man, laundry man and 
vegetable gardener pools his savings and makes the purchase. 
White men might do the same, but they would have to hold a 
meeting every evening to investigate the manager and see if 
he was not stealing the capital stock. The Chinese appear to 
have more faith in their kind than the whites do, and yet we 
hear of them only as thieves. 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

Matters at Washington resisecting tariff legisla- 
tion have not changed materially since our last writ- 
ing a week ago. Passion is not quite so high as it 
was and Committees of Conference are still strug- 
gling to bring about an accommodation between the 
two houses, but so far without any sign of success. 
It is difficult to see how a satisfactory adjust- 
ment can be made. The House has passed a bill 
measurably answering the demands of the Democratic 
platform; 'it was found impossible to pass it in the 
Senate and a bill very different in character has been 
substituted for it; the President has declared this 
substitute a shameful abandonment of Democratic 
doctrine and a denial of Democratic promises. Now 
it would seem useless for the House to give way, for 
nothing could be clearer than that the President will 
not approve the measure as recast by the Senate. 
There seems only one way out of the difficulty, namely, 
a back-down by the Senate, and that is hardly to be ex- 
pected in view of the position of the Louisiana, Ala- 
bama and other Senators who have declared over 
and over again that they will not vote for any meas- 
ure which does not protect sugar, coal and iron. It 
is possible, of course, under the prodigious pressure 
of poUtical necessity — for the President has declared 
that the existence of the party depends upon the 
performance of its promises — that a new bill will be 
substituted, but in the nature of things such a com- 
liromise would be no genuine measure of reform, but 
a mere political expedient — a pretense of carrying 
out party pledges. Such an outcome would, prac- 
tically, leave the real work of tariff' reform to the 
next Congress, which nobody now doubts will be 

Those who have criticized Mr. Cleveland's letter to 
Chairman Wilson on the ground of its " interference 
with the legislative branch of the Cxovernment" for- 
get that it is part of the President's constitutional 
duty to advise Congress from time to time. This is 
the insjiiration of the Annual Message and of the 
numberless other messages which go from the White 
House to the Capitol If the President had elected 
to address Congress on the subject of tariff' legisla- 
tion, he would have had a clear right to do so. But 
this was not his purpose. In his letter to Wilson, he 
spoke not as President to Congress, but as the dom- 
inating head of the Democratic jiarty to his fellow- 
partisans. It was not of governmental principles 
that he spoke, but of party promises and of party 
honor. And there was the rub. In denouncing the 
Senate bill as an abandonment of pr-inciples, as a 
violation of promises, as involving the party in per- 
fidy,'' there was a direct reflection upon the Senators 
who created it. Men like Gorman and Voorhees, who 
have been consjiicuous party men for many years, 
and who, to borrow a phrase, carried the mud out of 
which Mr. Cleveland was made, in a political sense, 
resent being told what is Democratic duty, being 
scolded like children. and called harsh names; and it 
is not surprising that they do. In our view, there 
would be no reason to criticize the President foi- at- 
tempting in legitimate ways to influence legislation; 
but he is profoundly at fault when he employs his 
authority as President to enforce his partisan edicts. 
A President in the attitude of a party leader is, to 
say the least, not an edifying spectacle. 

In speaking critically in last week's "Standpoint" 
of partisan methods of tariff legislation, the refer- 
ence was to the ways in which the pending tariff 
bills were framed. In the House the job was turned 
over to the Ways and Means Committee, which is 
composed of eleven Democrats and six Republicans, 
all men of experience and leading ability. It would 
seem that seventeen persons were quite few enough for 
a responsibility so great ; and that representation of 
both ])olitical parties were not only fair but neces- 
sary. But in reality, the minority members had no 
part in the work. It was treated as purely a Demo- 
cratic job, and the Republican committeemen were 
not allowed to attend the committee sessions until 
the Democrats had arranged a bill upon which they 
could all agree. And so in the Senate, the bill was 
two months before the Democratic committee and 
the Democratic caucus before any Republican had a 
chance to see it or to know it was being touched. 
This is legislation by party with a vengeance. Now, 

it is the methc '-^f such proceedings — not the Demo- 
cratic party— ^e condemn. As a matter of 
fact, the Republicans are more responsible for this 
bad method than the Democrats, for its application 
in its worst development was in the long period of 
Republican dominance in Congress. The McKinlcy 
bill was made by the same false and demoralizing 
rule in legislation. But because both parties in turn 
ply the same game does not make the game a good 
or safe one. It only goes to prove the unwisdom of 
trusting great matters of economic policy like the 
tariff, upon which the welfare of millions depend, to 
I the chances of partisan battle. If we cannot devise 
I some more reasonable method of legislation upon 
purely economic questions, we shall never be rid of 
the uncertainties which now harrass and impoverish 
the country. 

Rumors of war have filled the air during the past 
week. China and Japan are at outs over Corea, and 
each is sending its military forces in haste to i)os- 
sess the country. During the past week there 
have been two sea encounters and in each the 
Chinese have been worsted. On Thursday a trans- 
port (flying the British flag) carrying 2000 Chinese 
troops with European officers, was sunk with all on 
board by a Jap cruiser. On Monday there was an 
encounter of more serious kind between the fleets of 
the two powers, the result being that one of China's 
two great modern battle ships (constructed after 
European models), and two armored cruisers, were 
sunk with vast loss of life, including many European 
officers. In the first case it is reported that the 
Japs showed no mercy. Many Chinese and one 
European officer who swam from the sinking 
transport to the cruiser are said to have 
been shot in the water as they prayed for 
succor. These incidents confirm the universal judg- 
ment that Japan is stronger in a military sense than 
China. She has a number of good ships well manned, 

1 a standing army of a hundred thousand men, both 
services being equipped in modern style and under 

I European discipline. In no other department has 
social revolution in Jajian told with greater effect. 
She is now among the really potential military 
powers of the world and much more than a match 
for China. However, China is not wholly without 
military character. She has a little fleet — much re- 
duced by Monday's disaster — and a standing army 
double the size of Jajian's, officered largely by Gei-- 
mans, but neither the equipment nor the discipline 
is thorough. It has been asserted by great soldiers 
— Napoleon and Grant among them if we remember 
rightly — that China has vast latent military jjowcr, 
but she has little of what in the modern nations is 
called military spirit, and is almost destitute of im- 
mediate resources in the way of arms, etc. She is not 
prepared for a light and cannot be expected to make 
much of a figure if it should be forced upon her. 

It is not likely, however, that Japan and China 
will be left to fight out their quarrel alone, for 
there are other nations with bigger guns equally 
interested in the future of the country which 
is now the subject of contention. Corea — a 
considerable peninsula lying between Japan and 
the Asiatic mainland and narrowly attached to 
the latter — is a nominal dependency of China; but 
the country has during many centuries been the sub- 
ject of disputes between China and Japan. For a 
long period, beginning about the opening of the 
Christian era, Corea is said to have been subject to 
Japan, but in the thirteenth century the Mongol con- 
queroi-s incorporated the greater part of it with the 
Chinese Emj)ire. and soon after the native claimant 
of the Coi-ean throne was acknowledged by China as 
pendatory king. Again in 1592 Corea was conquered 
by Japan, but some years later the Coreans, aided 
by the Chinese, expelled the Japanese and I'estored 
the old order. A rebellion is now in j^rogress against 
the Corean Government, and Japan, under pretext 
of protecting the interests of her people in Corea, .is 
intruding once more in the affairs of the kingdom. 
Undoubtedly Japan desires to become master of 
Corea. Her trade with that country is large. Corean 
goods are mostly carried in Japanese ships. Natur- 
ally Japanese influence has been great with the 
Corean ])eople. Japan has long been anxious to have 
a footing on the mainland, and Corea is her only 
chance.' But Corea is attached geographically to 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

August 4, 1894. 

Russia, whic h, as a recent commentator has declared, 
needs the peninsula to round off her Siberian empire 
when the great railroad is finished. She wants a 
frontage on the Pacific ocean, which her Siberian har- 
bor of Vladivostok— so often ice-bound and useless — 
does not give her. She has, therefore, fi.xed designs 
upon Corea, and is not likely to allow any jugglery 
between China and Japan that will spoil her plans. 
Of course, where Russian interests develop, there, 
also, will be found Great Britain. She is extremely 
jealous of Russian aggrandizement in any direction, 
and may be counted upon to lend a hand whenever it 
may be needed to checkmate any attempts toward 
the extension of Russian territory. Thus we have 
the situation: China in nominal possession; Japan 
eager to supplant her; Russia opposed to any move- 
ment looking to a new order of things; England 
ready to balk Russia and always eager to grasp 
a new territory and add it to her empire. 
Amid such com))lication of interests there are two 
alternatives, a very big war or a very little one — and 
it will probably be the latter. 

Good Words for the " Rural. 

The strike has fizzled out and has left several hun- 
dred unemployed men about Oakland, Saci\unento 
and other centers of disturbance. The railroad man- 
agement has retained all the men who came to its 
service during the trouble, and of the late strikers it 
employs whom it chooses and none others; and in no 
case has it taken back anybody who retains member- 
ship or affiliation with the American Railway Union. 
This, we understand, is to be the policy of all the 
railroads involved in the late strike, and it can but 
be the death-blow to that organization. However, 
this will be only a temporary blow to organized labor. 
The causes which made the Railway Union will raise 
up a successor to it. It is, we venture to think, in 
the study of causes and in their correction 
rather than in severities and revenges, that the cure 
will be found for troubles between employer and em- 
ployed. At Woodland the preliminary examination 
into the charges against Worden and others in the 
matter of the infamy at Yolo bridge still goes on; 
and enough has been developed to demonstrate 
clearly that some of the culprits are in hand. The 
connection of Knox, the Railway Union leader at 
Sacramento, with the crime is not clearly proved, 
though it is probable that he will be held for trial. 
The great cost of these proceedings will fall heavily 
on Yolo county, which is none too well fixed in a 
financial way. 

TAi,KiN<i with a Mail reporter a few days ago "Grain-dealer" 
Smith of Stocktou said: "The Apricultural Bureau, basing 
its calculation on the figures furnished it by about 40()0 wheat- 
raisers, estimates the cost of wheat-production in America at 
$11. HO an acre. Now, the average yield per acre is only eleven 
bushels, or HtK) pounds, which at the present price for milling 
wheat would bring ijKi.lOJ/^. The Agricultural Bureau's esti- 
mate of the the cost of prwiuction includes an acre for rent, 
but even deducting this the wheat-raiser is out of po<'ket — 
that is, taking the average. What is the cost of production in 
this county! I don't know. I started once to interview 1(M) 
farmers on that subject, but I found there were not many 
in the county who knew what it did cost them to raise 
wheat, and so I quit. But I can tell you this: It costs 
more than the wheat brings them at 92% cents per cental 
for milling." 

The Farmer reiwrts that the Sonoma Crunty Fruit K.xchauge 
is going into business this .season in dead earnest. It has 
hired a warehouse, and will, .so the public is assured, afford 
ample warehouse facilities and arrange for needed advances 
on all fruit stored, besides keeping the grower fully jxisted on 
the state of the market and furnishing a cash buyer when he 
wishes to sell. The grower need never lose cotiti-ol of his 
fruit, if he so decides, until he draws down the cash. The 
aim of the Sonoma County Fruit Exchange is to do a cash 
business at the best net figure the condition of the market 
will allow the grower. 

"A .lournal Jutitly Prized." 

From the Timen, Los Angeles: 

The Pacific Ri kai. Press lias adopted a new style of title 
and has made some changes in its dress which give it a more 
modern appearance. Its sub-title is now the "California Fruit 
Bulletin." This journal, which is now in its twenty-fourth 
year, is a worthy and reliable farm pajier, and is justl'v prized 
by the farmers of this State. 

•■A Journal of Outet, Conservative Tone." | 

From the Eiuiuirer, Oakland: ! 

The Ri KAi, Press has donned a new dress and appears in a 
more attractive form. It is an excellent agricultural and 
horticultural journal, and its quiet, con.servative tone in deal- 
ing with public questions is in admirable keeping with its 
character as a purveyor of news relating to rural pursuits. 

Clea n and HandHome." 

From the Pro(;» w, Palermo ; j 
The Pacific Ri rai, Press, one of the most valuable of our 
exchanges, has recently donned a new head and dress, present- ! 
ing a clean and handsome appearance. It is u valuable paper | 
for farmers and fruit-growers, and is i-ead largely by that j 
class, but should be found in the homes of more of them. 

The newspapers of the State are making the im- 
proved appearance of the Rural Press, since it 
donned its new dress, the occasion for saying many 
pleasant things about it. Below we reprint some of 
them ; and here we return our thanks : 

" .\ KecoBuized Authority." 

From the Yolo Mail, Woodland : 

The Ri RAi. Press came out last week in a complete new 
dress of type and under a new head .so different from the old 
one that it was hard to recognize it at first as the paper which 
for a quarter of a century past has been the recognized agri- 
cultural authority on this coast. It will henceforth be known 
as "TiiK Pacific Ri RAr, Press and Cai.iforxia Frcit Bfi.- 
i.ETix." All the departments are to be improved, and the 
)wper will be more than ever a welcome visitor to the thou- 
.sands of homes in this State which it brightens every week. 

" l>e.servoM a Place hi Every Country Home." 

From the llrrahl, Sanger: 

The Pacific Ri rai. Press has come out in a new dress, in- 
cluding a new "head piece," rendering it much improved in 
appearance. As a farm and home (laper it is deserving a place 
in every couutry home. 

'* S|»l<' and Span." 

Fi"om the KxiinxK. Winters: 

The Pacific Ri ral Press begins a new volume with a new 
dress of tyjje this week and a new heading. It looks as spic 
and synui as a new pin, and is brimful of good reading matter. 
The Ri rai. is a good pajier and a valued exchange. 

"Chaste and Ueroniliig." 

From the Kitriital, Alameda: 

And now I'oines the Pacifh' Ri ral Press, in bran new type 
and a chaste and becoming heading, with its many pages filled 
with matter of interest, not alone to the agriculturist and 
horticulturist, but to every class of readers, the politician not 

" From an Independent Standpoint." 
From the Xeiv Km, Benicia: 

The Pacific Ri rai, Press, a journal which every farmer 
and fruit-rai.ser in the West should be provided with, has en- 
tered uiwn its twenty-fourth year. It appears with a new 
heading and a new dress of type, and looks wonderfully im- 
proved and attractive. Two most inte' esting features of the 
Press are its resume of the week's doings and its discussions 
of leading events from a perfectly indeixindent standpoint. 

"I'nl>ia8ed Opinions." 

From the Times, Santa Maria : 

Those who read the " Independent Standiwint " editorials 
of the Ri KAi. Press get unbiased opinions upon all industrial 
propositions from the \ten of the able editor, Alfred Holman, 
who is not "tied up" to anybody or anything. He is highly 
practical and in a position to bo well informed on all important 
issues of the day, and those who follow his teachings prize 
them more highly as they continue to read and learn more of 
their real value. He is a leader in the progressive Western 

".\ Paper California Ou^ht to lie Proiul Of." 

From the .l(/r«cii(f. Half Moon Bay: 

The Pacific Ri ral Press comes to us this week with anew 
heading that is in step with this progressive age and a new 
type dress that is as beautiful as it is satisfactory to the eye. 
The Ri KAL Press is edited with marked ability and is a paper 
that the agriculturist and horticulturist and dairyman in 
California ought to be proud to supptirt. 

"Deserves Its SiieeesH." 

From the Herald, San Jose : 

The Pacific Rcral Press has been greatly improved in 
every respect during the past few months, and now it has 
donned a new dress and shows other proofs of prosperity. The 
Ri rai. Press is one of the best pipers of its class in the 
United States, and fully deserves its manifest success. 

"One of the Best of Its Class." 

From the Prcm, Riverside : 

The Pacific Rcral Press has always been one of the best 
papers of its class on the coast. It has recently adopted a new 
dress throughout and otherwise shown a disposition to keep 
pace with the progress of the State. It can hardly do better 
work than in the past, but it is greatly improved typographic- 
ally by the changes it has recently made. 

"New Ciotlies from Top to Toe." 

Prom the Fruit (Imwer, S. F. : 

Our esteemed neighbor, the Pacific Ri ral Press, has put 
on new clothes from top to toe and looks much the better for 
it. Its old clnthes, espgcially the headgear, were of the style ! 
of a quarter century ago, and gave the pa)x^r something of a j 
" wayback"" aspect, despite the gcxxl matter filling its pages. 
We congratulate our able contemp<;rary on this evidence of 
continued prosperity, and predict that its numerous readers , 
will not regret the back-number head-piece which has been 
thrown overbojird for something far more appropriate and I 

"One of the Best In the State." 

From the lte{nxler, San Jacinto: 

After many years the Pacific Ri hal Press has changed its 
heading, not beciiuse it wasn't handsome enough, but it was 
out of date. A new dress has also been added, altogether 
giving it a more substantial and better appearance than be- 
fore. The Press is one of the best farm papers in the State. 

" Lool{H at PassiiiK Kveiits with Calm \'le\v." 

From the l^itjamninii, Watsonville: 

The RcRAL Press is out in a new which vastly im- 
proves its appearance. It is making quite a feature of its 
page "From an Indi'pcndent Point of View," and it is the 
first part of the paper to which we turn. The writer of that 
page looks at passing events with calm view, and the conclu- 
sions are logical and fair. The Rcral Press is a publication 
of high merit, and deserves the place it holds in the esteem of 
its readers. 

".\n Kxceiieiit .lournal." 

From the El Dorado Hetmhtienn : 

The Pacific Riral Press comes to our table this week 
printed in the neatest and clearest possible form, with new 
type and a new heading that gives it a very attractive appear- 
ance. It is an excellent journal and contains valuable matter 
for the farmer and orchaidist. 

" llaiiflsoiue and .\ttrafti\e." 

Prom the Gazette. Martinez: 

The San Francisco Ri ral Press has donned a new heading 
and treated itself to a new throughout. It is vastly im- 
proved in appearance, and is a verv handsome and attractive 


The Great Hay Crop of the United States. 

The eleventh census, taken in June, 18!t0, was very 
complete in its agricultural schedules, especially on 
grasses and forage crops. There has been vexatious 
delay in giving out the results, but the Homenfm,/ 
has finally obtained the data as to the acres mown 
for hay and the total hay crop obtained in 188!t. 
v^hich are published for tlie first time. The census 
for the decade before, 187t>. is given also: 

North Atlantic. . . 
South Atlantic. . . 
North Central . . . . 

South Central 



. . ia,(«5,noo 
. . i.ias.mid 
. .i5,4[ 
. . 
. . i.s.'ia.fifid 



—Acres — 




United States 30,6a9,0tt) .sa.sisa.iKKi .^5.i.t6,i«io «rt,K3a.i)i)0 

The area in the North Atlantic States mown for 
hay in 1889 was 28 per cent more than ten years be- 
fore, and the yield was 28 per cent more. South .Vt- 
lantic States gained 71 per cent in area and 128 per 
cent in yield. The North Central group doubled its 
grass area 108 per cent and gained 114 per cent in 
yield. The most marked gain was in the South Cen- 
tral States, where the breadth of grass grown for 
hay gained 202 per cent, the yield 818 per cent. The 
Western States show 178 per cent gain in area and 
188 gain in yield. Taking the country as a whole, 
the mown area returned by the eleventh census is 
three-fourths more than in '79 and the crop was 
nearly doubled — gain 90 per cent, compari- 
sons, with the average yield per acre, value per ton 
and total value are thus computed by groups of 

N. A 

Increased '7fl-"l» by per cent . 23 

Yield, '79-'89, per cent 2K 

Aver, yield per acre, '8S(. tons 1.22 

Aver, value hay per ton 

Total val. , mi llions of dollars $21 1 

tiroups of States. 

S. A. N. C. S. C, West. U. S. 

71 108 202 173 73 

123 114 318 188 '.m 

1 (W 1.27 1.14 IK 1.2ti 

10 8 il 8 n 

21 328 20 42 601 

The United States hay crop is approached in total 
value only by corn, is double the value of wheat or 
cotton, which attract so much attention to the 
markets, and is three times the value of our oats. 
The hay croji of Great Britain last year averaged 
only 1.2 tons per acre on 8,485,000 acres, a total of 
only 10,172.000 tons, whereas in a good grass year 
like 1889, the average is two tons i>er acre or a total 
of 18,2.^0,000 tons. Germany's hay crop of '91 was 
officially estimated at 20, ,500, 000 tons. Russia's was 
about the same, while France and Austria-Hungary 
each cut about It!, 500, 000 tons of hav. 

Flaxseed Growing. 

California has not grown much flaxseed of late 
and our local oil mills have run on imported seed. 
The flaxseed crop does not seem to commend itself 
to our farmers. It does not pay as well as they 
would like. There has been of late considerable of a 
movement in the flax crop at the East. A leading 
Eastern statistical journal says that the prevailing 
high prices and scarcity of flaxseed at all the leading 
points of distribution have aroused widespread in- 
terest in the forthcoming crop of that imjKirtant 
article. According to the best informed authorities, 
the ai-ea devoted this year to flaxseed is larger than 
that of any \-ear since 1891, when protluction was 
officially estimated at 15,455.000 bushels. Owing to 
the long-continued depression in the value of wheat, 
a large number of farmers have turned their" atten- 
tion to flaxseed, with the result of an increase in the 
acreage of fully twenty per cent in 1894 over that of 
1898. Last year about 1,2.50,000 acres were culti- 
vated, and basing the yield on the usual average of 
eight bushels of seed to the acre, the crop of 1898 
reached a total of about 10,000,000 bushels. Of this 
production, about 1,. 500, 000 bushels were reserved 
for planting and other purposes, and besides a con- 
siderable portion thereof was exported, the statistics 
for the ten months ending May, 1894. being 2.047,888 
bushels, valued at $2,429,279, compared with l,ti07,- 
150 bushels, of the value of $2,083,949, during the 
corresponding period of 1892-98. Thus the stock 
available for crushing was reduced to an abnormally 
small volume, resulting in the present depletion of 
supplies and the advancing tendency of prices, and 
inducing the farmers to extend the acreage. Some 
difficulty was experienced in procuring the required 
sowing seed, and for that reason the growing crop is 
less extensive than it would otherwise have been. 
The bulk of the flaxseed produced in this country is 
raised in the States of the West and Northwest. In 
1892 the entire acreage was 1,477.000, of which 404,- 
000 acres are credited to Minnesota. In 1894 that 
State had 425.000 acres of flax under cultivation. 
Next in importance in the j^ear 1891 was Kansas 
with 8(j0,000 acres and an estimated yield of 2.000.- 
000 bushels of seed. Iowa, in the same year, pro- 
duced about 8,000,000 bushels from 280,000 acres, 
while North Dakota and Missouri yielded .WO, 000 
bushels and 459,000 bushels respectively. The crop 
of 1894 has progressed under generally favorable 
conditions, and arrivals of new seed in the primary 
markets may be expected early in Augast, if not 

August 4, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


sooner. It remains to be seen how values will be 
affected by the anticipated increase in the produc- 
tion. The activity of the export demand and the 
domestic requirements for linseed oil durint^ the fall 
and winter season are factors that will largely in- 
fluence the future situation. At this time predic- 
tions on the subject cannot be safely made. 

Rice Growing Without Flooding. 

Now that there is an experimental plat of rice do- 
ing well without flooding at the Government station 
on Union Island, interest increases in the non-fiood- 
ing .system of rice growing which is prevailing in 
Louisiana. The Lake Charles Aincrtcau says: 

Southwest Louisiana has made such rapid strides in rice 
culture during the last six or seven years that, from a mere 
besinninp of a few acres produced for home consumption, it 
has become the leading i-ice-producing region of the United 
States. At least one-half the rice produced in the United 
States is now grown in this favored region. On account of the 
favorable combination of soil, rainfall and water facilities, rice 
can be produced much more cheaply here than in the other 
rice-producing regions of the nation. The consequence is that 
rice farmers realize much larger profits than in other rice 
regions. Many northern people coming to this country during 
the last six or seven years, with limited means, have become 

A large area of our lands is well adapted to the culture of 
rice, and the rice area can be considerably increased by put- 
ting in artesian wells. 

On our best rice lands, with reasonable cultivation, from 
ten to twenty barrels of rough rice can be produced per acre, 
worth from *":i.50 to per barrel. 

The crop is put in, harvested and threshed with the same 
machinery and nearly the same process as wheat or oats. 

The prospect for the present crop is as good as could be de- 
sired, and the probabilities are that we will receive an excel- 
lent price for it. When our rice crop begins to come in this 
fall the hard times will be gone for southwest Louisiana. 

Mulching to Retain Moisture. — It does not seem 
possible that all the labor this will call for can be 
profitably bestowed. However, this is the desci'ip- 
tion 5>f it, as written by a visitor to a local paper: 

I desire to mention what I believe will cause a new departure 
or a revolution in rice culture on the prairies. On the Wester 
Ogle plantation, a few miles west of Abbeville, there are sev- 
eral hundred acres in rice. It is flooded by water that is 
stored behind levees. But I also saw on this place a small 
piece of rice planted on the high fields of the plantation. This 
rice was covered with dry grass about two inches thick spread 
over the entire cut of land. The idea is that the rice will 
come through this top dressing and that the grass and weeds 
will not do so. The object in putting great quantities of water 
on rice arc two-fold—to destroy weeds and grass and to supply 
the plant with moisture sufficient to keep it growing. The 
manager of the place, Mr. Hatch, is an old planter, and he 
thinks the idea will prove a great success. He and his assist- 
ants both tell me that they have often observed that grass 
would not come through hay or rice straw, but that grains of 
rice would gci-minate and grow through without difficulty. 
Mr. David Todd, the owner of the plantation, tirst conceived 
the idea (so the manager informed me) of spreading the prairie 
grass, which is here mowed in vast quantities, over the land 
from which it is taken in lieu of flooding with water. After 
the land has been planted in either Honduras or Carolina rice 
for a few years the straw is spread. This grass covering can 
be used for two or three years on the same land, and rice 
straw will subserve the same purpose. The result of this ex- 
periment is being watched with interest by^ the neighboring 


Rich Milk is Valuable to the Cheese Maker. 

Recent investigation is calling for somewhat of a 
revision of the old doctrine as to what kind of milk is 
most profitable in cheese-making. It used to be held 
that any unskimmed milk was rich enough for cheese ; 
that is, that any decent milk would have fat enough 
in it to make a good rich cheese and that to have a 
high fat percentage was a waste of good butter. 
For this reason some dairymen used to half skim the 
milk before checse-makmg, and others held that if we 
could get a cow which would give a great weight of 
watery milk she would he par c.vcrllencc the "cheese 
cow," Of course, when cheese is not skillfully made 
and the fat is allowed to go to the whey vat, there is 
a great loss, and perhaps the loss is greater as the 
milk is richer, but that may not be the case where 
the curd is carefully and properly manipulated 
throughout. Investigation of the subject, of course, 
proceeds upon the basis of correct cheese-making. 

Fortunately, in the great cheese regions of the 
East there has of late been a very thorough investi- 
gation of the office of the fat in cheese-making and 
tlie results throw new light on what should be sought 
in breeding and feeding. The last issue of the E.r- 
j)i'rii»riif Station Record of the Department of Agri- 
culture reviews these experiments and outlines the 
conclusions to be drawn from them. One point 
which has been vei-y forcibly brought out by these 
investigations is that the fat in the milk plays a 
most important part in determining the yield and 
the quality of the cheese. As the fat in the milk in- 
creased the yield of green cheese increased, (1) be- 
cause the ])roportion of the fat which was incorpor- 
ated into the cheese was actually larger in the case 
of rich milk; (2) because more casein was incorpor- 
into the cheese for the reason that the milk con- 
tained more casein and that very little casein was 
lost in the process of manufacture; and (3) because 
more water was retained in the cheese, owing to the 
increased fat and casein. 

The loss of fat in cheese-making was found to be 

quite independent of the amount of fat in the milk; 
and the amount of green cheese made for each [lound 
of fat in the milk varied but slightly in the case of 
milk of varying richness. 

It appears, then, that the composition of the 
cheese is very largely governed by the composition 
of the milk from which it is made. Skimming milk 
increases the proportion of casein to fat in the milk 
and likewise in the cheese made from such milk. The 
effect of adding cream to normal milk is to make the 
amount of fat larger in proportion to the casein, and 
the same effect is produced in the cheese made from 
such milk. Furthermore, "it has been fairly estab- 
lished that the relation of fat to casein in cheese 
largely governs the commercial quality and, there- 
fore, the market value of cheese, within certain 
limits." Hence it appears that milk rich in fat is 
quite as desirable for cheese-making as for butter- 
making. The statement has even been made of fate 
that " the so-called cheese cow, /. e. , the cow which 
is good especially for cheese rather than for butter, 
does not exist, and that wherever a cow is found 
that is good for cheese-making purposes, the milk of 
that cow is equally good for the manufacture of but- 
ter. " The I'esults of the Columbian dairy test point 
in the same direction. 

If milk differs as widely in its value for cheese- 
making as for butter-making, the injustice resulting 
from ]niying for milk at cheese factories according to 
weight alone is not less than arises from the similar 
practice at creameries, which is being quite rapidly 

The investigations above mentioned have furnished 
abundant evidence that the fat in milk is a reliable 
index to its cheese- producing value, and may be used 
as a basis of paying for milk without injustice to the 
producers or the factories. 

crops and squashes, coupled with grain or grain 
products and alfalfa, good beef and dairy cattle can 
be raised. In the way of other stock I can see no 
difficulties of a serious natui'e in the way. 

Is This the "Black Pepsin" Fraud Again? 

We read in an exchang.? published in one of the 
dairy counties that a man interested in pushing into 
adoption a secret process for making butter has 
been there during the past few days, and will remain 
during the week for the purpose of seeing as great a 
number of the dairymen of that section as possible. 
He claims for his process that it greatly lessens the 
expense of butter-making, that more butter in bulk 
and weight is obtained by using the same material 
than ordinarily, and that the product is not injured 
in quality by the process, etc. 

If we are not much mistaken this is another out- 
cropping of the old intposition which we have 
frequently denounced. If the process makes a great 
deal more " butter" from the same milk it does it by 
coagulating the curd of the milk, and thus gives, of 
course, a great weight. It may not be unwholesome 
nor objectionable when used fresh, but if any one 
tries to make such butter for the market he will lose 
his milk. You cannot put cheesy matter into butter 
without spoiling it. 

Dairying and Soil Fertility. 

Common observation and experience teach thJit 
dairying increases the fertility of the farm providing 
all manure is properly handled and returned to the 
soil. The sale of butter takes from the farm less of 
the elements of fertility than any other common farm 
crop; cheese removes more and milk more still, but 
all these are slightly exhaustive of fertility compared 
with ci-ops of grain or hay. The following table 
shows the amount of soil constituents taken from the 
land by the removal of the difl'erent products. The 
values given are merely for comparison, and show 
the relative amounts of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and 
potash removed: 


Timothv hay (100 tons) 

Wheat (1,4(X) bush, grain) . . . 
Barley (3, .500 hush, grain). 
Turnips (10,(KX) bush, roots). 
Fat cattle (20,(m Ihs., alive) , 
Whole milk (10,(XK) gals.) , . . 

Cheese (lO.IKX) lbs.) 

Butter (.5,(J00 tbs.) 

gen, &s. 

Acid, lbs. 
































Better Practice Needed in California. 

At tVie meeting of the Southern California Farmers' 
Institute Mr. F. B. Norton emphasized a point 
which the Rural has always insisted on; viz., that 
our livestock interests should be handled upon a 
more advanced or progressive plan. He said: 

Stock-raising is my favorite branch of farming. It 
seems to me that in this regard you are in a transi- 
tion state. Tlie older methods of ranching with you 
are becoming obsolete and unprofitable; you must 
adopt modern and scientific methods. The raising 
of thoroughbred horses and cattle, mutton sheep and 
swine, poultry and dairying, all of which can be made 
as profitable here and give employment to as many 
people as in Wisconsin. But it cannot be done in 
the methods of the past. Time will not permit me 
to go into details, but it seems to me that with alfalfa 
and wheat good hogs can be produced; with root 

The Coming Dairy Convention. 

The State Dairymen's Association has issued jjre- 
liminary announcement of a general assemblage of 
dairy producers, to be held in this city early in Sep- 
tember. The full i)rogramme for the meeting has not 
yet come to hand, but we presume it will cover all 
branches of dairying, and will be very profitable to 
all who participate. Eastern dairy associations are 
among the most prosperous and important agricul- 
tural societies, and certainly there is every reason 
why California dairymen should rally for the same 
purposes. We shall no doubt have before the time 
of the meeting a full statement of its purposes and 
the subjects to be discussed. We make this early 
mention to advise our readers of its coming, that 
they may jirepare to attend. 


Rations for Young Chicks. 

To THE Editor : — Much has been written on green 
bone and its merits for fowls. I have been using a 
green-bone mill for the past eight months and have 
found it a most satisfactory affair. First, let me 
say many people imagine gi-een bone, gristle and 
meat may be ground in these mills before it is 
cooked. This is not so with at least two of the best 
makes The bones, meat and gristle as it comes 
from the market must first be boiled, as the raw 
meat and gristle will not cut well. Many claim that 
the cooked bone is not so good as the uncooked. To 
this I will not answer, but my young birds have 
never grown so well as this season, and I give them 
a liberal supply of boiled bone, meat and gristle in 
each morning's feed. As a rule there is much more 
meat and gristle than bone, and I grind it 

Again, in feeding young chicks. I have been trying 
several different methods this season, and can say 
that in nearly all the different ways they have done 
well. I took one lot of youngsters after they were 
forty-eight hours' old and fed them plain white 
bread moistened (not sloppy) with sweet skimmed 
milk for three days, not giving them any water or 
drink during this time. On the third day I gave 
them a little millet seed. After this I gave them 
green bone and meat in tlie morning and cracked 
wheat to run to as they liked; at noon, finely cut 
onions and at night the bread moistened with milk. 
These chickens grew like weeds. 

Again, a neighbor gives his chicks boiled eggs for 
three days, and after that time nothing but cracked 
wheat and clover with water, and they do well. 

I have generally fed on Johnny cake for the first 
three weeks, with cracked wheat, meat and green 
feed. After the third week a mash composed of 
green bone, meat and gristle, ground barley, ground 
oats, middlings, etc. I have about made up my 
mind that almost any wholesome, nutritious diet, 
free from sloppy feed, will bring chicks to the front. 
Keep the little fellows under the brooder the most 
of the time for the first four or five days until they 
have learned perfectly well where to go when they 
feel the need of warmth, as chilling means almost 
certain death to little ones. J. W. Foroeus. 

Santa Cruz. 

rir. Pennebaker is Too Kind to His Fowls. 

To THE Editor; — I think the trouble with Mr. 
Pennebaker's hens is too much food. The run on 
alfalfa tield, with grain once a day, fed at night, is 
sufficient. Milk every day is more than enough to 
kill them. It may be fed to advantage twice a week, 
with a liberal sprinkle of black pepper. The grain 
should never be soaked. Put ashes in the bottoms 
of nests. Kill at once every sick bird; it does not 
pay to doctor them. Remove dropping cmce a week 
or oftener. Reduce the level roosts to two feet 
above the floor. The house should be well ventilated. 
Bluestone in the water is better than on the wheat. 
A change of grain is good, but the best of wh(>at 
should be the principal grain food. 

Saratoga, Cal. Frankmn Dexthk. 

Newcomer Should Look for Vermin. 

To TiiK Editor:— The Rurai, of July 24th contains 
(luestions from a ''Newcomer" and beginner in the 
poultry business. I have been in the business in the 
East 20 years and California 20 years, therefore 
ought to have gained some valuable experience, and 
I will rei)ly to the third question, concerning his loss 
of chicks when a month old. If chicks die from im- 
proper feeding it is not likely to be after they are 
one month old; after that age they can stand a bad 
t^iet. It is more likely to be from lice and filthy 


quarters. He says they 'drooped their wint^s, ruf- 
fled their feathers and died. " Those are the effects 
of lice— the lari^e head lice buried under the skin if 
they are not on the body. 

Certainly there is a remedy: Observe constant 
watchfulness, keei)ing lice out of their houses, off the 
roosts and off the chicks. Fill all the cracks in 
boards and i-oosts with whitewash, then don't let 
more than two days pass without lookini): where they 
sit at niifht. and sprinkle petroleum and clean dust. 

To make chicks live and grow means eternal vif,'i- 
lance. I have kept all the breeds and by experiment 
have proved that the Brown Leghorn pure bi-eed 
can't be beat for eggs and fine, juicy, high- flavored 
flesh. Mrs. E. J. Sqi'ikes. 

Redwood City, San Mateo County. 

Midsummer in the Poultry Yard. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

August 4, 1894. 


How a Horse Ought to Go. 

Every season has its particular duties in the 
poultry yai-d, and the midst of the arid season is not 
an excejjtion. Some thoughtless growers seem to 
think differently, and as the egg crop falls off and 
the hens do so much heavy standing around they are 
inclined to lose interest and let the birds shift for 
themselves until their interest in the business re- 
vives. This is a most mistaken and dangerous policy, 
and must result in great injury to the Hock — in fact 
the midsummer mortality is largely due to shiftless- 
ness and neglect on the part of flock owners. Mid- 
summer should bring extra care to the fowls, 
abundance of the purest water, something in the 
way of green food even if nothing more than summer 
prunings of fruit trees can be given, the utmost care 
in the extt'rmination of vermin — these and many 
other duties should convince the grower that even 
the idle summei-time should be diligently employed 
for the good of the flock. 

Some very pertinent suggestions for midsummer 
service are given by G. W. Tighc, of Ventufa county, 
in the last issue of the C<ilifi>rul(i Cultinitor, and we 
reproduce them for the advantage of the beginner or 
the experienced one who is inclined to drop his re- 
sponsibilities during the moulting season. Mr. 
Tighe says : 

The old birds liave just commenced moulting and 
will well rei)ay any little extra care we can give 
them now. We make a special effort to see that our 
fowls have all the care and attention possible during 
the moulting season. Our aim is to get them through 
this trying p(>riod as early and quickly as possible 
and get them in laying condition for high-priced 
winter eggs. Some people think that after the 
spring hatching is over the fowls need no further 
care until winter, and let their flock wander every- 
where and lay and roost where they will. This is a 
great mistake and many valuable birds are unneces- 
sarily lost by such carelessness every year. 

Now is a good time to market the old hens and 
what males you do not want. You will need all yf)ur 
room for your stock now coming on, and it does not 
pay to carry a lot of useless stock. This has been a 
very good s])ring for young chickens, and we have a 
lot of promising youngsters, and how they do grow. 
I never tire of admiring our flock of White Legiiorns 
as they develop into full-grown birds. They are so 
full of life, proud and graceful, that one cannot help 
admiring them. As the weather gets warmer look 
out for lice and mites, and do not let them get the 
start of you. 

This is a good month to whitewash and give the 
j)oultry buildings a general cleanup. Use plenty of 
oil on the roosts to keep vermin down. Look out for 
the young chicks and see that they do not get droopy 
and stand ai'ound with their wings hanging di)wn. 
Feed them well and keep them bright and happy and 
free from lice. Don't take it for granted there are 
no lice on them; be sure of it. 

It is getting too late to set eggs now, and we would 
advise giving all your attention to the growing stock. 
Make room for them as they grow, and do not crowd 
them. Provide good quarters where you can shut 
them up safe at night where they won't be carried 
off by coyotes, skunks, cats or some other chicken 
thief. Count them once in a while to see they arc 
all safe. You will count them one day and find you 
have 200 fine, strong, growing chicks. Three or four 
weeks pass. It will })ossibly strike you that there 
do not seem to be as many chicks as there ought to 
be. Of course you assure yourself they are all there, 
for didn't you count only a month or so ago and they 
were all right; nevertheless, by a hasty count, you 
can only make 75. Rut you don't believe you counted 
them correctly: you know Ihey will all show u\) when 
you count tluMn at night after they have all gone to 
roost. So that night you go out and count them 
very carefully, and very slowly, slower than you 
need to in fact — you are half afraid you will get done 
all too soon: you don't miss any of them, and when 
you have finished you find that you have just 75 out 
of your flock of 'ilM). Words fail to express just 
what you feel. Now is the time you remember that 
there were several nights when you forgot to lock 
the chicken-house door or to repair that broken 
board. Experiences of this kind are very dish(>art- 
ening, and our own experience has taught us it pays 
to provide suitable (|uarters for our birds where they 
will b3 safe from theft by eithei- two or foui- legged 

This depends, of course, upon what he is going for. 
Dr. Grange, of the Michigan Experiment Station, 
shows that in pnmouncing upon the action of a horse 
as being good or bad. due consideration must again 
be given to the use the animal is intended for, be- 
cause what might be looked upon as good action for 
one class of work would appear rather indifferent for 
.some other. Take the saddle horse, and it is hard 
for the wi-iter to conceive a more agreeable way of 
covering the ground than upon the back of a horse 
that has a nice long easy .swing in the trot, going 
ratlier close to the ground, but with sufflcient knee 
action to carry the toe clear of all irregularities in 
the roadbed. This, with energy and moderate speed, 
goes a long way towards the makeup of a good sad- 
dle horse; but the same style in a coach horse would 
hardly pass muster if intended for fasliionable city 
driving. In addition to this (for saddle work) we 
must have the horse to canter nicely, with a long 
easy stride, free from that short bucking motion so 
often noticed in badly trained or inferior animals; 
the walk should be energetic, fast and smooth, with 
plenty of elasticity to modify concussion. In some 
localities and with some persons the running-walk is 
indis])ensable in the makeup of a lirst-class saddle 
horse. The harness horse should be a good walker, 
a free, bold trotter, with plenty of knee as well as 
hock action; the former must not only be high, but 
it must be far-reaching, so as to carry the foot 
through a telling space at every stride and do away 
with that short choppy action sometimes described 
by an old saying that such and such a nag " will trot 
all day in a bushel basket," while the latter must 
bend the joint thoroughly, bringing the foot and 
curved pastern u\y from the ground in a sharp, de- 
cisive manner, carrying them well forward and 
lowering them with energy and precision that re- 
minds one of the movements of a clock, all jerky 
movements that indicate stringhalt being carefully 

For slow draft work upon the farm, road or in the 
city, the walking gait is even of more importance 
than any othi-r, so much so that some agricultural 
societies award prizes for the best walker, an innova- 
tion to be highly commended. 

Breeding Shetland Ponies. 

a horse just as much as before the silent steed came 
into being. 

Many of them own a wheel who would not own a 
horse; but the wheel, even if built for two, is not so 
agreeable after all as holding the reins behind a 
glossy-coated, lightly stepping horse. Electric 
motors for carriages are talked of, but they will be 
expensive for a long time yet, and until their pro- 
ficiency is somewhat advanced from the present 
stage a man even with a balky horse would be less 
helpless in case of accident. 

The noble, intelligent horse will not be lost sight of 
in the advance of civilization. Relief from the 
heavier duties will leave the more energy for the 
driving of which every American citizen is fond. 

Teaching Colts to Back. 

The pajjer on Shetland ponies which Mr. R. Ryrdon 
has contributed to the "'Transactions of the Highland 
and Agricultural Society of Scotland" contains the 
following letter from the Ladies' Hoi)e, Chertsey, 
Surrey: "We have found, so far, that Shetland 
ponies thrive very well in the South and live out 
summer and winter with no extra feed but a little 
hay if the weather is very severe. No corn is 
given till the ponies are four years old for fear of 
increasing their size. It is very difficult to keep 
them down to thirty-six inches in height, as the ten- 
dency so far has been for the foals fi-om extra snuill 
parents to be comparatively large at birth, and when 
this is the case they make ponies thirty-eight inches 
or thirty-nine inches high. This is probably owing 
to the fact that the very small ponies are only so by 
accident, and the foals throw back to their larger 
grandparents. Perhaps this difficulty could be over- 
come by careful selection, esiiecially now there is a 
stud book. We have not found the larger-sized 
ponies — thirty-eight to forty inches — so likely to in- 
crease in size in the next generation if thev aro not 
forced. Some of the ponies, when kept in the stable 
and well fed, are very fast trotters for their size. 
One little mare. Hoplemuroma 1:^0, though only 
thirty-five and a half inches high, has trotted on dif- 
ferent occasions four miles in fifteen minutes, seven 
miles in twenty-nine minutes, and nine miles in forty- 
three minutes, drawing one person about nine stone, 
the time being carefully taken on each occasion. 

Though the i)roper course of a horse is forward, 
the ability to back gracefully and obediently must 
be counted as one of the most imjxirtant parts of the 
horse's education. A Massachusetts horseman holds 
that Western horses do not back well, and concludes 
that care enough is not given to teaching this point. 
He gives the /irinlirs' Guz'f/r his way of teaching 
the backward art, as follows: Draw the lines 
through the lug strap and stand behind thv colt and 
a little to one side, so that when you pull the rein it 
will draw across his ([uarter. Then give him a linn, 
strong pull, partly backward and partly to one side, 
saying ■' back " as you do it. and instantly let u]). 
The pull .should be half way between a twitch or jerk 
and a steady pull. If you did it right his head went 
a little one way and his hind end was turned a little, 
so he was pulled perhaps one-eighth of the way 
around. Now go to his head, stroke and caress him, 
and if convenient give him from your hand something 
he will like to eat. Now step back and pull him the 
other way, starting from a loose rein and pulling 
just hard enough to pull him around a little, no mat- 
ter how little, letting up at once so as not to liiive 
the rein tight more than half a second at a time, 
saying '"back " at the instant you give the pull. He 
will respond to the pull just as soon as he learns that 
the rein loosens when he yields to it. Now step 
directly behind him and pull the same as before, only 
use both reins instead of one. Never tighten the 
reins on him when he is backing, but let him under- 
stand that it will loosen when he backs and he v^ill 
back for you every time. 

Will all colts learn at once if treated in this way":* 
I can only say that I have trained them for more 
than forty years, and I never have seen one that 
would not. Occasionally there is one of slow intel- 
lect and high temper with which you should proceed 
in the same way as others, only go a little slower so 
as to give them time to understand it. 

individual Excellence Required. 

The Future of the Horse. 

With the constant inroads of machinery on the 
field of the horse's usefulness, a change is coming in 
the evolution of the animal. Already electricity suj)- 
plants the old horse cars, and no one is sorry. One 
need have no sympathy for the overburdened fluid on 
a hard grade. An electric van for parcel delivery is 
now working in London, and is said to be cheaper 
than horse power. Promises have already been 
made by our inventors of electric plows, and feasible 
plans for freight and produce tramways the 
country on roads hitherto traversed only by the aid 
of the horse or mule are suggested. The old-fash- 
ioned horse jiower for i-unning incidental machinery 
is giving place to the "coming power." 

The coming horse is to be less and less a beast of 
heavy burden. Manj' places there are where horses 
I will continue to drag heavy loads of a necessity. The 
j handsome draft horse is not yet entirely to be dis- 
pensed with. But pleasure driving will continue to 
give a motive for the improvement of the trotting 
] horse. The bicycle lakes the place of a few saddle 
j horses, perhaps, but the majority of cyclers care for 

It may be set down as a safe proposition, say^ the 
Hritih m' tii^xhiit it will not do to pay a fancy 
price for any horse, trotter, pacer or runner, simply 
because it has .some distinguished relations. In 
that I'espect the crisis of the trotting-horse fevei-has 
been i)assed. It is true that a good many dollars 
have gone into the cemeterj' of blasted hoi>es on 
account of tl^is partit-ular craze, their only monu- 
ment being bitter reflections, but it was something 
that had to be experienced by the business, and i)os- 
sibly not much harm was done. Only a little while 
ago pedigree and relationship were placed above 
everything else when the purchase of young Irot- 
ting-bred stock at auction was the subject in hand, 
but now a very different state of affairs exists. The 
last six months has seen any number of sales in 
which animals of the best possible brei-ding changed 
hands at work-horse jirices simply because they 
could not show speed or i)roducing (jualities. The 
patrons of the establishments which produce annu- 
ally large numbers of thoroughbreds have the same 
lesson yet to learn. 


Onion Growing With Irrigation in Egypt. 

The onion crop of the valli-y of the Nile is of great 
importance and brings an incr(>asing amount of 
money each year to Egy])t, as onions ar(> shipjied in 
enormous quantities to England, Fi-ance, and other 
European countries, and even to the United States, 
where they find a ready sale at good prices. So ex- 
cellent is the quality that efforts are being made in 
other countries to raise onions fi-om Egyptian seed. 
The experiment might prove successful in certain 
sections of the United States. The following de- 
scription of the process of cultivation I'mployed in 
Egypt may serve as a guide to growers in the 
American arid region for it ap])lies to a soil jwssess- 
ing no inherent moisture, the climate being almost 
rainless and dewless. In all departments of Egyp- 
tian agriculture, watering is accomjjli.shed by means 
of irrigating from the Nile, either directly or from 
canals. F. C. Penfield, consul at Cairo, sends the 
account to the State Department : 

The more popular Egyptian onion, known as 
"Baali, " is grown in yellow soil, sparingly watered 

August 4, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 



while the bulbs are maturing, as they may stand a 
lengthy sea voyage with little risk of "sprouting." 
The two stages of cultivation are these: 

First St It or — The first stage covers the season of 
the sprouts for ti'ansplanting. Toward the end of 
August or the beginning of September, the land in- 
tended for the onion crop is irrigated from the Nile, 
After letting the water run off, it is left to dry until 
the first plowing, when the plowshare penetrates 
not deeper than four fingers' breadth. All clods of 
earth are broken up and pulverized, and the land is 
divided into plots ten feet square and stirred lightly 
with a mattock — the favorite implement of the 
Egyptian farmer, which is double-headed, one side 
being broad like an adze and the other like a pick-ax. 
The seed is then scattered freely and evenly, at the 
rate of something under twobu.shelsto the acre. After 
sowing, a "plank" is passed lightly over the soil to 
cover the seed and bring the plots to the same level. 
The plots arc then irrigated, the islets along the Nile 
being irrigated four times and the raised lands six 
times. The first irrigation should occur immediately 
after sowing, and the water should be comepletely 
absorbed. A second and very light watering is given 
as soon as the plants appear above ground, and the 
borders of the plots are sprinkled. If the seed is 
planted in raised land, manure at the rate of about 
one peck of light manure for each plot is applied, but 
if sown in low ground, there is no need of manure. A 
third watering is given ten days after the second, 
and a fourth ten days after the third, the plots being 
filled with water in the fourth stage. After the last 
watering, both islets and. raised lands remain undis- 
turbed for ten days. The onions ripen in the first 
fortnight in October and are unearthed. 

Sranid Stage. — The second stage covers the period 
from transplanted sprouts to the mature onions. 
Land intended for " Baali " onions should be islet soil 
of good quality, with no weeds or grass, or yellow 
land of the same quality and damp enough to allow 
the crop to gi'ow and ripen. It is irrigated in Sep- 
temlier, and afte/' letting the water run off is left to 
dry until it can be plowed. It is plowed three times, 
th.e plowshare penetrating to a depth of about 8 
inches. After the third and last plowing, the onions 
are set out in fui'rows at a distance of about 4 inches 
apart. The furrows resemble wheat furrows, and 
the earth covers the onions in the second furrow. 
In plowing the last time, the cultivator plants the 
bulbs in the furrow. The plow returning ,in the 
second furrow covers them. The stalks or tops of 
the seed onions emerge from the soil to a height of 
four fingers' breadth or more. Every twenty days, 
the weeds are pulled out in order that the onions 
may be clear and allowed to develop. In the month 
of April, the tops die, and the onions are pulled and, 
when perfectly dry, are packed in coarse sacks and 
sent to market. "Baali" onions, in their second 
stage, are never watered directly. 

" Miskaoui " onions absorb so much moisture 
from the frequently irrigated ground in which Ihey 
grow that they are seldom sent aboard. They are 
sown in the same way as the " Baali" — that is, tb;' 
sprouts are used as seed, and any grade of soil can b - 
made use of. The land is irrigated at the beginning 
of September, and, after the water has run oft', it is 
left to dry until it can be plowed. It is plowed twice, 
and divided into plots 10 feet square, each furrow be- 
ing 2.4 inclies deep and 4.8 inches wide. The plants 
are laid in furrows at distances of 4 inches, and the 
water is immediately let in. The second irrigation 
occurs in twelve days, and third in twenty-four days; 
after this the soil is watered every eight days. The 
number of waterings is, therefore, eleven or twelve. 
The ground is then left ten days without watering, 
and the onions ripen and are unearthed. They are 
known to be mature when the tops become dry. 

The cultivator plants the sprouts in the furrows 
head down, burying them to the depth of four fingers' 
breadth, and lets in the water, as stated above. The 
unearthing of the "Miskaoui," as well as the 
" Baali, " is done with the hand, if the soil be yellow, 
and with a mattock in case of black soil. 

The Irrigation Congress at Denver. 

The Third National Irrigation Congress will meet 
in Denver, Colo. , for the seven days beginning Sep- 
tember 3, 1894. 

Irrigation Commissions in seventeen States and 
Territories, created by the last Irrigation Congress, 
will render reports to the convention at Denver. 
Upon these studies of existing conditions and future 
needs in all parts of the arid region, it is proposed 
to construct a national policy and code of local laws 
to be submitted to the Federal Congress and the 
Legislatures of the Western States. 

In accordance with a resolution adopted by the 
International Irrigation Congress, at Los Angeles, 
Cal., October 14, 1893, the Third National Irrigation 
Congress will be composed as follows: 

1. All members of the National Executive Committee. 

2. All members of State and Territorial Irrigation Commis- 

3. Two delegates at large and as many additional dele- 
gates as they have Congressiolial district.s, to be appointed by 
their respective Governors, for the following States and Ter- 
ritories; Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Mon- 
tana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Okla- 
homa, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington and 

4. Two delegates at large for each State and Territory not 

heretofore enumerated, to be appointed by the Governors of 
said States or Territories. 

5. Duly accredited representatives of any foreign nation or 
colony, each member of the United States Senate and House 
of Representatives, each Governor of a State or Territory, one 
member each from diffei-ent societies of irrigation engineers, 
of agi-iculture, of horticulture, of chambers of commerce, of 
boards of trade, together with a delegate appointed by the 
Mayor of each incorporated city of the seventeen States and 
Territories named as being directly interested in irrigation, 
will be admitted as honorary members. 


Paris Qreen on Field Crops. 

Some of our readers desiring to fight leaf-eating 
insects on low-growing plants may find the dry ap- 

a little of the mixture in the bud of each plant. The 
advantage of flour over other diluents is that it 
forms a paste in case of rain, and does not wash off' 
readily. This is important. Last year I used the 
green in very showery weather, and it would stick 
and kill the beetles. The flour is more palatable 
than lime, plaster or road dust, and when we apply 
Paris green we want the beetles to enjoy the eating. 

One and a half pounds of Paris green to a 24-pound 
sack of flour is the best ratio I have tried. This will 
not burn the vines, and yet is strong enough to make 
a very small portion sufficient for a hill, always pro- 
vided one's druggist has not adulterated his stock of 
green any more than usual. While it sticks better 
when the vines are wet, yet we continue to apply it 
all day long unless the wmd rises too much. The ma- 
terial and labor cost me 70 cents an acre this year, 
as I have both rows and 
hills slightly closer together 
than usual, but I have 
made the applications more 
cheaply in other years. One 
application is usually .suf- 
ficient, as the hatching- 
weather is soon over if the 
weather be hot, and when 
the little ones go to the 
bud, as is their habit, they 
find the arsenite ready. 
With care there is no 
danger in mixing the green 
and flour. I use my hands, 
incorporating the green 
with the flour thoroughly. 
The Colorado beetle has 
few terrors for us now. 
One dollar an acre is more 
than sufficient to pay all 
cost of stopping its rav- 
ages, and the laljor is not 

Does Anytliing Eat the 
Red Spider? 



plication easier and cheaper than the spray methofl. 
Use of Paris green dry has been followed at the East 
for years, and there are various arrangements for 
the work. For hand use, we know of nothing more 
easily employed than the following, which a corre- 
spondent writes for the Rum/ Nnn Yoi-l-i-r. He has 
tried many spray contrivances, and concludes that, 
for ease and effectiveness, nothing that he has tried 
equals a sifter, the arsenite being diluted with flour. 
He gives the following description : 

I can make three or four sifters in half an hour, all 
the material needed being quart tin cans, broom- 
handles, a few six-penny nails and some common 
tacks. After a score or so of holes have been 
punched in the bottom of the can, transverse slits 
are made in one side of the can near the top, and 
when the flaps of tin are pulled back, a handle is 
thrust in and fastened with a nail to the opposite 
side of the can. Then the flaps of tin are tacked to 
the handle, and all is ready for work. The handle :.f 
the sifter is jarred with a stick as one moves it along 
the row, and no cover for the sifter is needed. One 
man can go over two acres a day when the tops are 
half-grown, and three acres when quite small, jarring 

To THE Edit(iu:— Our worst 
pest here is the Red Spider 
and Yellow Mite. How soon 
will we have some enemy of 
l lieni in liei-e to cut the beggars 
up^ It is about time, I hope. I 
have 4(1 acies of almonds. Sul- 
phur is good, but it does not do 
it conipli'tely. I inclose clipping. 
Is there any insect known yet 
that will (lost my the spider or 
mite; H. M. Coi.kmas. 


Our correspondent sends 
a clipping from the Port- 
land ()ri (/iiiu'(iii telling about 
the local hatch cf the 
iiKiii/is, as follows: 

The " Pi'aying Mantis" is a 
curious insect of large size, so 
named from the devotional atti- 
tude it assumes when watching 
or praying for its prey. It lives 
on caterpillars, such as injure 
apple trees, which it catches 
and holds with its strong arms 
while it sucks the juices out of 
them. A lai'ge number of these 
vulual)le insects was hatched 
out in the vivarium at the State 
Horticultural Society's rooms 
yesterday, and by evening had 
gro\vn to be as large as mos- 
quitoes. A great number of 
caterpillars arc being reared for 
them to feed upon, and it is won- 
di'i lul to see the tiny mantix, as 
sdMii as it had straightened out 
its legs, start off up the branch 
of an apple tree on which the 
young caterpillars, now two 
"weeks old, were feeding. One 
little iiiiniliy, not more than ten 
minutes old, tackled a cater- 
pillar about ten times as heav.v 
WITH as himself, but was put to 
flight. The eggs of the manlh 
were sent from Japan, and the 
in.sects raised are eventually to 
be distributed among orchardists to destroy caterpillars and 
other insect pests. 

This item is interesting. Our own State Board of 
Horticulture has introduced and distributed this 
Asiatic mantis in California. We have also local 
species of the same beneficial insect. It does vast 
good in its way, but it needs larger game than mites. 

We do not know of any beneficial insect which is 
doing much with the mites. Most predaceous insects 
seem to share the human dislike for spiders. It 
takes one of the wasp family to handle them, and no 
decent wasp will waste his time on mites when he 
can find tarantulas. If we are not mistaken the 
mites have internal parasites to cope with, but they 
do not seem to do much good. As for the predaceous 
host which seizes and devours, it does not seem to 
relish the high heat and drouth amid which the mites 
flourish best. The great weakness of the mites is 
hydropliobia. If it were only practicable to drench 
them with water several times during the summer, 
they would cease to be such a pest. As it is, sulphur 
is the best means of warfare, and our correspondent 
should give his trees another sulphuring within the 
next six weeks. 



The Pacific Rural Press 

August 4, 1894, 


California Almonds on Their Merits. 

A very important movement in promotion of California-grown aln)onds has 
been set on foot by the State Horticultural Society. The almond produced in 
this State comes into competition at the East with almonds imported from 
Europe. A century of such trade has naturally given nuts of foreign name a 
standing in the Eastern markets. Selling by their familiar names, they have 
the advantage of the California pnxUu't which is new to the Eastern trade. 
The result has been that California growers have not liitherto obtained, as a 
rule at least, the prices secured by tlie imported nuts sold by their familiar and 
favorite names. The experience is the same as that which our growers of 
prunes, raisins, etc.. have had to surmount. These products have now largely 
overcome their disadvantages and accomplished it by convincing consumers that 
the California articles wei-e superior to the imported. The same coui-se is neces- 
sary to i)lace the almond upon a fair commercial basis at the East, and it is 
toward this end that the State Horticultural Society has made its declaration 
on the subject. 


During the past twenty years California has originated thousands of vari- 
eties of almonds in her efforts to obtain som(>tlnng better than those in use. She 
was successful in her undertaking, having obtained several varieties of thin- 
shelled, good-flavored nuts. We claim, and the figures in the table below show, 
that the claim is fully maintained, that in our California climate we can grow 
almonds with much more kernel and much less shell than those sent into the 
United States from abroad. 

The information here given will be found useful to those who deal in almonds 
and of value to those who use them, as it will show the varieties to buy in order 
to get the best returns for the money expended. 

Ura<le8 of .Vlniuiuls. 

They are divided into four fjrudes, viz. : HAKD SHELL, including those beariug but (i 
ouni'cs <)i' less of kernel to a p<jund of nuts. They require a sharp blow with a hammer to crack 
them. SOtT SHELL, those havin^r from (> to s ounces of kernel to a jKiund, and require the 
use of nut-crackers to crack them. KX'l'IiA SOFT SHELL, haviuK from s to 10 ounces of 
kernel to a pound, and can be readily broken with the fingers. PAPEU SHELI.,, having 10 
ounces or more of kernel to a i)ound. A child van easily open them with its lingers. 

These grades and this statement have been approved by the California State Hortitult- 
ural Society, and are thus made official. 

OXE I'llVXD itF AhMOXDS. xliou-iiiij llii' ii'ciijht iif the kernel, the weioht «/ the Khell, (imt irUitire 
riitue iif the (.iirJijiy Cnllfiirnin varieAiex with nthers. 
Tlie Ternit;oua is the leading and best known variety throughout the entire United States, and is 
iinijorted from .Spain in large quaulities. It is therefore taken as the standard, and other varieties are 
compared with it. 


Soft Shell . 
Soft Shell. 
Soft Shell , 
Soft Shell. 




El Supremo 

Drake's Seedling. 

Ex. Sft.Shell I X L 

Ex. Sft.Shell Commercial. 
Ex. Sft.Shell r.a Prima. 
Ex. Sft.Shell La Prhna. 
Ex. Sft.Shell La Prima. 

Princess . . 

Paper Shell. 
Paper Shell . 
Paper Shell . 
Paper Shell. 
Paper Shell. 
Paper Shell. 
Paper Shell. 
Papei- Shell . 
Pai)er Shell. 
Paper Shell. 

Ne Plus Ultra . . . 
King's Soft Shell. 
Cal. Paper Shell. 

Weight of 
Kernel in 
( Hmces .... 

Weight of 
Shell in 
Ounces .... 

Relative Value per 
Pound, in cents, 
c in m e n c i n g 
with differcmt 

2 P O 
T P eg 

P 3 t 
7Q p 

=> - 3 J? 















p. c. 








p. c. 








p. c. 







p. c. 








When 9.1 







p. c. 

When 10 




27 A 



p. c. 


When 9.1 






p. c. 

When loj 






p. c. 








p. c. 








p. c. 








p. c. 



When 11 
When 12 
When 18 



28 J 






87 J 

p. c. 
p. c. 
p. c. 

Note.— The weights here given are the results obtained by carefuHy weighing the samples sub- 
mitted. The comparative weight ot kernel and shell of the same varieties vary somewhat when grown 
in dillcrcnt localities; in tht? nuis of the same kind grownon trees of different ages: and also one season 
witli another even when grown upon the same trees. 

Varieties of Almonds. 

A short description of the several varieties is here given. 

Tenau'iim, C. -J-.") ozs. kernel ; 11 ozs. shell. Soft shell. A Si)anish almond imi)orted into 
the United States in large quantities. Short and thick. Shell thick and inclined to be hard. 
Ft cannot be broken with the lingcr.s, nut-crackers being required. It is to-day the leading 
and best known variety in the United States markets. The Terragona is "the -soft-shell 
almond ol the United States; but notice the viilne of it in comijari.soii with the other varieties, 
based u\Km its i)roportion of kernel and .shell, as shown in the accompanying table: 

fried, {'.\ ozs. kernel; ( shell. Soft shell ({) A Spanish almond'of poor quality as com- 
pared with any of the California varieties. 

iMiniiietloc, 7% ozs. kernel; S% ozs. .shell. Soft shell. A standard variety; nut large and 
kernel .sweet. The California almond known to the trade as soft shell. 

Kl Supieinii, ozs. kernel; ozs. shell. Soft shell. 

iJ/(i/t«'x Ncciiliiiy, ozs. kernel ; 7;4 ozs. shell. Soft shell. A California seedling origi- 
nated by Mr. Drake of Suisun. It is of the Languedoc class; short, plump, with maiiv double 

/ X_ L, 9 ozs. kernel ; 7 ozs. shell. Extra soft .shell. A California seedling originated by 
Mr. A. T. Hatch. An ideal almond shape; not over long, with a perfect shell. Iternels as a 
rule single and of excellent Havor. A very attractive and ixjpular varietv for table use 

I'limmet vM, i>^4 ozs. kernel ; (i% ozs. .shell. Extra soft shell. 

/.(f /VfHKf, 9% ozs. to 10 ozs. kernel ; ti^i to 5='i ozs. shell. Paper .shell. A California seed- 
ling originated by Mr. A. T. Hatch. But few double kernels. Long; very much like the Ne 
Plus Ultrjv. 

l-riiiress 9% ozs. to lo'^ ozs. kernel ; (i% to 5\ ozs. shell. Paper shell. The 
nut rather sliort and small. Kernel flat and somewhat wrinkled. The shell rather imperfect 
and ragged. Imported in small quantities from Italy. 

. A^y' ?"^n'u''l''u'""/^^- ""zs. shell. Pai)er shell. A California seedling originated 
by Mr. A 1. Hatx^'h. Kather large and long, having almost invariably a single kernel. The 
kernel long and slender, resembling the imptn'ted .lordan almond 

Kim/s S„jl Shell, II) ozs. kernel; ti ozs. .shell. Paper shell. Originated in San Jose, Cali- 
fornia. Short, with a sharp ijoint. Dark color. Shell thin, .soft, rough and .somewhat im- 
perfect. Kernel white, large, flat and wrinkled. Sweet and relLshing 

■ I'opa- SlieM, \l ozs. kernel; h ozs. shell. Paper shell. Short, with a sharp 

point. Shell rough and imperfect. Kernel white, large, flat and wrinkled. Sweet and 

.Y„«,«nr(/, 1 1 to 18 oz.s ; kei-nel ; to :{ ozs. .shell. Paper shell. A California seedling origi- 
nated by Mr. A. T. Hatch. Has invariably single kernels and is of superior flavor When 
grown on young trees the shells are very thin and somewhat imperfect On account of the 
large proixirtion of kernel to the pound of unshelled nuts it is a verv desirable varietv 

San Francisco, July, ISSM. " ' 

Pricking vs. Dipping Prunes. 

To Tiin Editok ;— I have thought that some 
account of our experience in drying prunes 
here in the Santa Cruz mountains might be 
of interest to your readers. 

Prune growing and dr.ving in commeix-ial 
quantities has been going on here now for 
about twenty years. Mr. H. C. Morrell was 
the pioneer in the business, and was the first, 
also, to discard the troublesome kettle for 
the improved dipper. We have always grown 
tine prunes and good croi)s of them here, and 
the only drawback to their pro<luction has 
been that once in a while there came a season 
when the prunes would not cut and they re- 
quired weeks instead of days to drj', and part 
of them were apt to be caught in the fall 
rains. There was such a season in 1.H91. No 
matter how strong we would make the lye 
nor how long we would hold the prunes in it, 
the skins would not be cracked, and though 
we all dijiiied on principle, a large share of 
our prunes barely dried in time to escape the 
heavy rains. 

The man who was dipping my prunes, Mr. 
Doidge, became thoroughly disgusted with 
the business and declared that there must be 
.some way of cutting the skins of prunes me- 
chanically, so that they would hare to dry. So 
he went to experimenting by pricking" some 
prunes with a needle and sla.shing others with 
a knife and putting them out to dry. He sotm 
found that prunes could bo made to dry just as 
well without dipping. The following season 
1 made a machine for pricking prunes, intend- 
ing only to experiment with it ; but it worked 
so well that Mr. Morrell and Mr. Aiken, the 
largest growers here, had machines made like 
it, and we have since pricked all our jn-unes. 
Last year several other crops here were per- 
forated and dried so successfully that now 
nearly all the growers in this neighborhood 
are intending to use the prune machine. 

The i)erforated prunes have always sold 
just the same as others, no objection being 
urged against them. We hope some time to 
obtain a better price, for they certainly have 
a superior flavor. 

We have experimented a great deal in the 
last two year.s, and although most of our ex- 
periments have resulted in failure, we have 
made some improvement in the machine and 
the methixl of using it. One experiment was 
to make a machine with a motion that threw 
the prunes up from the needle board so that 
in falling they were pierced deei)er, but it 
proved of no advantage in drying. 

The experiment was tried of placing the 
needle boards on the inside of the cylinder 
grader. This also proved a failure wlien put 
to a working test. When fed fast enough to 
do any work the prunes were carried up on 
the side of the gi-ader and rolled back over the 
other prunes without being pricked any to 
speak of. 'J'he cylinder, with .54 square feet 
of piicking surface proved to have less than 
one-fourth the capacity of the flat shaker with 
only ly, feet, and coilld not be relied on to 
prick all of the prunes enough even at that. 

The grading of prunes into several sizes be- 
fore dipping has become so universal that 
most people will at first require them graded 
before or after pricking. Grading before 
pricking is really the better way, as the 
prunes after being perforated should drop as 
nearly as (xissible on the tray at the plai-e 
where thej' are to lie without having the 
juice started out any more than can be helix"d. 
But there is not the .same need for grading 
with the pricking maching as with lye dipping. 
For dipping it is necessary to sejKii'ate the 
small and the soft and the shriveled prunes 
because they are harder to cut, require a 
stronger lye, or to be held longer than the 
large and hard one. In perforating there is 
no such difference; the prunes all cut alike 
and dry alike. 

Those of us who use the pricking machine 
without grading obtain the best results by 
simply piling up or doubling up our trays as 
soon as the smaller ones are fairly dry. 
Treated in this way they cure uniformly. 

At first we had .some difficulty with very 
soft prunes, but found that by jxiuring water 
on them in the hopper so as to make tlieni 
slippery we could work to advantage any 
prunes that could be dipped and spread. On 
the whole I believe that there are no difficul- 
ties in the way of perforating all prunes that 
may not be overcame. J. It. Bi ukkli.. 

Wrights, Santa Clara Co., July >tOth. 

At the state Horticultural Society 
last week a paper was read by A. L. 
Bancroft on pricking vs. dipping, 
which embodied the replies by a num- 
ber of prominent experts to questions 
about the lye process, etc., addressed 
to them by Mr. Bancroft. There was 
also a general discussion on the subject. 
As this is just the season for the dis- 
cussion of these important subjects we 
will give considerable space to the sub- 
ject in our next issue. Certainly it is 
of the greatest importance that all the 
light possible should be thrown upon 
the matter this year, and that vei'y 
many may be induced to try for them- 
selves the pricking vs. lye dipping so 
that in the multitude of councillors 
thei-e may be wisdom. If pricking i.s 
the better process it shoiild be fully 
demonstrated this year. — Ed. 

cure Piles and Constipation, or money refunded. 
Fifty Cents Per Box. Send stamp for Circular and 
Free Sample, to MARTIN RUDY, Lancaster, Pa. 
For sale by all first-class druggists. 

con PAN Y. 



New Dried Apricots 

Tf you have a parcel to offer, submit samples to us. 
We are the principal handlers. 





Schenectady, > r. 


P. SEBIRE & SONS, Nurserymen, Ussy, 
Calvados, France. 

Largest stock of FItt IT TKKK .STOCKS, sucli 
as Apple, Pear, Myrobolan Plum, Miihaleb and 
Mazzard Cherry, Aniicrs CJuiuce. Small Ever- 
greens, Forest Trees, Ornamental Shrubs, Roses, 

C. G. van TUBERGEN, JR., Haarlem, 

CHOICE DUTCH lU l.HS and Rultwus Plants 



Garden and Agricultural. 

Catalopues free. Apply to C. C. ABEL & CO., 
Box 9M. New York, or A. H. HARTRVELT, Box 
im. San .lose. Cal. 

Olive Trees. 


Send for our Book on Olive Culture. 

HoxA/land Bros., 



■ "V L^^^ bt'St varlellfH. fyoo fruiii 
— AND (H'HtH of an^' klmt. I'ruiiUK 

Pm r-w IVI K*»Htrnver 
1 — • 1^ 1 23 ami >l urdrtrli ClicrrifH; 
Kliirk <':ili(oriiiii Vlss: HU-v Siift Shell and 
otlK'^r AliiioiKls: AiiuTlcaii Su«'<'t ('li«*HtiiiitH; 
Pra'partiirifiiH Walnuts. Hartly HM>innaiti tiTown 
Oraiiy:*'' Tr«'*'H. Out" orantri-H hav* stuud dt-KT^-eH 
tliis \vint«'r without injury. Dollar S( rH%%' berry, 
tlif bt'Ht bi-rry for home uhc or utarkel. AdtJresw 
C. M. SILVA A SON, Llucoln, Placer Ciiuiity. 

mu L§>^ Patent 

SUMFRUhCISCa QFfiCt 22 CILi'...-<lA n 

TREE - \A//\&M. 

Olive. Dip. 

"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pure Potash. 

T. W. JMCK-SOIN «fc CO. 
Sole AgentH. - - No. 6 Market Street, 


I UlUrilTnnil l''IM..\.M> it \ K.Ciant. 
IJflf ntA I ,SiluiiruHe«d, Ne "' 

CtpnWriLHI ,Si]u<iru Head. New Rml Wonder. 

Winter I- jfe.l':.irlvKe<l Olawmin and Jin|>ni<eil 
Fultr, Wheiit. Marnmoth White mid Frnlaiid Kjb, 
Send 2c, btatup for banipie^and CfttnloKUfnf S4',.d Wheat. 
Trees, PluntH, Potatoett and .Seeds t< r Kali I'lnnliuA. 
i^aiu'l WiUoa, li^fl Oruicr, .tlerbaiiiraville. Pa. 

August 4, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


T!?.! California State Fair 



XHis is the Rorty-Rirst Annual State Rair. 

FOR THE PAST^ FORTY YEARS exhibitors and the general public have here met to exchange 

FOR THE PAST FORTY YEARS visitors have not only been enlightened, but amused as well, at 
these annual gatherings, and each successive year for that period has shown progression in number 
and character of exhibits. 

IF YOU HAVE ANYTHING TO SHOW, the State Fair is the place to exhibit. 

IF YOU HAVE ANYTHING TO TRADE OR SELL, the State Fair is the place to Hnd traders and 

IF YOU NEED CAPITAL TO AID YOUR ENTERPRISE, show what it is at the State Fair, where 
investors do congregate. 


THE LIVE STOCK DEPARTMENT will show what California is still producing in that 

THE USUAL GRAND RACING MEETING during the Fair will be sure to attram the 

during the Fair. 


For further particulars apply to the Secretary. 

JOHN BOGGS President. 

EDWIN F. SMITH Secretary. 

Important to Prune Growers! 


Prepares Prunes for Drying Without Dipping in Lye. 

THE MACHINE IS SIMPLE, PORTABLE AND DURABLE. Capacity, one and one-half to two 
tons per hour. Requires three or four men to run it. 

on the trays. Special sizes furnished if required. 

-^SSSSnn.^-^ SEND FOR CIRCULAR. --,aazZZ^^^ 


The machines may be seen at DIBERT BROS., 2ih Mission Street, San Francisco. 


Pioneer Manufacturers 

Of Gasoline Engines, 
and Owners of Twenty 
Patents on Same. 

Engines for Irrigation Purposes a Specialty, 

\A//\RNING ! 

If you are in need of power im- pumpinpr purposes 
investigate this engine and taUc no other. Many 
so-called gasoline engines are now on the market 
which are direct infringements of our patents, and it 
is our intention to bring suit against the various in- 
fringers. As the law holds the purchaser, as well 
as the manufacturer, we would advise parties who 
have already purchased other gasoline engines to 
obtain from the sellers of such engines a good and 
.■■ufflcient Ijond protecting themselves in case dam- 
ages are obtained against them, as it is not the 
policy of this company to work a hardship on inno- 
cent parties, but the law makes no such provision. 


UNION GAS ENGINE CO., 221 and 223 First Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

The Fastest and Best Hay Press 

In t he World . 


, "°,^to".<i"a?x*c5«^S?o"o^^ MONARCH, Bale 17X20X40, $600 

JUNIOR MONARCH, Bale 22X24 X 47. $500 


..WORLD, THE MONARCH loads 10 tons in an ordinary box car. 
Uses Wire Ties— rope will not hold. 

THE JUNIOR MONARCH loads from 7 to 9 tons in box 
car. Uses either Wire or Rope Ties. 

The sizes of the bale are given when in the press. Allow 
about 6 inches for expansion for cutting ties. 


(Two Sizes) also for sale. 

L. C. Morehouse, 

WM. GRAY, General Agent. San Leandro, Cal. 


^ > > > > -f > 


> 4 > -f -f 



PARAFFINE PAINT CO., 116 Battery St., 


E. G. JUDAH, Agent, 221 South Broadway, Los Angeles. 


Rural Press 

August 4, 1804. 


• My Neighbor. 

My neifrhbor met me on the street, 
She dropped a word of greeting gay. 

Her look so bright, her tone so sweet, 
I stepped to music all that day. 

The cares that tugged at heart and brain. 

The work to heavy for my hand. 
The ceaseless underbeat of pain, 

The tasks 1 could not understand. 

Grew lighter as ] walked along 

With air and stej) of liberty. 
Freed bv the sudden lift of song, 

That filled the world with cheer for me. 

Yet was this all. A woman wise. 
Her life enriched by many a year, 

Had fact'd me with her brave, true eyes, 
I'assod on, and said, "Good morning, dear." 

—Margaret E. Sangster. 

Nursery Weather. 

The baby that makes the sunshine 

Is dimpled and dainty and dear. 
With sunny eyes like laughing skie.s. 
And merry face where dimples chase 
And littie laughs play hid(! 

The baby that makes the rain 
Is iKjuiing and cross and queer. 

With stormy eyes where grievance lies 

And dubious face u rainy place ! 

VVhere little drops race down each cheek. 

In bluest skies the showers rise, 

(!od"s weather has its raining, 
And each wee fai-e must have its place. 

The sunny anil complaining. 
But if it rain why, l(K)k again 

And lind the silver lining. 

■ -Annie Hamilton Donnell. 

Without a Head. 

'■ Kiito, let's clean the sittin' room, 
now mother's away. She hated to ^'o 
without it's beiii' done, an' there's no 
reason why we shouldn't do it for her, 
thou<:fh she always thinks us helpless as 
two kittens." 

"Why, Almy, do you think we can ? " 
and pretty Kate's biof eyes were opened 
wide at this new idea. 

■"Of course we can! An' we've got a 
good long day to begin it in, all alone 
together in the hous(>, an' father not 
coinin' home till night. ' 

The two girls hurried through their 
morning duties, eager to begin their 
self-appointed task. At last they en- 
tered the sitting room, armed with 
pails and cloths and brushes, and look- 
ed about them, considering what was 
Hrst to be done, 

" The mattin' oughter come up," said 
Kate, "but it's so old we could never 
get it down again . It's too bad we can't 
have a new one. ' 

"Well, you know the reason why," 
said Almy. "The mattin' money went 
for Aunt Mary's weddin' outfit. When 
folks get married they iiave to have 
things, even if there I'elations have to 
go without. The mattin's got to do 
another year," regretfully; "so I s'jwse 
we might as ivell begin by dustin' the 
furniture, an' then we'll wipe the 

They went to work with a hearty 
good- will, chattering all the while about 
Aunt Mary's sudden appeal for help to 
get her new home in order, which had 
called their mother so unexjjectedly 
away, of their mother's surprise could 
slie see what they were doing in her 
absence, and of their father's return 
that night from the neighboring town, 
where lie had been summoned as a wit- 
ness in a trial. 

At noon they stopped to partake of a 
hasty i)ick-up dinner, and then with 
renewed energy they retunied to their 
work, which was finally interrupted by 
the creaking of the gate, and the sound 
of a man s approaching footstejis on 
the gravel path, 

"Father! "the girls cried joyfully, 
as they ran to the door to meet him; 
but to their surprise a younger man 
confronted them than the bent and 
grizzled figure they had thought to see. 

"Why, John Crawford, it's you!" 
cried Kate, while Almy drew back si- 
lently, reddening as the yoimg man's 
eyes eagerly sought her face, 

"We're housecleaning, John!" Kate 
announced, cheerily; but won't you 
come in " 

"Not unless I can help," he said, still 
looking at Almy, who .shook her head 
and answered stiffly; "We don't need 
any help, John Crawford." 

" I stopped to give you this letter," 
he said then, turning away with uncon- 
scious dignity. 

Kate gave him a parting salutation, 
but Almy seemed to have forgotten her 
manners in her curious examination of 
the letter's superscription. 

"It's for mother," she said at last; 
"do you s'pose we oughter open it'?" 

" Well, may be not," said Kate with 
visible disapi)ointment: "though it 
mightn't be any harm — " 

"Why, Kate, look here, it's father's 
writin'; he didn't know mother was 
goin' away ! We'd better see what he 
says, though I wonder why \\o wrote 
when he's comin' back so soon," 

But the letter was to tell them that 
the trial was not yet over and that he 
would probably be kept away from 
home till the end of the week. 

The girls looked blankly at each other 
and Kate laughed nervously. " An' 
we two all alone to gether in the house 
all night. Oh, Ahny!" 

"Well," retorted Almy, bravely, 
"there's nothing to be afraid of, is 
there, if we are'? " 

When nightfall came, however she 
looked very carefully to see that every 
lock and bolt was fastened and then, 
having brought extra lamps into the 
sitting room, they shut themselves 

Suddenly they were startled by a 
loud knockingat the outer door. They 
looked at each other in terror, but 
neither stirred until, after a moments 
silence, the knock was rejieated. Then, 
after a hurried, whisi)ered consultation, 
they mad(! their way noiselessly up- 
stairs together, and Almy jiut her 
head out of an upper window and looked 
down from that safe height ui)on the 
tall, dark figaire still waiting at door. 

"Who's there '? " she said trying to 
speak boldly. The man stepped back 
and looked up. his face showing in the 

" Oh, it's you again, John Crawford!" 
she said, in a slighting way. 

Kate's head appeared now beside 
her sister's, and the two made a pretty 
picture framed thus in the open, moon- 
lit casement. 

"Oh, John," cried Kate, " you scared 
us most to death ! We thought you 
migiit be a tramp, an' I've a pail of 
water here, ready to throw on your 
head. Mother went off to help Aunt 
Mary get settled this mornin', an' that 
letter you brought was from father, 
sayin' he wouldn't be home — an' we're 
all alone in the house, locked in. We 
jest kept right on with the cleanin' to 
keep our spirits up." 

"Well, now, is that .so?" said John, 
" I came over to see your father on 
business; but ain't there something I 
can do to help you in some way '■'" 

" No," said Almy, clearly and with 
decision; "we can get along without 
your help, John Crawford, very well." 

He turned away, apparently stung 
by her ungracious words and manner. 
" I'll send motlier's Huldy over to sleep 
here, anyhow," he said, over his 
shoulder, " She's a regular watchdog. 
An' if you should be frightened in the 
night, or want anything, jest ring the 
dinner bell outer your window, an' you'll 
get help mighty quick," 

Hulda shortly after made her appear- 
ance, and was wonderfully tickled over 
her discovery that "them gals had 
been wipin' paint by lamiiliglit. " But 
th(> girls themselves went to sleep 
that night with a comfortable feeling 
of security. It had not been pleasant 
to think of spending the night there 
alone, the old house was so full of un- 
canny noises. 

In the morning the girls found the 
paint which they had wiped by lamp- 
light was rather streaked in places, 
and it had to be gone over again. But 
by noon it was spotless and white as 
snow, and they regarded it with 
l)ardonable pride. 

The worn matting was still troubling 
Almy. It had been on her mind the 
last thing at night and the first thing 
in the morning, and now she suddenly 
turned to Kate. 

" Kate French," she said, "I'm goin' 
to have a new mattin' on that floor, 
anyhow; this old one ain't fit to be seen! 
Jest get ready, an' we'll go right down 
to the store an' get one of them lovely 

new ones — all pinky — white an' red." 

"But, Almy, who's to pay for the 
mattin' ?" 

"1 will; I've more than enough! 
Didn't father give me money for a new 
red cashmere before he went away ? 
Well, I've been thinkin' how 1 can turn 
my old one again, an' it's got to do. 
Come on; it'll be .such a surprise for 

Kate looked at her sister with open- 
eyed admiration, for she knew that the 
new red cashmere had long been Almy's 
heart's desire. 

They lost no time, and hardly an 
hour had elapsed before the girls came 
driving home in state in the good- 
natured storekeeper's wagon, with the 
rolls of gay new matting behind them. 

" I wish I'd thought yesterday, " said 
Almy, as they wei'e taking the old one 
up; "still, if we're careful we won't 
raise much dust, but I wouldn't like 
mother to know that the paint was all 
wii)ed first." 

They had often helped to lay the mat- 
tings, and after carefully moving every 
vestige of the accumulated dust, they 
fitted the new one verj' c-reditably, and 
were immeasurably proud of their suc- 

John Crawford, no doubt, had been 
hurt by Almy's ungracious refusals of 
his proffered assistance; but, though he 
did not come near the house all day, 
Hulda came over to sleep there again 
that night. 

The following morning the girls were 
rather crestfallcni to find that they had 
forgotten to dust down the walls and 
wipe the backs of the pictures. They 
made themselves merry over their 
blunder, however, while they covered 
the new matting and everj'thing else 
carefully, and w-ent to work to repair 
the omission. 

But Almy was not at the end of her 
discoveries yet, "Oh, for the land's 
sake, Kate — the ceiling!" she cried out 
suddenly. "I'd forgotten all about it; 
but I kn(nv mother was goin' to have 
it kalsoinincd; what shall we do?" 

Kate had no suggestion to offer. She 
gazed blankly up at tlie dingy ceiling, 
then her eyes wandei-ed to the window 
and she looked di.sconsolately down the 

" There goes Mr. Green now," she 
said, mournfully; "if we'd only thought 
before. " 

At her first words Almy started and 
ran out of the house, and Kate follow- 
ing found her sister in the road talking 
breathlessly to the smiling painter. 

"Oh, Mr. Green, if you really could 
I'd be so grateful!" Almy was saying. 
" It's just the luckiest thing Kate 
.saw you, an' that you happened to have 
all the things in 3'our wagon! An' you 
say you can do it without our takin' up 
the new mattin'? Well, everythin's 
covered up, so you can come right in." 

That night, when Hulda made her 
appearance, the sitting room was all in 
order, and looked clean and bright 
eiKuigh to rejoice the heart of the most 
fastidious housekeeper. But Hulda, 
who had seen sf)niething of their 
methods, in reporting them afterward 
to her mistress, added, with a chuckle 
of enjoyment: "They're jest as nice 
young gals. Mis' Crawford, as I ever 
see; an" they ain't afeard o' work; only 
they ain"t got 110 head!" 

A second day had passed without 
John Crawford's ccmiing near them, 
and that night, when the girls were in 
their room, Kate said thoughtfully: 
It's funny how John Crawford keeps 

Almy was brushing her thick brown 

"I'm glad he does; I don't want him 
to come," she said, with a quick, defi- 
ant flush. 

Kate, sifting on the side of the bed, 
looked at her pretty sister in surprise. 

"Why, I thought you liked John 
Crawford," she said. "You used to 
set such store on what he said; an' folks 
all say he's awful sweet on you. " 

"Now, Kate French, " flashed Almy, 
"You needn't begin with what folks 
say! They seem to know a lot about 
my affairs — more'n I know niy,self. I'll 
show em I can get along without John 
Crawford, an" 1 don't care if I never 
set eyes on him again, so there!" 

Little Kate had had no experience of 

her own, as yet, with lovers or their 
misunderstandings, and she innocently 
wondered at Almy's sudden dislike to 
John; and just, too, when his father 
had died and left him the farm, and 
every one was saying what a good 
thing it would be for Almy French — 
though it was a wonder he didn't look 
higher, now that he had come into liis 
property. She also wondered why, if 
Almy really didn't care for him, she 
should blush so vividly at every men- 
tion of his name. 

But Kate was wise enough to ki-ep 
these thoughts to herself, and only 
said, as she listened to the howling of 
the wind outside: "It's good of him 
to let Huldy come over here to sleep, 
anyway. My, but I'm glad we ain"t 
alone to-night! Jo!st hear that wind; I 
guess we ll have a storm to-morrow." 

The storm came in the night, and by 
morning the rain had ceased, and 
patches of decj) blue sky were to be 
seen through the drifting clouds. 

After breakfast the girls went into 
the sitting room to take a satisfied look 
at their finished work. Suddenly Almy 
sprang forward and bent befiiire the 
great open fireplace with an exclama- 
tion of dismay. "Oh, Kate, the .soot's 
blown down! The chimney't been 

" Well, I give it up now! " said Kati' 
despairingly. '• What shall w(> do?"' 

"It's got to be swept, an" Til do it! " 
cried Almy, with quick d(>lerniination. 
" I've seen father do it lots o' times, 
an" I know jest how. Come, we must 
go to the woods an' get some cedar 
boughs — that's what they use; an' then 
all the things must be covered up 
again, an' the fireplace jest simply 
buried .so hot one speck o" stM)t can sift 
through. An' don't tell mother; if she 
knew how we've done every! hin' wrong 
end first, she'd die!" 

On their way to the woods they 
passed near John Crawford, at work in 
his garden; but Almy did not seem to 
i see him. though Kate gave him a 
! friendly nod as they hurrieil by. 
I It was not long before the two girls 
were back again and out upon the 
piazza s flat tin rcxif. By their united 
exertions they raised the ladder that 
was lying tlipre and sot it up against 
the house. It was just long enough to 
reach the edge of the shingled roof 
which rose in a gentle slo])c above it, 
and from the highest point of this the 
sitting i-oom chimney rose. Joseph 
French's chimneys had the peculiarity 
of never looking large until one was 
close beside them. 

Almy gathered up the coil of rope, 
to one end of which she had fastened 
the launch of cedar boughs, and pre- 
pared to mount the ladder while her 
sister steadied it in place. She was a 
little pale, but she looked determined. 

" Oh, Almy, ain't you afraid?" said 

"The idea! If father does it I guess 
I can! " retorted Almy, as she stepped 
off of the ladder upon the wide gutter 
at the edge of the sloping roof. 

There her sensations began to be a 
little curious, but without stoi)ping to 
analyze them she scrambled up the 
gentle incline on her hands and knees, 
and never paused until she gained the 
ridge and had twisted her.self around 
upon it as if it were a huge horse's 
back, steadying herself against the big 
brick chimney. 

The next thing, of course, was to 
rise and work the cedar brush vigor- 
ously up and down in the great cavity; 
but all at once poor Almy realized that 
to do this was beyond her power. 

The sensations which she had not 
stopped to analyze had now developed 
into an alarming weakness in her el- 
bows and knees, and a curious feeling of 
suffocation seemed to enfold her. The 
ridge on which she was sitting seemed 
a pinnacle, above which the chimney 
shot up to meet the sky, while the slop- 
ing roof fell away on either side like a 
steep and dangerous abyss. She was 
growing faint and giddy, and knew 
that if she once lost her hold upon the 
chimney and slipped, it would mean in- 
stant and horrible death. 

"Almy, how are you gettin' on?" 
Kate called from the invisible depths 
below, which now seemed miles and 
miles away. 

August 4, 1894. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


"Oh, Kate," she murmured, faintly, 
" I'm scared to death! " 

In a moment Kate had mounted the 
ladder and her startled face was peer- 
in up over the ledge. " Almy, you 
ain't frightened — not really? Oh, my, 
you must come right down! " 

"I can't! I don't dare let go " — 

Kate was quick in this awful emer- 
gency. "For goodness sake," she 
cried, " hold on then with all your 
might! I won't be gone a minute! "' 

It seemed hours to poor Almy before 
help came, though in reality it was not 
long, for Kate went speeding over the 
fields to where she had seen John Craw- 
ford at work not long before, and, after 
one moment of breathless explanation, 
.John was off to the rescue, and far out- 
stripped little Kate in the headlong 

He reached the house, rushed up the 
stairs! sprang out on the piazza roof 
and ran up the ladder with amazing 
ra])idrty. And there, perched on th